• Private Coaching Centres in India: A Document Analysis of JEE-Advanced Preparation Centres on the Lives of Students in Kota

      Kaur, Gurbinder
      Gone are the days when tuition or coaching classes were meant for academically weak students. With the Economic Reforms of 1991 (ER91), the Indian education system went through a series of changes, the most prominent being the growth of private educational institutions across the country. This led to creation of a billion-dollar coaching industry in India. Due to the ease of setting up private institutions and the absence of any regulatory body to vouch for them, the private institutions became immensely commercialized. The purpose of this study is to investigate the organizational structure of such coaching centres and analyze the various aspects of the organizational framework within which they operate. As the coaching industry is widespread, the study focuses on one of the popular coaching sectors that prepares aspiring engineers for the national level JEE- Advanced examination in a small town (Kota, in the northern state of Rajasthan) that has garnered a significant reputation as the coaching capital of the country.
    • Producing Strong and Effective Writers Using the Peer Feedback Process

      Stayzer, Danielle
      The peer feedback process is an effective and engaging literacy activity used to support student writers learning from each other. This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the potential impact of the peer feedback process on students providing the feedback. The study focused on peer feedback’s impact on reviewers’ development of stronger writing skills. Research questions included: How does peer reviewers’ training on the peer review process for writing impact their writing skills? How does such training impact their ability to be effective peer reviewers? How does the experience as peer reviewers impact reviewers’ own writing skills? Communicating with the research participants over a 3-month period provided opportunities for them to reflect upon their experience as peer reviewers and offered insights about the impacts it had on their development as writers. Data collection methods included a student questionnaire, a focus group, and an in-depth interview, all of which encouraged students to offer detailed thoughts and ideas. Additionally, the researcher kept a journal of thoughts, questions, and ideas that contributed to the understanding of the student data. Data analysis revealed that training provided reviewers with foundational skills and knowledge that helped prepare them to be more effective reviewers and was useful when applied to their own writing process. Findings also revealed the experience of reviewing helped reviewers develop critical thinking, analysis, and synthesizing skills that assisted their own development as writers. Over time, student reviewers began to internalize the lessons they were teaching to their peers and apply them to their own writing, acting as an expert and providing support to their own process. Implications for practice are also discussed.
    • Project-Based Learning in Mathematics: A Middle School Curriculum Unit

      Stubbs, Samantha
      The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematics-focused project-based learning curriculum unit for educators to utilize with their own classes. Based on literature review and resources, an integrated unit was created using a backwards design method of curriculum development, with the intent of assisting teachers who are unfamiliar with the principles of project-based learning. The unit covered grade 7 Ontario Ministry of Education expectations from the mathematics, science, and language curriculums and also aided in students’ development of several 21st century competencies including effective communication, collaboration, and problem solving. The unit was created to act as a guide for educators to assist them in learning how to implement project-based learning effectively, so as to make learning meaningful, relevant, and enjoyable for students.
    • Promoting Early Reading: A Parent Handbook for Developing Children's Phonological Awareness Using Authentic Activities

      Dunn, Stephanie (2013-09-16)
      The purpose of this project was to create a handbook for parents to develop their children's phonological awareness using authentic activities that parents and children can complete together. The handbook aims to provide parents with fundamental background information regarding phonological awareness as well as effective instruction practices, followed by authentic activities that are clearly laid out and easy to implement. Through a comprehensive study of the literature it became evident that parents should be the target audience for the handbook as they have the greatest influence on the development of their young children. Phonological awareness was also found to be an important contributor to early literacy development including oral language skills and reading. The handbook was reviewed by 2 teaching professionals in order to claim face validity of the document. The results of the project indicate that the handbook which was produced meets its goals of creating a product that is easy to use, practical, and effective for both parents and children. The implementation of the handbook in the home environment can benefit children's phonological awareness and in turn improve their oral language and reading abilities.
    • Promoting the Success of Indigenous Students in High School Mathematics: A Handbook for Educators

