Now showing items 1-20 of 13834

    • Mean Power Frequency of Boys and Men during a Progressive Isometric Contractions Protocol to Exhaustion

      Langille, Jordan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: The mean power frequency (MPF) of an electromyographic (EMG) signal is affected by contraction intensity and muscular fatigue but is also a potential indicator of motor unit (MU) recruitment. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis (Woods et al. 2019) in which participants (17 boys, 20 men) completed a progressive isometric contraction protocol while EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL), using tripolar surface electrodes. MPF and EMG threshold (EMGTh) were calculated for each completed intensity. The latter reflects the onset of accelerated increased in higher-threshold MU recruitment. Independent t-tests were used to assess differences between groups in demographic variables, mean MPF (MPFmn), peak MPF (MPFPK), force (%1RM) at MPFPK, and MPF range. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to assess differences between groups in MPF pattern, interpolated over ten stages. A correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between %1RM at MPFPK and %1RM at EMGTh. Results: Both, MPFmn and MPFPK were higher in the men, but only reached statistical significance when %body fat was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. 65% of participants displayed an expected (inverted-U shape) MPF pattern. Within this subset, the %1RM at which MPFPK occurred was significantly higher (i.e., occurred later) in the boys compared with the men. Additionally, a moderate correlation was observed between the %1RM at MPFPK and the %1RM at EMGTh (r = 0.51). Discussion: Overall, the findings of the current analysis provide support for the hypothesis of lower type-II MU activation in children. The high variability in MPF patterns may be a result of the interaction between confounding factors that affect MPF (intensity and fatigue). Future research should use an exercise protocol that examines MPF under the influence of each factor separately.
    • Innovation and Stock Returns

      Shahid, Sonal; Faculty of Business Programs
      The main aim of this thesis is to determine the relevance of innovation for the average stock returns, thereby investigating if innovation is one the factors explaining the stock returns. Innovation has been identified as an important determinant of economic growth and has been incorporated in economic growth models. With respect to equity returns, one part of literature identifies innovation as source of increased risk given the uncertainty associated with its outcome while another part of literature finds high innovation to reduce technological risk of a firm. In this thesis, we find that there is a premium to high innovation particularly for small size stocks. The highest innovation stocks earn higher average returns than lowest innovation stocks and this effect is significant and prominent for small size stocks. This persists when innovation is accounted for along with other variables like book to market value, operating profitability and investment. Regressing innovation sorted portfolios against Fama-French 5 factors model generates positive significant alphas for high innovation portfolios, even when controlled for size. Based on this, an innovation factor is constructed that captures the difference between the average return on high and low innovation portfolios. This innovation factor is incorporated in the Fama-French 5 factors model as the sixth factor evaluating if the model better explains the average stock returns. The six factors model incorporating innovation factor is rejected based on the test statistic testing if the alphas produced by the model are jointly equal to zero. However, the six factors model produces lower values of test statistics and alpha based measures used for model comparison, implying an improvement over the existing model.
    • Nathan Ford fonds, 1792-1903, n.d.

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-05-12)
      Fonds mostly consists of correspondence written by, or to, Nathan Ford. Much of the correspondence concerns the War of 1812, especially the events around Ogdensburg. A significant part of the fonds concerns Ford’s claim for damages and losses incurred during the war. Reference is sometimes made to claims for damages in Niagara. Several letters to the editor are included which comment on the war and on some of the events that occurred in Niagara, such as the burning of Newark. Isaac Brock is mentioned in another of Ford’s letters. Also includes some information on the Jones family history. There are also several letters to the editor concerning tensions between France and the United States around 1797.
    • Rethinking property in c\a\n\a\d\a

