Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Chen, Jianmin; Ward, Wendy E. (Taylor & Francis, 2012-04-04)
      In mice, exposure to isoflavones (ISO), abundant in soy infant formula, during the first 5 d of life alters structural and functional development of reproductive organs. Effects of longer exposures are unknown. The study objective was to evaluate whether exposure to a combination of daidzein and genistein in the first 10 compared to 5 d of life results in greater adverse effects on ovarian and uterine structure in adult mice. Thirteen litters of 8–12 pups were cross-fostered and randomized to corn oil or ISO (2 mg daidzein + 5 mg genistein/kg body weight/d) for the first 5 or 10 d of life. The 10-d protocol mimicked the period when infants are fed soy protein formula (SPF) but avoids the time when suckling pups can consume the mother’s diet. Body and organ weights and histology of ovaries and uteri were analyzed. There were no differences in the ovary or uterus weight, number of ovarian follicles, number of multiple oocyte follicles, or percent of ovarian cysts with 5 or 10 d of ISO intervention compared to respective controls. The 10-d ISO group had higher body weights from 6 d to 4 mo. of age and a higher percent of hyperplasia in the oviduct than the respective control. Lower numbers of ovarian corpus lutea and a higher incidence of abnormal changes were reported in the uteri of both ISO groups compared to their respective controls. Five- and 10-d exposure to ISO had similar long-lasting adverse effects on the structures of ovaries and uterus in adult mice. Only the 10-d ISO exposure resulted in greater body weight gain at adulthood.
    • The electromyographic threshold in boys and men

      Pitt, Brynlynn; Dotan, Raffy; Millar, Jordan; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; O'Brien, Thomas (Springer, 2015-01-15)
      Abstract Background Children have been shown to have higher lactate (LaTh) and ventilatory (VeTh) thresholds than adults, which might be explained by lower levels of type-II motor-unit (MU) recruitment. However, the electromyographic threshold (EMGTh), regarded as indicating the onset of accelerated type-II MU recruitment, has been investigated only in adults. Purpose To compare the relative exercise intensity at which the EMGTh occurs in boys versus men. Methods Participants were 21 men (23.4 ± 4.1 years) and 23 boys (11.1 ± 1.1 years), with similar habitual physical activity and peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) (49.7 ± 5.5 vs. 50.1 ± 7.4 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively). Ramped cycle ergometry was conducted to volitional exhaustion with surface EMG recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis muscles throughout the test (~10 min). The composite right–left EMG root mean square (EMGRMS) was then calculated per pedal revolution. The EMGTh was then determined as the exercise intensity at the point of least residual sum of squares for any two regression line divisions of the EMGRMS plot. Results EMGTh was detected in 20/21 of the men (95.2 %) and only in 18/23 of the boys (78.3 %). The boys’ EMGTh was significantly higher than the men’s (86.4 ± 9.6 vs. 79.7 ± 10.0 % of peak power output at exhaustion; p < 0.05). The pattern was similar when EMGTh was expressed as percentage of VO2pk. Conclusions The boys’ higher EMGTh suggests delayed and hence lesser utilization of type-II MUs in progressive exercise, compared with men. The boys–men EMGTh differences were of similar magnitude as those shown for LaTh and VeTh, further suggesting a common underlying factor.
    • Higher PLIN5 but not PLIN3 content in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria following acute in vivo contraction in rat hindlimb

