Now showing items 1-20 of 15872

    • Beyond plagiarism: ChatGPT and the future of AI

      Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Kumar, Rahul; Mindzak, Michael; McDermott, Brenda (2023-05-31)
      Networking Event by Graduate students at the CSSHE conference at York University, ON, Canada (May 30, 2023)
    • Prediction of Critical Medical Resources for Combatting Future Pandemics

      Khandelwal, Luv; Faculty of Business Programs
      The COVID-19 pandemic wrecked an avalanche of resource management disaster on many countries. Preventable deaths occurred due to lack of resources, especially ventilators. One major unforgettable lesson we can learn from the COVID-19 disaster is that proactive planning of ventilators can save a huge number of lives globally in future pandemics. In this study, we aim to address this need by developing a predictive model for ventilators. Using open-source data from ‘Our World in Data’, we employ an ensemble of existing time series analysis techniques and missing data handling strategies to predict ventilators at a population level. A full-scale application of the proposed modelling framework was demonstrated for India, Nigeria, Uruguay and Poland as representative cases of different scenarios. Furthermore, as part of the robustness checks, we test the model’s performance for periods of increased severity (e.g., increased death rate) and reproduction rate during a pandemic with USA, UK, Germany and France as sample cases. We consider the population-based model and implications of the prediction results for a possible extension to ventilator associated other critical medical resources in an ICU unit. This thesis contributes to the existing body of knowledge and methods for predicting ventilators and other critical medical resources that are mostly addressed at local settings. More importantly, the proposed framework can be used to predict resources for COVID-19 like pandemics for any global population level where ICU patients data is scant. In addition to the methodological contribution, this thesis demonstrates the role of evidence-based decision-making in healthcare disaster preparedness and recovery plan.
    • Power research in adaptive water governance and beyond: a review

      McIlwain, Lisa; Holzer, Jennifer; Baird, Julia; Baldwin, Claudia (Resilience Alliance, Inc., 2023)
      Power dynamics are widely recognized as key contributors to poor outcomes of environmental governance broadly and specifically for adaptive water governance. Water governance processes are shifting, with increased emphasis on collaboration and learning. Understanding how power dynamics impact these processes in adaptive governance is hence critical to improve governance outcomes. Power dynamics in the context of adaptive water governance are complex and highly variable and so are power theories that offer potential explanations for poor governance outcomes. This study aimed to build an understanding of the use of power theory in water and environmental governance and establish a foundation for future research by identifying power foci and variables that are used by researchers in this regard. We conducted a systematic literature review using the Web of Science Core Collection and the ProQuest Political Science databases to understand how power is studied (foci, variables of interest, and methods) and which theories are being applied in the water governance field and in the environmental governance field more broadly. The resulting review can serve as a practical reference for (adaptive) water governance inquiries that seek to study power in depth or intend to integrate power considerations into their research. The identified power variables add to a much needed groundwork for research that investigates the role of power dynamics in collaboration and learning processes. Furthermore, they offer a substantive base for empirical research on power dynamics in adaptive water governance.
    • Fire Insurance Plans - St. Catharines, 1913

      Goad, Charles E. (1913)
      The fire insurance plan for St. Catharines, Ontario, surveyed July 1901 and revised to January 1913. The revisions have been pasted on. The plan consists of: title sheet (includes index to streets, specials, blocks), sheet 1 (key plan, scale [1:6,000]), sheets 2-39. Call No. FC 3155.175 G62 1913. Click "view more files" to see all sheets.
    • Fire Insurance Plans - Thorold, 1909

      Goad, Charles E. (1909)
      The fire insurance plan for Thorold, Ontario, dated May 1909. The plan is dated April 1897, then revised 1909 and includes a revision sticker for May 1909. The revisions have been pasted on. The fire insurance plan consists of: sheet 1 (key plan, scale [1:6,000]), sheets 2-3.
    • Fire Insurance Plans - St. Catharines, 1916