      Blackwell, Adrian; Devine, Bonnie; Kaewan Dang, Tiffany; Fortin, David; reid stewart, luugigyoo patrick (Small Walker Press and Salon für Kunstbuch, 2021-11-10)
      Indigenous and settler architects and urbanists reimagine Canadian cities and discuss property division as the hinge between settler colonialism and architecture/urban form. The conversation is informed by the issue 12-13 of the journal Scapegoat: Architecture / Landscape / Political Economy titled c\a\n\a\d\a: delineating nation state capitalism edited by David Fortin and Adrian Blackwell. Rethinking property in c\a\n\a\d\a transcribes a virtual round table conversation co-hosted by the Research Centre in Interdisciplinary Arts and Creative Culture (Centre for Studies in Arts and Culture, Marilyn I. Walker School of Fine and Performing Arts, Brock University) and the Salon für Kunstbuch (Vienna, Austria) on 10 November 2021.
    • Working Conditions of Front-Line Poverty-Reduction Staff at Non-profit Agencies

      Morningstar, Sarah
      Over the past three to four decades in Ontario, neoliberalization and new public management have restructured the non-profit social services (NPSS) sector by reducing core funding and introducing a competitive proposal system with increased managerial accountability. These changes have generated immense workplace pressures for frontline staff. Frontline staff in the NPSS have seen an increase in standardization accompanied by the degradation of their skills. Through in-depth interviews with five frontline staff at two similar non-profit agencies serving people experiencing poverty in the Niagara Region, this paper explores the question: How do frontline staff in the non-profit social services sector describe their working conditions? And how resonant are the narratives of compassion fatigue and burnout. In contrast to the narrative of "compassion fatigue" that often describes the experiences of professional frontline workers, I found that burnout among frontline poverty-reduction staff stems primarily from encountering structural barriers, such as a lack of affordable housing, that limit what they can do to help their service users. Furthermore, I found a general lack of organizational supports for frontline staff as workers, including supports to prevent or lessen burnout. This research brings to light new perspectives regarding poverty-reduction work and ultimately points to needed supports for frontline staff that may improve their work lives, well-being and poverty-reduction effectiveness.
    • Objects in your rear may be less important than they appear: How objects in candidates’ video interview backgrounds influence interviewers’ perceptions of fit and hiring recommendations.

      Angus-Yamada, Owen; Faculty of Business Programs
      Interviews are widely used by hiring managers to inform their decisions; however, the interview evaluations have been found to be influenced by various factors, including the physical and professional appearance of the candidates. With the growing popularity of video interviews, my research examines how the appearance of video backgrounds, through the presence of personal objects, can influence interviewer judgements. It also adds to the personnel selection literature by testing a theory – the Prototype Match Model – to examine how appearances, more generally influence interviewer judgements. Using an experimental design that controls for the video background and involved 92 undergraduate and graduate students, I found no evidence that the presence of personal objects in the background elicit inferences of personality traits and influence interviewer evaluations. There was, however, some evidence to suggest that a prototype match process occurs in the interview, where the closer candidates match the interviewers’ vision of the ideal employee, the more positive their interview outcomes are.
    • Environmental Racism: Proximity of Environmental Hazards and Benefits to Visible Minority Communities in Ontario, Canada

      Nettos, Mikellena
      Considering the global Black Lives Matter protests and the relatively limited academic research on environmental racism in Canada, this major research paper (MRP) explores the distribution of environmental racism in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, the research examines how environmental hazards (air pollution and landfills), and environmental benefits (parks and recreation) are distributed across visible minority and white communities in Hamilton and Niagara using ArcGIS Pro. The findings reaffirm that environmental racism exists in Ontario, Canada. For example, in communities with high percentages of visible minorities, parks tended to be less common and small, while particulate air pollution tended to be high. This research highlights the presence of environmental racism in Canada. Documenting and communicating the prevalence of environmental racism, and developing effective legislation for addressing environmental rights, are essential to funding lasting solutions for environmental racism in Canada.
    • Exploring Fan Experience with Multiple Cases of Relocation and Expansion