      Ramos, Sofhia; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K.; Turnbull, Patrick C; Bott, Kirsten N.; LeBlanc, Paul; Ward, Wendy E.; Peters, Sandra J. (American Physiological Society, 2014-08-22)
      Contraction-mediated lipolysis increases the association of lipid droplets and mitochondria, indicating an important role in the passage of fatty acids from lipid droplets to mitochondria in skeletal muscle. PLIN3 and PLIN5 are of particular interest to the lipid droplet–mitochondria interaction because PLIN3 is able to move about within cells and PLIN5 associates with skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study primarily investigated: 1) if PLIN3 is detected in skeletal muscle mitochondrial fraction; and 2) if mitochondrial protein content of PLIN3 and/or PLIN5 changes following stimulated contraction. A secondary aim was to determine if PLIN3 and PLIN5 associate and whether this changes following contraction. Male Long Evans rats (n = 21;age, 52 days; weight = 317 6 g) underwent 30 min of hindlimb stimulation (10 msec impulses, 100 Hz/3 sec at 10–20 V; train duration 100 msec). Contraction induced a ~50% reduction in intramuscular lipid content measured by oil red-O staining of red gastrocnemius muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from red gastrocnemius muscle by differential centrifugation and proteins were detected by western blotting. Mitochondrial PLIN5 content was ~1.6-fold higher following 30 min of contraction and PLIN3 content was detected in the mitochondrial fraction, and unchanged following contraction. An association between PLIN3 and PLIN5 was observed and remained unaltered following contraction. PLIN5 may play a role in mitochondria during lipolysis, which is consistent with a role in facilitating/regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. PLIN3 and PLIN5 may be working together on the lipid droplet and mitochondria during contraction-induced lipolysis.
    • Isoflavone exposure throughout suckling results in improved adult bone health in mice

      Dinsdale, E.C.; Kaludjerovic, J; Ward, W.E. (Cambridge University Press, 2012-02-15)
      Exposure to isoflavones (ISO), abundant in soy protein infant formula, for the first 5 days of life results in higher bone mineral density (BMD),greater trabecular connectivity and higher fracture load of lumbar vertebrae (LV) at adulthood. The effect of lengthening the duration of exposure to ISO on bone development has not been studied. This study determined if providing ISO for the first 21 days of life, which more closely mimics the duration that infants are fed soy protein formula, results in higher BMD, improved bone structure and greater strength in femurs and LV than a 5-day protocol. Female CD-1 mice were randomized to subcutaneous injections of ISO (7 Q1 mg kg/body weight/day) or corn oil from postnatal day 1 to 21. BMD, structure and strength were measured at the femur and LV at 4 months of age, representing young Q2 adulthood. At the LV, exposure to ISO resulted in higher (P,0.05) BMD, trabecular connectivity and fracture load compared with control (CON). Exposure to ISO also resulted in higher (P,0.05) whole femur BMD, higher (P,0.05) bone volume/total volume and Q3 lower (P,0.05) trabecular separation at the femur neck, as well as greater (P,0.05) fracture load at femur midpoint and femur neck compared with the CON group. Exposure to ISO throughout suckling has favorable effects on LV outcomes, and, unlike previous studies using 5-day exposure to ISO, femur outcomes are also improved. Duration of exposure should be considered when using the CD-1 mouse to model the effect of early life exposure of infants to ISO.
    • Predicting Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test Performance from Foot Characteristics

      Chimera, Nicole J.; Larson, Mallorie (Human Kinetics, 2020)
      The lower quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) is associated with injury risk; however, ankle range of motion impacts YBT-LQ. Arch height and foot sensation impact static balance, but these characteristics have not yet been evaluated relative to YBT-LQ. Determine if arch height index (AHI), forefoot sensation (SEN), and ankle dorsiflexion predict YBT-LQ composite score (CS). Descriptive cohort. Athletic training laboratory. Twenty general population (14 females and 6 males; mean [SD]: age 35 [18] y, weight 70.02 [16.76] kg, height 1.68 [0.12] m) participated in this study. AHI measurement system assessed arch height in 10% (AHI10) and 90% (AHI90) weight-bearing. Two-point discrim-a-gon discs assessed sensation (SEN) at the plantar great toe, third and fifth metatarsal heads. Biplane goniometer and weight-bearing lunge tests were used to measure static and weight-bearing dorsiflexion, respectively. The YBT-LQ assessed dynamic single-leg balance. For right-limb dynamic single-leg balance, AHI90 and SEN were included in the final sequential prediction equation; however, neither model significantly (P = .052 and .074) predicted variance in YBT-LQ CS. For left-limb dynamic single-leg balance, both SEN and weight-bearing lunge test were included in the final sequential prediction equation. The regression model (SEN and weight-bearing lunge test) significantly (P = .047) predicted 22% of the variance in YBT-LQ CS. This study demonstrates that foot characteristics may play a role in YBT-LQ CS. The authors did not assess limb dominance in this study; therefore, the authors are unable to determine which limb would be the stance versus kicking limb. However, altered SEN and weight-bearing dorsiflexion appear to be contributing factors to YBT-LQ CS.