      Goad, Charles E. (1916)
      Hand coloured map sheets of the fire insurance plans for St. Catharines, Ontario. The sheets include: title sheet (includes index to streets, specials, blocks), sheet 1 (key plan, scale [1:6,000]), sheets 2-43. The original survey is dated July 1901, then revised to January 1913 and finally, a revision sticker of April 1916. Click "view more files" to see all 43 sheets.
    • Fire Insurance Plans - Bridgeburg, 1928

      Underwriters' Survey Bureau (1928)
      The fire insurance plan for Bridgeburg, Fort Erie, Ontario, October 1928. The original plan is dated May 1909, but was revised to October 1928. The revisions have been pasted on top. The plan consists of: Sheets attached to cover at center fold. Consists of: sheet 1 (key plan, scale [1:6,000]), sheets 2-8. Sheets at scale 1:1,200: 3, 4, 7, 8. Call No. FC 3159 F7 A325 1928
    • Fire Insurance Plans - St. Catharines, 1923

      Underwriters' Survey Bureau (1923)
      The fire insurance plan for St. Catharines, Ontario, dated December 1923. Consists of: title sheet (includes index to streets, specials, blocks), sheets 1A, 1B (key plans, scale [1:4,800]), sheets 2-24 and sheets at scale 1:600: 2-4. Call No. FC 3155.175 U64 1923. Click "view more files" to see all 24 sheets.
    • The Ultimate Power of Religiosity-Local Religiosity and CEO Gender Pay Gap

      Vashahi, Maryam; Faculty of Business Programs
      In this study we focus on the effect of local religiosity on the probability of hiring female incoming CEOs while transitions, and how local religiosity relates to female CEO compensation. Given that all major religions facilitate patriarchy contributing to gender stratification, justifying men’s hierarchical superiority to women, we predicted that local religiosity is negatively related to appointing and remunerating female CEOs. We found no evidence that local religiosity relates to the probability of appointing a female incoming CEO. Moreover, using both a longitudinal as well as propensity scored matched sample, results indicate that local religiosity slightly negatively relates to the level of CEO compensation for male CEOs as opposed to the positive and significant association with the level of female CEO remuneration. Contrary to predictions, local religiosity shifted pay discrimination against female CEOs in secular states to their favor in religious states.
    • Leisure as a Coping Resource for Parent Caregivers of Children Living with Autism

      Laughlin, Erin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of life challenges and leisure as a stress-coping resources among parent caregiver of children living with autism. These parent caregiver experiences were obtained through in-depth interviews of four mothers of children living with autism. Data were then qualitatively analyzed to ascertain meaningful themes. The results of data analysis demonstrated that parent caregivers face a number of barriers related to their leisure participation in four areas: (a) caregiving responsibilities and demands, (b) COVID-19 related barriers (c) time-related barrier and (d) interpersonal barrier. Although the participants of this study identified several barriers as parent caregivers, the findings show that they were able to negotiate some of these barriers to participate in their leisure experiences that enhanced their stress-coping efforts. The findings also revealed that leisure was used as a stress-coping resource in four ways: (1) rejuvenation through leisure, (2) mood enhancement through leisure, (3) distance from stressors through leisure, and (4) social experiences through leisure. This study discussed the importance of recreation therapists advocating for leisure education and casual forms of leisure among parent caregivers for effective coping with caregiver-related stress. This study provided practical implications for recreation therapists and other health care professionals in a related field to better understand the unique needs of this population and encourage leisure participation as a resource of stress-coping.
    • Self-Reported Focus of Attention During Different Batting Conditions in Varsity Baseball Players.