      Safieh, Danielle
      There is a significant gap in the number of Indigenous students enrolled and successful in secondary school mathematics, which is partially due to the lack of cultural pedagogy and critical pedagogy in mathematics education (Nielsen et al., 2008). This is significant, because as Doolittle and Glanfield (2007) argue, mathematics education in mainstream society is an enabler (or disabler) of many opportunities. Many researchers and educators have worked toward the goal of improving Indigenous students’ success in mainstream education, however there is significantly less research focusing specifically on Indigenous students’ success in secondary mathematics education. This project explored major themes of Indigenous ways of knowing, two-eyed seeing and growth, and mathematical mindsets from an extensive literature review with the purpose of developing a handbook and strategies and sample activities for Intermediate and Senior mathematics teachers to implement in their professional practices. The handbook was designed to provide mathematics educators with research-based knowledge to aid them in developing inclusive strategies pedagogy and assignments that promote Indigenous student success as well as make mathematics education meaningful. Included in these strategies are project-based learning, place-based learning, and critical and social justice mathematics.
    • Quality Training Programs in Early Childhood Education

      Cuffe, Leah
      The effect that higher education has on the quality of a childcare setting is currently unknown. Early et al. (2007) suggest that higher education may not be affecting the quality of care in a childcare setting because the educators are not being provided with practical training or support within their Early Childhood Education (ECE) preparation courses. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the 16 mandatory courses within the Brock University Bachelor of Early Childhood Education (BECE) program to determine if, in fact, the courses align with the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (2009) Program Standards. The researcher conducted a qualitative content analysis to ascertain the results of the study. To begin, course outlines were obtained from previous courses the researcher engaged in. Each course outline was reviewed in detail so that the researcher could become familiar with the assignments, lecture topics, and learning objectives within each course. Once each course outline was reviewed, the researcher created a list of the topics that were used to establish categories for coding. The themes that emerged from this process included theorists, program models, families, and knowledge of the ECE field. In addition, life-long learning, teaching specific subjects, and inclusion were also themes that were derived from the data. Within each category, the topics were scrutinized to determine the specific NAEYC Program Standard that the topic supported. A frequency chart was then created for each course to identify how many times each topic adhered to a specific standard. The results of the study concluded that the BECE program at Brock University aligned with all of the NAEYC program Standards. Consequently, Early Childhood Educators can have confidence in the quality of Brock University’s BECE program.
    • Raising the Bar and Closing the Gap? Investigating Learning for All’s Capacity to Support Marginalized Students in Ontario

      Carlsson, Rebekah
      Learning for All (2013) is a resource guide, published by Ontario’s Ministry of Education, that aims to “raise the bar and close the gap in achievement for all students” (p. 3). It is intended to be used by school boards to support system-level planning and informs professional development and local policy directives (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2013). Learning for All does acknowledge that outcome disparities are more prevalent between certain demographic groups, but it avoids any discussion of the complex factors that cause this inequity. This paper explores the research on economically and racially marginalized students in Canada, to reveal the institutional, pedagogical, and ideological factors that produce this education inequity. From this research informed position, I offer a critical policy analysis of Learning for All guided by Paul Gorksi & Katy Swalwell’s Equity Literacy Framework (2015), which demonstrates that the strategies prescribed in Learning for All will not only fail to ‘close the gap’ but may also rein-force deficit thinking amongst educators, thereby exacerbating the problem. Finally, this paper concludes with recommended structural and pedagogical changes, as well as opportunities for future research to better address the barriers that marginalized students face and the shortcomings of Learning for All.
    • The Relationship Between Administration and Inclusive Education: Perspectives From One Ontario School Board

