The Family Game: A Parent Education Intervention to Increase Positive Parent-Child Interactions in Parents with Learning Difficulties
KeywordParenting Intervention, Parents with Learning Difficulties, Generalization Strategies, Child Compliance
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AbstractChildren of parents with learning difficulties (LD) are at risk for a variety of developmental problems including behavioural and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no empirically supported programs to prevent behavioural and psychiatric problems in these children. The purpose of the study was to test the effectiveness of a parenting intervention designed to teach parents with learning difficulties positive child behaviour management strategies. A multiple baseline across skills design was used with two parents, who were taught three skills: 1) clear instructions, 2) recognition of compliance and 3) correction of noncompliance. Training scores improved on each skill and maintained at a 1-month follow-up. Scores on generalization cards were high and showed maintenance, but improvements in parenting skills in the naturalistic environment were low at posttest and follow-up. Increases were seen in child compliance at posttest and 1-month follow-up. Results of pre-post social validity measures were also generally positive.
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Teaching Principled negotiation skills to parents and their children : the impact of parental involvement /Rizzo, Kelly-Joelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)This study explored the impact of training parents and children concurrently in principled negotiation skills for the purpose of developing negotiation skills and problem solving abilities in children. A second experimental group was utilized to determine the viability of negotiation skills training of junior elementary students for the purpose of improving problem solving and conflict resolving abilities. The student population in each experimental group was trained using The Program for Young Negotiators (Curhan, 1996). A control group was also established using the remaining grade four and five students attending the participating school. These students did not receive training as part of this study. Student group distribution was as follows: Experimental group 1 (students with parent participant) consisted of 10 (5 grade five and 5 grade 4 students), Experimental group 2 students without parent participant) consisted of 48 (20 grade 4 and 28 grade 5 students), and the Control group 3 (55 grade 4 and 5 students). The impact of training was measured using the Five Factor Negotiation Scale developed for use with the Program for Young Negotiators (Curhan, 1996). This measure was employed as a pre- and post-test questionnaire to the total student population, (113 students) to determine levels of ability in each of the key elements of negotiation, personal initiative, collaboration, communication, conflict based perspective taking, and conflict resolution approach (Nakkula & Nikitopoulos, unpublished). This measure has a coefficient alpha of .75 which is acceptable for this type of affective instrument. As well, open ended ability questions designed to measure ability, knowledge, and behaviour as they relate to negotiation skill application were given to the total student population, (113 students). Finally, journals were maintained by the students in both experimental groups, and informal feedback discussions were held with students and parents participating in the study.The intent of using both qualitative and quantitative measures was to provide an overall perspective of student abilities as they related to principled negotiation skills. While the quantitative measures were from the student perspective, more qualitative information was sought from parents and teachers through informal interviews, discussions, and use of confidential feedback cards. For analysis purposes, the ability questions were randomly selected for Experimental group 2 and Control group 3 in an effort to balance the groups more equitably with Experimental group 1. The findings of this study indicate that students of the junior elementary school age can be taught how to perceive conflict in a more constructive way. However, they are not as likely to use their skills when the conflict is with a sibling as they are with a peer, a teacher, or a parent. While no statistically significant differences between mean scores for Experimental groups 1 and 2 exist some subtle differences are noted. Overall, increases in mean scores for grade 4 students exceeded the increases for grade 5 students within Experimental group 1 . The implication being that younger students benefit more from having a parent trained in principled negoUation skills than older students. The skill level of a parent in principled negotiation can not be underesUmated. Without a consistent and effective role model the likelihood of developing student skill level to a point of automaticity is greatly reduced. Enough so that perhaps the emphasis should be placed on training parents more so than the students.
Parental goals among Italian-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian families : their connection to socialization practices and the quality of parent-young adult relationship /Cortese, Caterina.; Department of Psychology (Brock University, 1999-05-21)Parenting goals are the behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes that parents implicitly or explicitly strive to achieve during specific interactions with their children. In the present study, intergenerational parenting practices and goals in Italian-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian families were examined. The association between parenting goals, parents' socialization practices, and the quality of relationship between parent and child were investigated. Participants included individuals ranging in age from 1 8-26 years and their mothers from Anglo-Canadian (n= 31) and Italian-Canadian families (n= 50). The young adults and their mothers were asked to imagine how their respective parents would have reacted to five hypothetical vignettes depicting difficult parent-child interactions. Young adults and their mothers were also asked to rate the importance of parenting goals within these parent-child situations. In addition, young adults assessed the perceived quality of their present relationships with each parent. Cultural differences were revealed such that Italian-Canadian parents endorsed more authoritarian parenting strategies and relationship-centered goals than Anglo-Canadian parents. However, Italian-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian parents were not found to differ on their endorsement of parent-centered goals. Italian-Canadian parents' who did use authoritarian strategies were found to have young-adult children who perceived their relationship with their parents as less satisfying, intimate, affectionate and having relatively high levels of conflict than parents who did not use authoritarian strategies. Anglo-Canadian parents' authoritative strategies were correlated with a better perceived relationship quality by young-adult children.
Perspectives of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder on a Community-Based Parent Education ProgramAlves, Kelly; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-01-21)In 2012 a community-based agency that oversees Intensive Behaviour Intervention services for young children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) began delivering newly developed curricula to parents of eligible children. The curricula’s intent was to inform parents about ASD and Applied Behaviour Analysis, to increase their awareness of available community resources, and assist them to be active and engaged in their child’s learning. This mixed-method study used a program-specific survey and focus groups to explore the perspectives parents had on their involvement in these education sessions. Through constant comparison analysis 4 major and 3 minor themes emerged. In general, parents acknowledged that this parent education program included relevant content and a favourable delivery format. The study summarized a number of well-articulated, practical suggestions parents provided. Implications for practice would be applicable to educators interested in providing quality group-based education to parents of young children with ASD.