      Creelman, Brant; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The motor learning literature has demonstrated that one’s focus of attention, whether internal or external should be dependent on the task objective, which is referred to as goal- instruction coupling. The present study was the first study to investigate baseball batting focus of attention strategies across different environmental conditions while also comparing the participants responses to their coaches interpreted instructions. The present experiment examined Ontario University Athletics level baseball batters focus of attention (internal, external, or ‘other’) across three different batting conditions (practice, on deck and in game), compared to their coaches interpreted instruction (interpreted by the athletes) under the practice and in game conditions. The participants completed a questionnaire identifying their focus of attention strategies under the different batting conditions as well as their coaches interpreted focus of attention instruction under the practice and in game conditions. The results showed that a condition that favours an internal focus had the participants predominately report using an internal focus of attention (practice condition), while as a condition that favours an external focus had the participants report using an external focus of attention (in game condition); therefore, supporting the goal-instruction coupling theory. A majority of coaches also preferred a focus of attention strategy depending on the batting condition and task objective, except for the coaches interpreted focus of attention strategy during the in-game at bats. Overall, these findings demonstrate the value of goal-instruction coupling for optimizing one’s focus of attention strategy selection as well as demonstrating that participants were more likely to share a similar focus of attention strategy with their coaches preferred focus of attention.
    • Analyzing Twitter Sentiment and Hype on Real Estate Market: A Topic Modeling Approach

      Mehrpour, Farzad; Faculty of Business Programs
      This study examines the relation between sentiment and hype (intensity of coverage) on Twitter and the local housing market prices across 10 U.S. cities of the S&P/Shiller-Case Composite Home Price index from 2010 to 2021. Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling algorithm, we identify seven unique topics related to the housing market based on people's tweets: Households, Economic policy, Commercial real estate, Price and rate, Residential housing, Investing, and Future trends. We gather and analyze data on house price indexes, fundamental economic factors, and sentiment and hype scores for the discovered topics. The study finds that the sentiment of Price and rate, Residential housing, and Future trends are significantly and positively related to future house price changes. In contrast, the lags of sentiment of Commercial real estate and Investing have a negative relation with house price. Moreover, we document that hype scores not only have a positive relation with house price changes for all topics but also outperform sentiment scores for forecasting housing market prices. Overall, the study highlights the potential benefits of integrating social media data into existing economic models to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors driving fluctuations in the housing market.
    • A multifaceted approach to understand highly-identified fans’ experiences of sport activism

      Dalal, Keegan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The pandemic altered the socio-contextual environment. During this time, society was exposed to structural violence experienced by Black individuals at the hands of the police. The subsequent Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests coincided with the return of professional sport in 2020 and became embedded in its programming. This thesis sought to answer how sport activism influences highly-identified fans’ lived experiences of sport. As an interpretivist, it was essential to acknowledge the importance of sociohistorical factors contributing to fans’ experiences. Therefore, semistructured interviews served to answer how fans restructure their consumption in response to changing needs, motives, and socio-contextual environments to contextualize the guiding research question. Data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) reflexive thematic analysis to make sense of the data. Chapter 2a utilized U&G and SDT and revealed that participants had difficulties satisfying their needs, especially their relatedness, due to the pandemic-imposed restrictions meant that participants. Sport transformed into a social activity and a means to escape the reality of the pandemic through increased sport consumption. Individuals who increased their sport consumption primarily to socialize and escape did not sustain these habits as the pandemic lessened, whereas autonomously-motivated individuals maintained their elevated consumption levels. Chapter 2b utilized social identity theory and social identity complexity to examine fans’ experiences of sport activism via their social identities. Participants interpreted the BLM protests through their multiple identities, informing their response to the intersection of sport and activism. All participants noted some form of social identity threat resulting from sport activism – either from the sender (i.e., the organization, team, or athlete) and/or the subsequent conversations that resulted from the demonstrations. Participants with less complex (i.e., less inclusive) structures faced heightened identity threats. Participants with more complex (i.e., more inclusive) group characterizations used sport activism as a vehicle to further action and typically expressed tolerance toward the outgroup. Chapter 3 synthesized the two studies' findings noting that seeking relatedness increased social identity threats or conformity behavior and that mentions of escape were used by participants as a maintenance tactic to oppose BLM in sports while distancing their white identity from their stance.
    • Exploring the Decision-Making Process Behind the Loss of a Clinical Placement: Second-Year Nursing Students in the Special Care Nursery