      White, Rebecca
      For the past two decades, school boards around the world have transitioned to more inclusive service delivery for students with exceptionalities. Derived from a larger study (Bennett, Gallagher, Somma, & White, 2021), this research focuses on one school board in the Province of Ontario that transitioned from segregated special education classes to full inclusive service delivery and programming for students with exceptionalities through a board-wide policy. The current major research project utilizes qualitative methods and analyzes 10 semi-structured interviews with administrators from this school board. This project aimed to cull findings to better understand how administrators understand inclusion and make sense of their role within an inclusive education policy and was guided by three research questions: (a) How do administrators define inclusion? (b) How do administrators perceive their role in facilitating an inclusive school culture? (c) What staff and personnel supports do administrators believe are integral to the implementation of inclusive policy? Interview data derived from 10 school administrators were examined using thematic analysis. Findings indicate administrators play a key role in the implementation of inclusive policy by maintaining a positive school culture regarding inclusion, creating a shared school vision, taking ownership over the inclusive policy in their school, and gaining buy-in from all members of the school team. Implications describe steps administrators can take in this role and suggest that a policy shift toward inclusion can be an effective way to positively transition toward inclusion.
    • The Relationship Between Chinese EFL Learners’ Reading Self-Efficacy and Use of Metacognitive Reading Strategies

      Jiang, Ying
      The promotion of self-efficacy and metacognitive strategies plays a decisive role in EFL learners’ foreign language reading performance. This study investigated the relationship between Chinese adolescent EFL learners’ current level of reading self-efficacy and their use of metacognitive reading strategies, and more specifically the differences in use of such strategies among learners with high, medium, and low self-efficacy. Findings indicated that the frequency of participants’ use of metacognitive reading strategies was high, and participants felt confident in their English reading ability. Findings also revealed that the use of metacognitive reading strategies had a significantly positive correlation with English reading self-efficacy. Results suggest that self-efficacy is an influential factor that impacts learners’ use of metacognitive reading strategies. Conclusions and implications drawn from the study emphasize the importance of Chinese EFL learners’ use of metacognitive reading strategies and the reinforcement of selfefficacy in their reading performance.
    • The Relationship between Confucianism Culture on Chinese International Students’ Self-confidence

      Wang, Junjie Jr
      Considering the uptrend of educational globalization, the younger generation in China is choosing to study abroad. According to Lundeberg, Fox, Brown and Elbedour’s research (2000), Chinese participants have low self-confidence and do not trust their own skills. Furthermore, research shows that that Chinese graduate students tend to refrain from participating in classroom activities (Lu & Han, 2010). The purpose of this research project is to explore how Chinese international students perceive the influence of Confucius culture on their self-confidence, while completing the international graduate program in a single university in Ontario. All data was collected through loosely structured interviews with four Chinese graduate students in the international graduate program. Key findings of this research project highlight the students’ educative experience in both Canada and China, the influence of Confucianism on their self- confidence levels and the progression of this trait throughout the whole learning experience.
    • Respect and Obedience in the Culture of Education: A Narrative of Transformative Journey in Viewing a Lifelong Practice in Indonesia.

      Sukmantari, Putri
      This self-narrative retells stories that attempt to make sense of my cultural practice called salim—kissing the hand of teachers, the elderly, and powerful people to show respect. The evident purpose is to instill respect, however, I come to an understanding that respect should be a choice, and if there is no choice, it serves the purpose of implanting obedience. In Indonesian schools, students line up every morning to do salim to teachers, much like an assembly line. Clandinin and Connelly (2000) elucidated how narrative inquiries are always strongly autobiographical and unique. These stories are those I have experienced, witnessed, told, and reflected to achieve transformative learning. I narrated how I was the oppressed, the oppressor and in most times, both. The intent of this paper is not to eliminate the practice, but to awaken awareness of educators to see whether they have earned such respect.
    • Retired School Administrators’ Perspectives on the Effectiveness of Ontario’s Teacher Performance Appraisal System

      Gajula, Gopikiran
      This study aims to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of the Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) system in Ontario by examining the perspectives of four retired administrators: three retired Principals, and one retired Vice-Principal. The study employed a basic qualitative methodology. Data were collected from the participants through semi-structured one-on-one in-person interviews. Data were then analyzed manually by coding and identifying major themes. Findings indicate that the TPA process has evolved from being viewed as a negatively conceived process to now being perceived as an integral part of the teaching profession. Conclusively, TPA, in its current form, is not very effective in facilitating teachers’ professional learning and development, but it has the potential to be more effective if it is conducted as a continuous process rather than as a one-time event every five years.
    • Reviewing the Options for the Agricultural Sector to Adapt to Climate Change: Case Study of the Niagara Region, ON

