• Does bracing affect bone health in women with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

      Akseer, Nasreen; Kish, Kimberly; Rigby, W Alan; Greenway, Matthew; Klentrou, Panagiota; Wilson, Philip M; Falk, Bareket (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Purpose: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is often associated with low bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD). Bracing, used to manage spine curvature, may interfere with the growth-related BMC accrual, resulting in reduced bone strength into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of brace treatment on BMC in adult women, diagnosed with AIS and braced in early adolescence. Methods: Participants included women with AIS who: (i) underwent brace treatment (AIS-B, n = 15, 25.6 ± 5.8 yrs), (ii) underwent no treatment (AIS, n = 15, 24.0 ± 4.0 yrs), and (iii) a healthy comparison group (CON, n = 19, 23.5 ± 3.8 yrs). BMC and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Differences between groups were examined using a oneway ANOVA or ANCOVA, as appropriate. Results: AIS-B underwent brace treatment 27.9 ± 21.6 months, for 18.0 ± 5.4 h/d. Femoral neck BMC was lower (p = 0.06) in AIS-B (4.54 ± 0.10 g) compared with AIS (4.89 ± 0.61 g) and CON (5.07 ± 0.58 g). Controlling for lean body mass, calcium and vitamin D daily intake, and strenuous physical activity, femoral neck BMC was statistically different (p = 0.02) between groups. A similar pattern was observed at other lower extremity sites (p < 0.05), but not in the spine or upper extremities. BMC and BMD did not correlate with duration of brace treatment, duration of daily brace wear, or overall physical activity. Conclusion: Young women with AIS, especially those who were treated with a brace, have significantly lower BMC in their lower limbs compared to women without AIS. However, the lack of a relationship between brace treatment duration during adolescence and BMC during young adulthood, suggests that the brace treatment is not the likely mechanism of the low BMC.
    • Higher PLIN5 but not PLIN3 content in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria following acute in vivo contraction in rat hindlimb

      Ramos, Sofhia; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K.; Turnbull, Patrick C; Bott, Kirsten N.; LeBlanc, Paul; Ward, Wendy E.; Peters, Sandra J. (American Physiological Society, 2014-08-22)
      Contraction-mediated lipolysis increases the association of lipid droplets and mitochondria, indicating an important role in the passage of fatty acids from lipid droplets to mitochondria in skeletal muscle. PLIN3 and PLIN5 are of particular interest to the lipid droplet–mitochondria interaction because PLIN3 is able to move about within cells and PLIN5 associates with skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study primarily investigated: 1) if PLIN3 is detected in skeletal muscle mitochondrial fraction; and 2) if mitochondrial protein content of PLIN3 and/or PLIN5 changes following stimulated contraction. A secondary aim was to determine if PLIN3 and PLIN5 associate and whether this changes following contraction. Male Long Evans rats (n = 21;age, 52 days; weight = 317 6 g) underwent 30 min of hindlimb stimulation (10 msec impulses, 100 Hz/3 sec at 10–20 V; train duration 100 msec). Contraction induced a ~50% reduction in intramuscular lipid content measured by oil red-O staining of red gastrocnemius muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from red gastrocnemius muscle by differential centrifugation and proteins were detected by western blotting. Mitochondrial PLIN5 content was ~1.6-fold higher following 30 min of contraction and PLIN3 content was detected in the mitochondrial fraction, and unchanged following contraction. An association between PLIN3 and PLIN5 was observed and remained unaltered following contraction. PLIN5 may play a role in mitochondria during lipolysis, which is consistent with a role in facilitating/regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. PLIN3 and PLIN5 may be working together on the lipid droplet and mitochondria during contraction-induced lipolysis.
    • Interprofessional Collaboration: The Experience of Nursing and Medical Students’ Interprofessional Education

      Prentice, Dawn; Engel, Joyce; Taplay, Karyn; Stobbe, Karl (Sage, 2014-10-14)
      In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, we examined the experience of interprofessional collaboration from the perspective of nursing and medical students. Seventeen medical and nursing students from two different universities participated in the study. We used guiding questions in face-to-face, conversational interviews to explore students’ experience and expectations of interprofessional collaboration within learning situations. Three themes emerged from the data: the great divide, learning means content, and breaking the ice. The findings suggest that the experience of interprofessional collaboration within learning events is influenced by the natural clustering of shared interests among students. Furthermore, the carry-forward of impressions about physician–nurse relationships prior to the educational programs and during clinical placements dominate the formation of new relationships and acquisition of new knowledge about roles, which might have implications for future practice.