      Tyrer, Kayleigh; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to explore how a Special Care Nursery (SCN) in a southern Ontario hospital decided to stop taking second-year nursing students for clinical placement. A qualitative intrinsic case study approach was utilized to guide and analyze twelve participant interviews. Participants were recruited using both purposeful and snowball sampling. Sharan Merriam (1998) was utilized as a theorist for the methodology and framework of this case study. Additionally, Leah Curtin’s (2014) six-questions for ethical decision-making in nursing management were used to develop the semi-structured interview guide. An overarching theme of Conflicting Messages was found, with three subsequent themes of 1) Contributing Factors, 2) Level that Decisions Happen, and 3) Outcomes of Decision-Making. Findings of this study indicated that the decision to cease placements in the SCN was likely made due to a culmination of factors, but a defined cause and process for decision-making was not found. Factors that were identified by participants as being influential in the loss of this placement included clinical instructors not supporting students, high unit acuity, negative attitudes towards students, uncertainty with the student scope of practice, nurse burnout, and systems issues. There was uncertainty surrounding who was involved in making this decision, which was attributed by participants to a lack of communication and collegiality between frontline staff and those in management positions. This led to unilateral decision-making, and a lack of departmental cohesion. Additionally, preferential placement opportunities were found to be offered to medical learners over nursing students. Implications were identified as wide reaching, including unit recruitment concerns, lack of exposure to the specialty of neonatal nursing, and the inability of nurses to fulfill their professional obligations of knowledge sharing. Ultimately, it was identified that the use of Curtin’s (2014) decision-making model alone lacked a formal process to guide how decisions in nursing management should be made, although it raises context specific questions that aid in understanding an issue at hand. The development of a comprehensive model for decision-making in nursing leadership would be beneficial to provide structure for how important choices are made in healthcare and improve transparency in decision-making.
    • Junior Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Through Texts, Technology, and Collaboration

      De Silva, Christina Victoria; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      With the rich cultural diversity of Ontario’s classrooms, educators must work to ensure their teaching practices support and represent their students. This study sought to gather teachers’ perspectives of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP), resources available, and how teachers can be better supported to be culturally responsive to their learners. It also aimed to engage students using texts, technology, and collaboration to help them understand diversity and inclusion. This research was built upon the ideas of Ladson-Billings (1994), Freire (2005), and Gay (2018). The study employed the generic qualitative research method to collect data on a project with two educators and three Junior students over a period of 12 weeks. Data collection included field notes, interviews, planning sessions, and one-on-one interactions with the researcher. Results indicated that educators have a good understanding of CRP but lack access to current, representative resources. Further, findings indicate a shift in teaching practices and student learning when culturally responsive practices are used. Students also possessed a good understanding of diversity and inclusion when engaged in culturally responsive texts and technology. Junior educators and students indicated a positive classroom experience when learners were represented in classroom materials and lessons. Lastly, educators are willing to learn new strategies and resources that are culturally responsive, but professional development workshops are not always accessible and applicable to their classrooms. Overall, this research suggests implications for practice, research, and theory that can all be used to effectively support Ontario educators in using CRP within their classrooms.
    • How do collective agreements stack up: Implications for academic freedom

      Ribaric, Tim; Kumar, Rahul (2023-05-24)
      The principle of academic freedom is officially articulated in the enforceable language in the collective agreements between universities and the respective faculty unions. Collective agreements are often the artefacts of previous dilemmas at institutions and tracing the language they contain will show the chronology and subtleties embedded in these documents that circumscribe faculty freedoms. This study analysed collective agreements from over 40 different Canadian institutions using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) to reveal anticipated issues.
    • Can we Speak Sustainability into Existence? Shareholder Engagement and Corporate Innovation Strategy