      Parent, Brett; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Current literature surrounding sport team relocation and expansion only examines a fan’s experience with one relocation or expansion at one point of time. With relocation and expansion being a commonality in the sports industry, there are many sports fan who have experienced multiple cases of relocations and expansion. Experiencing multiple relocations and expansions may also expose individuals to teams at varying levels of play. In Canada alone, 17 cities have hosted both a hockey team at the professional minor-league and amateur major-junior level at different points in time. To examine this phenomena, 12 individuals from Belleville, Ontario were interviewed, as Belleville has had four cases of relocation and expansion in their surrounding region in the last 40 years. These participants demonstrated four themes that suggest that experiencing multiple relocations and expansions has a lasting impact on their fan behaviour and attitudes. First, participants suggested that geography, distinctiveness, and exposure at a young age acted as a motivation to cheer for a newly established team, while existing team allegiances acted as a barrier. Second, participants discussed the unique consumption strategies they used to maintain an identity with a relocated team, such as following ex-players, recalling memories, and incorporating the relocated team into their present-day activities. Third, participants outlined the different points of attachment they developed with an amateur team versus a minor league team, as well as the points of detachment that they claimed to have with minor league hockey. Lastly, participants suggested that they have experienced six changes in perspectives towards teams, leagues, and hockey.
    • GSK3 signalling in DBA/2J mdx mice: a comparison against the traditional C57BL/10 mdx model and investigation into its pathogenic contribution

      Whitley, Kennedy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder caused by an absence of dystrophin that compromises membrane integrity, ultimately resulting in muscle weakness, wasting and premature death. There is currently no cure for DMD, however, promoting the slow oxidative fibre type and reducing inflammation in muscle has become a viable therapeutic strategy. In this thesis, the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in DMD pathology, as it relates to inflammation and muscle fibre type composition, was examined. Specifically, the purpose of this thesis was to first characterize GSK3 signalling in two mdx mouse models of DMD, the traditional C57BL/10 (BL10) mdx mouse and the more severe DBA/2J (D2) mdx mouse model. Next, it was examined whether inhibiting GSK3 with a clinically relevant drug called tideglusib would promote the slow oxidative fibre type, reduce inflammation and ultimately enhance muscle structure and function in the D2 mdx mouse. In the first objective of this thesis, it was found that total GSK3 was significantly higher in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from D2 mice compared with BL10 mice. Inhibitory serine9 phosphorylation of GSK3 was also significantly lower in D2 mice compared with BL10 mice, suggestive of a strain effect whereby D2 mice had more active GSK3. In the second objective of this thesis, it was found short-term (2-4 weeks) tideglusib treatment (10 mg/kg/day) increased EDL:body mass ratio and reduced serum creatine kinase levels compared with vehicle control. Tideglusib treatment also enhanced muscle function with a significant improvement in hangwire impulse, and EDL specific force production and fatigue resistance. In the EDL muscles, tideglusib treatment reduced total GSK3, a result that was associated with an increase in the proportion of oxidative type I and IIa fibres and elevated utrophin mRNA expression. However, tideglusib treatment did not alter inflammatory cytokine expression of IL-1 and TNF-. Collectively, these results show that GSK3 activation may contribute to dystrophic pathology in the D2 mdx mouse and that short-term tideglusib treatment can inhibit GSK3 in these mice leading to a promotion of the oxidative fibres and an improvement in muscle form and function.
    • Low-Dose Lithium as a Therapy for High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity: A Burning Topic in Metabolic Research and Adipose Tissue Browning

