The material found in this collection represents the work of the 2012 recipients of the Open Access Publishing Fund

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  • Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior: A Latent Class Analysis among Young Adults

    Hamza, Chloe E.; Willoughby, Teena (PLoS, 2013-03-27)
    Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior.
  • Variability in the Insect and Plant Adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the Fungal Genus Metarhizium Suggest Plant Adaptation as an Evolutionary Force

    Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael (PLoS, 2013-03-13)
    Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1a, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 59 EF-1a than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.
  • Priming the Governance System for Climate Change Adaptation: The Application of a Social Ecological Inventory (SEI) to Engage Actors in Niagara, Canada

    Pickering, Kerrie; Baird, Julia; Plummer, Ryan (2012-03)
    Adaptive systems of governance are increasingly gaining attention in respect to complex and uncertain social-ecological systems. Adaptive co-management is one strategy to make adaptive governance operational and holds promise with respect to community climate change adaptation as it facilitates participation and learning across scales and fosters adaptive capacity and resilience. Developing tools which hasten the realization of such approaches are growing in importance. This paper describes explores the Social Ecological Inventory (SEI) as a tool to 'prime' a regional climate change adaptation network. The SEI tool draws upon the social-ecological systems approach in which social and ecological systems are considered linked. SEIs bridge the gap between conventional stakeholder analysis and biological inventories and take place through a six phase process. A case study describes the results of applying an SEI to prime an adaptive governance network for climate change adaptation in the Niagara Region of Canada. Lessons learned from the case study are discussed and highlight how the SEI catalyzed the adaptive co-management process in the case. Future avenues for SEIs in relation to climate change adaptation emerge from this exploratory work and offer opportunities to inform research and adaptation planning.
  • Discourses of Masculinity and Femininity in The Hunger Games: "Scarred," "Bloody," and "Stunning"

    Woloshyn, Vera; Taber, Nancy; Lane, Laura (RedFame Publishing, 2013-02-28)
    This article explores how characters in The Hunger Games trilogy are portrayed relative to Connell's gendered discourses of hegemonic masculinity, marginal masculinity, and emphasized femininity. We briefly review the plot of The Hunger Games trilogy and then discuss the ways in which three of the characters are represented with respect to societal gendered discourses, heteronormativity, and the use of violence. We argue that the ways in which these aspects are portrayed relate to the main characters' performance of discourses of hegemonic masculinity (Gale), marginalized masculinity (Peeta), and a complex amalgamation of the two that also draws somewhat on emphasized femininity (Katniss). Finally, we conclude that, while the trilogy could be read as taking a feminist stance with a strong female protagonist, it nonetheless also constrains Katniss in heteronormative ways.
  • Dietary Strategies to Optimize Wound Healing after Periodontal and Dental Implant Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review

    Lau, Beatrice Y.; Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E. (Bentham Science Publishers, 2013-04-05)
    Methods to optimize healing through dietary strategies present an attractive option for patients, such that healing from delicate oral surgeries occurs as optimally as possible with minimal patient-meditated complications through improper food choices. This review discusses findings from studies that have investigated the role of diet, either whole foods or individual dietary components, on periodontal health and their potential role in wound healing after periodontal surgery. To date, research in this area has largely focused on foods or individual dietary components that may attenuate inflammation or oxidant stress, or foster de novo bone formation. These studies suggest that a wide variety of dietary components, including macronutrients and micronutrients, are integral for optimal periodontal health and have the potential to accelerate oral wound healing after periodontal procedures. Moreover, this review provides guidance regarding dietary considerations that may help a patient achieve the best possible outcome after a periodontal procedure.
  • Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes (PLoS, 2013-08-08)
    Background: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children’s health. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate heightfor- age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results: Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.7661.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children .10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p,0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions: STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children’s nutritional status warrants more research.