Algal and protozoan response to Holocene climate change and anthropogenic impact: a case study from Sluice Pond, MA
Sluice Pond is a small (18 ha) and deep (Zmax 20.0 m) partially meromictic, pond in Lynn, Massachusetts that contains a diverse dinocyst record since the early Holocene. High dinocyst concentrations, including morphotypes not previously described, as well as the preservation of several specimens of cellulosic thecae are attributed to low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the basin. The fossil protozoan record supports the interpretation- thecamoebians were unable to colonize the basin until the middle Holocene and only became abundant when the drought-induced lowstand oxygenated the bottom waters. Protozoans tolerant of low DO became abundant through the late Holocene as water levels rose and cultural eutrophication produced a sharp increase in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) beginning in the 17th century. Recent sediments contain a dominance of Peridinium willei, indicating cultural eutrophication and the planktonic ciliate Codonella cratera and the thecamoebian Cucurbitella tricuspis in the deep basin. Above the chemocline however, a diverse difflugiid thecamoebian assemblage is present.