      Ryan, Chantal Rose; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The prevalence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate around the globe. As a way to combat obesity, the activation of white adipose tissue thermogenesis has been a burning topic in metabolic research. Recent findings from our lab demonstrate that this thermogenic program is inhibited by a protein kinase known as glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β); and the inhibition of GSK3β provides a mechanism to activate adipose tissue browning. Lithium (Li) is a well-known inhibitor of GSK3β and also a known sensitizer of insulin signalling. Our previous work has demonstrated that low dose lithium inhibits GSK3β and induces adipose browning in healthy male chow-fed mice. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the efficacy of low-dose lithium supplementation to inhibit adipose tissue GSK3β to activate the browning process to overcome the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and insulin resistance. 72 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three experimental groups: 1) control (CON; n=24), 2) HFD (60% fat; n=24), and 3) HFD supplemented with a low-dose of lithium in their drinking water (10mg/kg body weight/day; HFD+Li; n=24) for 12 weeks. Inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) were collected and underwent western blot and histological analysis. Lithium supplementation did not blunt the diet induced gain in body mass with the HFD. However, the HFD+Li mice ingested more calories than the HFD mice indicative of decreased metabolic efficiency. Lithium supplementation blunted the initial spike in a glucose tolerance test but exhibited no effects on insulin sensitivity at the whole body or tissue specific level. Lithium supplementation did not blunt the HFD induced reduction in GSK3β inhibition (Ser9) in iWAT, however, in eWAT the HFD+Li mice demonstrated higher GSK3β inhibition. Additionally, mitochondrial markers such as PGC-1α and cytochrome C were higher in HFD+Li eWAT compared to control, with cytochrome C being higher compared to HFD mice. This data provides evidence that low-dose lithium supplementation alone can increase the thermogenic program in visceral WAT depots but may not be robust enough to increase thermogenesis in subcutaneous WAT depots under HFD conditions.
    • Positive Experiences, Dreams, and Expectations of International Master’s Students at a Southern Ontario University: An Appreciative Inquiry

      Ankomah, William Sarfo; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study used appreciative inquiry (AI) as a methodological and theoretical framework and positive psychology theory to investigate international master’s students’ positive experiences, dreams, and expectations in their programs and institution to inform policies, programs, and practices. Although the literature describes international students’ mixed experiences in Canada, including developing critical thinking skills, making friends with other nationals, culture shock, and financial challenges, previous studies seldom focus on life-affirming conditions that enrich and improve such students’ schooling experiences. The first three stages of AI’s 4-D cycle—discovery, dream, and design—informed the study’s data collection methods (14 semi-structured individual interviews and three focus group discussions) to generate strength-based data for analysis, resulting in five key themes: (a) personal well-being and sense of belonging, (b) instructors’ pedagogical practices, (c) financial constraints and employment opportunities, (d) career development, and (e) policies. Based on its findings, the study makes six recommendations to inform international graduate student policy and practice: (a) allow international master’s students to study with their domestic counterparts, (b) increase international student diversity, (c) regularize socializing events for students and community members, (d) bridge the gap between theory and practice (hands-on experience), (e) work with all stakeholders to make international master’s students’ tuition fees more affordable, and (f) create on- and off-campus employment opportunities. Participants’ first-person accounts emphasize the need to include student voices in their own education and also shift the conversation from a deficit lens to a more positive discourse to balance the narratives around international students’ experiences.
    • Assessing the prevalence of injuries in competitive rowing athletes: the effects of body location, sex, and perceived fatigue

      Johnston, Alexander; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study is to; assess the lifetime prevalence of musculoskeletal injures, based on different anatomical regions, including the perceptions of muscular fatigue as a contributing factor to these injuries in recreational rowing athletes; to assess the relative effect of muscle fatigue on musculoskeletal injury in male and female athletes, respectively; to assess the effect of sex on LBP prevalence and severity in recreational rowing athletes. With this purpose in mind a survey was conducted involving rowing athletes across all ages and sexes. In this survey information on rowing experience, injury history, prevalence of low back pain, subjective level of fatigue at the time of injury, activity at the time of most severe injury, and type of pain with most severe injury. The most severe injury incurred for participants most commonly on a rowing ergometer (n=31), followed by training on the water (sweep n=26, scull n=24), most severe injuries were described as a dull pain (n=77). The most common injury site was the back, which had a significantly higher prevalence than the upper body, lower body and other injury sites. Injury prevalence of the upper body was significantly greater than the lower body and other injury sites, and lower body injury prevalence was significantly greater than the other injury sites. Lastly, Participants perceived that they were significantly more fatigued when a back injury occurred than injuries to any other site. Additionally, Injuries to the lower extremity had a higher perception of fatigue than upper extremity and other injury sites. The current work also suggests that there are no systematic differences in the prevalence of low back pain between male and female rowing athletes, nor in the severity of duration of such pain experienced at the low back or in other more general body regions.
    • The effects of various combinations of form-focused instruction techniques on the acquisition of English articles by second language learners of English