      Garg, Pulkit
      The agricultural sector of the Niagara Region has experienced multiple impacts of climate change in recent years, which are projected to increase in the future. There is an urgent need to examine available adaptation strategies for Niagara’s agricultural sector, considering its vulnerability to a changing climate and significance for the Region’s economy and food production. Using a scoping review of scientific literature to analyze 4375 articles on two databases, this research has investigated four potential adaptation strategies - i.e. technology-based adaptation, ecosystem-based adaptation, community-based adaptation and policy-based adaptation - that can be used by the agricultural sector. All adaptation strategies were also examined through a social, economic and environmental lens using a SWOT Analysis. Through this statement, this research also highlights its contribution to sustainability science and sustainable development (SDG 2 – Food Security and SDG 13 – Climate Action) as one of the steps towards a more resilient future.
    • The Role of Community Partnerships in the Support of Postsecondary Students From Refugee Contexts

      Simon, Drew
      This qualitative study sought to identify how postsecondary institutions and non-profit organizations can work together to best support the needs of students from refugee contexts, particularly at a time when global refugee migration is high (UNICEF, 2016). A review of literature revealed that refugee and international students may face many challenges when transitioning to a new country and educational environment, and that postsecondary institutions can take steps to help ensure such students’ success. The study took place in two geographical areas in Southern Ontario in close proximity to one another. Fifteen individual interviews were conducted, each lasting an average of approximately 35 minutes, with staff and administrators from postsecondary institutions and non-profit organizations to develop an understanding of the services they have in place to support the needs of students from refugee contexts and what they feel would help them better support this group. Findings indicate that although there is a lack of services specific to students from refugee contexts being offered in the postsecondary sector, many services are offered for newcomers more generally. It was found that there is some collaboration between postsecondary institutions and non-profit organizations in support of newcomers, but there is also a desire for more. Participants in this study shared insights about how they can be supported in their goal to deliver effective programming to newcomers. The study concludes by offering a series of recommendations on how postsecondary institutions can work with non-profit organizations to better support students from refugee contexts.
    • The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Ontario University Educational Policies for International Graduate Students: A Conceptual, Institutional and Auto-Ethnographic Analysis

      Zabin, Rakha
      This study explored the role of emotional intelligence (EI) among international students adjusting to life in different universities in Ontario and the institutional support provided to them to develop their EI. The study included an in-depth review of literature based on different frameworks of cultural adjustments and EI, as well as a comprehensive analysis of the policy documents (e.g., policy management guide or handbook) available online of 3 similar-sized, student-focused, research-based universities in Ontario with significant international programs. The study also includes an auto-ethnographic account of the experiences I dealt with during my university years. I reflected on the hurdles and challenges I experienced in making my social and emotional adjustments here in Ontario. Overall, the data from the conceptual analysis and auto-ethnography afforded a cross-comparison of the 3 university policies and helped me establish a set of recommendations for universities to incorporate multiple components of EI into their international university policies services to develop components like mindfulness, self-regulation, and stress management for the future international graduate students.
    • The role of sport in advancing environmental sustainability: A case study of community-level hockey facilities in Ontario, Canada

      Kelly, Nolan
      Environmental sustainability (ES) in sport represents an emerging area of research that is gaining popularity worldwide. While this is encouraging, the gap between sport and the environment needs to be further explored. This research aimed to address this by interviewing hockey facility managers to understand the barriers and enabling factors of ES, along with the role that community-level arenas play for ES in Ontario. Through qualitative interviews and coding, three themes emerged: 1) the importance of cost savings as a driver of ES decisions in these arena facilities; 2) the importance of political and financial support from the government in achieving ES in these arena facilities; and, 3) the important role community-level hockey facilities play in advancing ES in their communities. The results will assist in advancing ES in arena facilities at the community-level and propel sport closer to realizing the potential ES has to be a driver for change.
    • The Sakawa Boys: A Critique of Policing of Cybercrime in Ghana.