      El Ajel, Oussema; Faculty of Business Programs
      The Voice strategy applied to engagements on ESG issues might affect firms’ reporting decisions and symbolic ESG performance, but what about real decisions? In this study, we investigate the effect of environmental shareholder activism on target firms’ innovation strategies, particularly their green and dirty innovation output. We posit that the relationship is theoretically ambiguous and can be driven either by better monitoring and higher scrutiny by shareholders and stakeholders or by shorttermism, legitimacy gains, and career concerns. We utilize the Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) to construct our empirical strategy. We also use a hurdle model coupled with propensity score matching and a difference in difference specification in an attempt to estimate an unbiased average treatment effect for the treated (ATT). The results of the first stage show no evidence of a relationship between shareholder environmental activism through shareholder proposals and a firm’s likelihood of engaging in either type of innovation. In the second stage, we find weak evidence for a negative relationship between environmental shareholder activism and dirty innovation. The estimated economic magnitude of this potentially causal relationship ranges from a 25% to a 53% reduction in dirty innovation output among target firms. However, we are unable to obtain reliable estimates for the relationship between environmental shareholder activism and green innovation. Through a cross-sectional analysis, we further show that firms subject to a higher regulatory environmental scrutiny through the TRI reporting requirements drive the negative relationship between environmental shareholder activism and dirty innovation, and we also find weak evidence for the superior ability of institutional activist to influence firms’ dirty innovation output. Our findings contribute to the voice versus exit debate by showing that voice can be effective in curbing firms’ negative environmental externalities but might not result in the provision of public goods. We inform the debate on shareholder proposal rules by showing that environmental shareholder proposals, often excluded by SEC rule 14a-8, have the potential to promote sustainability in the private sector.
    • Fire Insurance Plans - Merritton, 1919

      Underwriters' Survey Bureau (1919)
      The fire insurance plan for Merritton, Ontario is dated April 1897 and reprinted in 1919. There have been revisions pasted on some of the sheets. There are five sheets in total and sheet one includes the key plan and a scale of 1:6000. Call No. FC 3153 M4 A325 1919
    • Three Papers on Patient Experiences with Symptom Persistent Lyme Disease in Canada

      Ciotti, Sarah; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      This dissertation consists of three empirical papers on patient experiences with symptom persistent Lyme disease in Canada. Lyme disease infection rates are rising across the country, a phenomenon attributed to climate change and the northern migration of ticks. The focus of this dissertation can advance knowledge in this area by addressing a gap in the current academic literature (a lack of patient voices). It is important that researchers continue to seek representation of patients’ embodied experiences in health research to advance equity and inclusion in healthcare. Study 1, an autoethnographic study, explores one researcher’s embodied experiences with co-occurring identities as a researcher, health professional, and patient living with chronic illness (symptom persistent Lyme disease). Study 2, a case study, explores the experiences of one young person, who is a patient with symptom persistent Lyme disease in Canada through collaborative research. Study 3, a qualitative study utilizing descriptive exploratory methodology, explores mothers’ experiences with symptom persistent Lyme disease in Canada. The findings from all three papers suggest that the government and public health agencies across the country should, on an ongoing basis, endeavor to advance public education on the risks of tick-borne illnesses. Further, the findings from each paper suggest that health professionals would benefit from continued education and training on tick-borne illness, and that ongoing collaboration between health professionals can be beneficial in the care and treatment of patients’ persistent Lyme disease symptoms. Finally, this dissertation highlights the benefits of collaborative healthcare (between alternative and Allopathic medicine) and may inform policy and decision-making focused on the prevention and treatment of Lyme disease in Canada.
    • Fire Insurance Plans - Grimsby, 1928

      Underwriters' Survey Bureau (1928)
      The fire insurance plan consists of five sheets of hand coloured maps that are mounted on cloth. The scale is 1:6000 and 1:1200. Call No. FC 3153 G83 A325 1928