      Lloyd, Jackie S.; Department of Applied Linguistics
      Although English articles (the/a(n)) are two of the most frequently occurring words in the language, second language (L2) learners of English tend to exhibit extraordinary difficulty acquiring them. Uniquely resistant to instruction and often overlooked due to a lack of inherent meaning, articles are a suitable linguistic target for form-focused instruction (FFI), an approach that has demonstrated its efficacy over decades of research, across multiple domains of instructed L2 acquisition. With the aim of integrating attention to form into communicative L2 instruction, FFI encompasses numerous instructional techniques that promote various types of linguistic processing that contribute to L2 learning. The current study in particular focuses on three proactive FFI techniques—input enhancement, metalinguistic explanations, and practice—that sequentially facilitate noticing, awareness, and practice, respectively (Lyster, 2007, 2017; Ranta & Lyster, 2018). Targeting English articles, an experimental study was conducted to measure the differential effects of various combinations of the three FFI techniques, in order to examine the benefits attributable to each technique and its corresponding linguistic processing. Forty-six L2 learners of English were randomly assigned to four conditions: input enhancement only (n = 12); input enhancement and metalinguistic explanations (n = 11); input enhancement, metalinguistic explanations, and practice (n = 11); and a control condition (n = 12). The L2 learners each completed six hours of online English lessons. The three treatment groups received instruction on English articles according to their respective condition, while the control group received general instruction with no focus on articles. The participants’ knowledge of English articles was measured by four tasks (i.e., grammaticality judgment task, metalinguistic knowledge task, elicited imitation task, and picture-description task) in a pretest, an immediate posttest, and a delayed posttest. Results showed that the group that received input enhancement and metalinguistic explanations exhibited clear and durable gains in the metalinguistic knowledge task after the lessons. Furthermore, a subset of participants who benefitted the most from the instructional treatment revealed two factors in common, which were their article-less native languages and a high level of participation during the lessons. Based on these results, the present study contributes meaningfully to the current understanding of FFI and the L2 acquisition of English articles. In addition, it seeks to bring L2 research and L2 pedagogy one step closer together by offering evidence-based insights that further inform instructed L2 acquisition.
    • The Battle of Queenston print, 1836

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-20)
      A coloured print titled “The Battle of Queenston, Octr. 13, 1813. Which ended in a complete Victory on the part of the British, having captured 927 Men, killed or wounded about 500. Taken 1400 Stand of Arms, a Six Pounder, and a Stand of Colours”. It was published in London on April 12, 1836 for I.W. Laird’s Martial Achievements at 1 Leadenhall St. The print shows several stages of the battle, including the Americans crossing the Niagara River from Lewiston to Queenston; the British firing on the Americans as they land at Queenston; the first British counterattack on the redan battery, during which Isaac Brock was killed; and the British advance against the American position on the Heights later in the day. The painting is attributed to British Major James Dennis of the 49th Foot, who fought in the Battle of Queenston Heights. It was engraved by T. Sutherland. It first appeared in Martial Achievements of Great Britain by Thomas Sutherland shortly after the War of 1812. A note indicated it was based upon a drawing by “Major Dennis”. A painting based on Major Dennis’ account of the battle can be found at the RiverBrink Art Museum in Queenston. Many of the prints vary in detail from the painting. This particular print reverses the colours of the uniforms from the painting, showing men in red coats crossing from Lewiston and men in blue coats defending Queenston. The year of the battle included on the print is also incorrect. The battle took place on October 13, 1812, and not in 1813 as indicated in the title.
    • Rebellions of 1837-1838 Newspaper Collection, 1838

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-19)
      The collection contains American and British newspapers published around the time of the Upper and Lower Canada rebellions in 1837-1838. Many of the issues report on the events of the rebellions. Relevant news items from each issue have been described, with special attention to events that occurred in Niagara. Other articles of local interest concerning the War of 1812 or Welland Canal have also been noted.
    • Reminiscences of the early years of Brock University basketball