      Akuako, Edward
      Cybercrime, especially cybercrime related to online romance scams has increased exponentially in Ghana (Alhassan & Ridwan, 2021; Baylon & Antwi-Boasiako, 2016). As a result, the government of Ghana has deployed various traditional policing strategies to control this form of crime. However, these traditional policing strategies remain repressive and reactive and are unable to control Sakawa- related activities effectively in the country. This paper draws upon a Human Security framework as a reflective of a non-traditional policing strategy to tackle the root form of this crime which is mainly poverty created by the country’s implementation of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) and neoliberal economics
    • School-Based Mental Health Promotion in Secondary Schools

      Wilson, Nicole
      Abstract This research project explored the potential of school-based peer-led mental health promotion programs as a resource for combating the current state of youth mental health concerns in Canada. The project created a resource titled Secondary School Peer-Led Mental Health Promotion Program: Handbook based on the available literature, current state of youth mental health, and barriers to seeking treatment. Schools provide the opportunity for both formal and informal discussions and opportunities to inform youth on topics surrounding mental health. Albert Bandura’s (1977) Social Learning Theory and its components inform the theoretical approach of the project. The handbook was developed for use by secondary school teachers to implement a peer-led program in their school that could be adapted to the culture of their school community. Current secondary school teachers provided their opinions on the handbook and found that topic to be very relevant to the current concerns in schools. It was recognized by the current teachers that the program would be easily adapted to their school culture in addition to working well alongside various existing programs.
    • A Scoping Review of Teaching Practices for Linguistically Diverse Students in Ontario

      Kittani, Lana
      This study explores the challenges faced by linguistically diverse students and teachers in Ontario, Canada. Current research suggests that it takes 5 to 10 years for English Language Learners (ELLs) to reach the language proficiency of their native English-speaking peers (Goodman & Fine, 2018). During this time, ELLs face many challenges including language loss, difficulties in developing a sense of belonging and inclusion in the school community, and difficulties in negotiating their identity. Likewise, educators face challenges when attempting to tailor assessment and instruction for ELLs. Some of these challenges are present based on educators’ background on literacy development and their understanding of language loss, the need to better understand students’ funds of knowledge to support their sense of belonging, lack of teacher education in ELL instruction to assist students in their identity negotiations and formation, and lack of time and resources to prepare and deliver inclusive instruction. A scoping review was conducted to answer the following research questions: (a) What are the experiences and challenges faced by ELLs and classroom teachers? (b) What high-yield pedagogical approaches can teachers use to support ELLs’ inclusive learning needs? (c) What are the implications for the educational and research community of employing such high-yield pedagogical approaches for teaching ELLs? This review provides specific pedagogical approaches for educators to use within their practice to support ELLs, as well as findings and implications for both the research and educational community. Findings from this review indicate that improvements to teacher education programs are needed to develop teachers’ understanding of ELLs, as well as a close examination of existing policy documents and ways in which they can be updated to reflect Ontario’s growing ELL population.
    • Sea Turtles Living in a Fishbowl: Political Identities and the Returning Trend of Chinese International Students

      Liao, Yuchen
      While American philosopher Martha Nussbaum (2016) claimed that “most of us would not choose to live in a prosperous nation that had ceased to be democratic” (pp. 10−11), more and more Chinese international students have followed an opposite trend recently, returning from democracies to China where political freedom is deteriorating. This project conceives the heterogeneous political identities of Chinese international students as an underlying cause, rather than a directly decisive factor, to understand the increasing proportion of Chinese “sea turtles”—the homonym of “returnees” in Mandarin. I use conceptual, reflective, and argumentative methods, proposing and exploring four different political identities of Chinese international students: party-statist, neoliberal, liberal, and double-dissident. I develop a metaphor of the “fishbowl” to depict Chinese political control and argue that the fishbowl plays a more decisive role than democratic education in constructing Chinese international students’ political identities to pull many of them back to China. My purpose is to provide new insights and critical hope for democratic education, illuminate the complex situation that Chinese international students face, and challenge the China−West binary in order to promote mutual understanding.