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-13)
      Consists of a 3-page typewritten account of Claude Zorzetto’s experiences with the early years of Brock University’s basketball team. Zorzetto was on the first Brock University basketball team in 1966 and remained on the team until 1970. Also contains several black and white photocopied photographs of the Brock University basketball team and players, including Zorzetto.
    • Broadside for Good Templars’ Strawberry Festival, 1869

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-13)
      A broadside advertising the Good Templars Strawberry Festival and Social Entertainment at Colt’s Hall, Suspension Bridge, N.Y. on July 2, 1869. The social is hosted by Frontier Lodge no. 740 of the Independent Order of Good Templars. The broadside reads “this festival will probably be the last and is pledged to be the best of the season! A number of very beautiful tableaux will be put upon the stage during the evening. Select music will be provided and everything done to make the entertainment one of social enjoyment. A committee of reception will be waiting to introduce strangers and to make all who attend this Festival feel themselves at home. The members of the Lodge extend a cordial invitation to all their friends to ‘Come, Taste and See’, that their strawberries are the sweetest and their ice cream the coldest that have been placed before them the present season”. Admission is 15 cents and the broadside is dated at Suspension Bridge, June 28, 1869. A note at the bottom of the broadside reads “In fulfilling the mission of Good Templars, Frontier Lodge has since its organization offered to the citizens of Suspension Bridge, Niagara Falls, Clifton, and the surrounding country frequent FREE entertainments, and the opportunity—which they are rejoiced to know has been freely availed of—of listening to some of the most talented speakers in the country. This has not been without expense to the Lodge, and having fitted up a hall at great cost it has now a small debt which it is desirable to liquidate, and solicits the patronage of the public to the accomplishment of this end”.
    • Ambrotype of horse drawn buggy in front of the American Falls, c. 1850

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-13)
      A large ambrotype of a horse drawn buggy at the American Falls, c. 1850. There are two women and a man seated in the buggy, and two men standing in front of the buggy.
    • The York Gazette, October 17, 1812

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-12)
      An issue of the York Gazette, dated October 17, 1812. This issue contains a statement on the victory at the Battle of Queenston Heights on the back page. The article notes the death of Issac Brock, his aide-de-camp John Macdonell, and the leadership of Major General Sheaffe. It is noted that “On the 13th of this month a most glorious victory took place at Queenston over the enemy…Our forces, though a handful, compared with those of the enemy, were not intimidated by numbers, but bravely resisted…” Isaac Brock’s role in the battle is mentioned. It is stated that “General Brock watchful, as he was brave, soon appeared in the midst of his faithful troops, ever obedient to his call, and whom he loved with the affection of a Father, but alas! whilst collecting, arranging, forming, and cheering his brave followers, that great commander gloriously fell when preparing for victory. ‘Push on brave York Volunteers’, being then near them, they were the last words of the dying Hero—Inhabitants of Upper Canada, in the Day of Battle remember BROCK.” John Macdonell, Brock’s aide-de-camp, was also killed in the battle. He is acknowledged in the article: “Not let us forget to lament the untimely fate of the young, the affectionate, and the brave Lieut. Col. John Macdonnel, who received a mortal wound about the same time with his beloved General—attached to him from affection, his constant follower in every danger, this amiable youth is now buried with him in the same grave”. After the deaths of Brock and Macdonell, Major General Sheaffe took command, and “proved himself worthy to fill that important, tho difficult and dangerous situation in which he was placed. Being reinforced by troops (including a body of Indians) from Fort George, General Sheaffe succeeded by a most judicious movement, in gaining the flank and rear of the enemy…unable to resist or escape from the British arms, about 900 Americans surrendered prisoners of war…” The article is followed by tributes to General Brock.
    • Photograph of Merritt Fire Co. No. 2, Welland, 1890

      Cameron, Chantal (2022-04-08)
      A black and white photograph of Merritt Fire Co. No. 2, Welland, in 1890. The photograph is mounted on cardboard and features 29 men in uniform indoors. They appear to be displaying framed certificates in the front row.