• A Narrative Inquiry of Women in Administration: Their Voices Heard

      Stewart, Jennifer (2014-04-29)
      This narrative study examined women’s experiences in leadership positions in an educational setting in Southern Ontario. Semi-structured interviews with 4 women (2 principals and 2 vice principals) revealed 4 key themes: (a) considerations prior to entering into leadership and confidence instilled by others to continue on that path; (b) ongoing challenge of maintaining work−life balance; (c) others’ perceptions of women in leadership positions; and (d) increasing number of women in leadership positions. The researcher used feminist standpoint theory to analyze data collected during interviews, which gave voice to the study’s participants and shed some light on women’s gendered experiences in leadership positions. Findings suggest that historical roots significantly influence society to continue with stereotypical gender roles, though some participants have overcome certain stereotypes. The literature review and participants’ experiences suggest that women have made some progress throughout history yet society needs to remain vigilant while striving for gender equality.
    • Navigating Evidence-Based Practice: A Presentation for Parents and Caregivers

      Barr, Michelle
      Prevalence rates for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically, to the current estimation of 1 in 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014). The overall intention of this project is to develop a workshop for families, and caregivers, which will enhance awareness, the importance of evidence-based practice for individuals with ASD and provide local resources that are available. This project involves a literature review of ASDs, evidence-based practice (EBP) and how it affects both families and caregivers. The literature review attempted to answer the question, what are the most popular evidence-based practices and what are the benefits in parents understanding EBP for children with ASD that are currently being utilized today. The purpose of this project is to assist families and caregivers in making well-informed decisions involving the choice of treatments that will have the most positive impact on their children with ASD.
    • Navigating the Trajectory of Palliative Care Pedagogy Through the Relationship of Patient, Family Members, and Healthcare Professionals

      Nwaesei, Chiedu
      This study explored the challenges experienced by bereaved family members and healthcare professionals (HCPs) at the end-of life in a hospital palliative care setting. The research focused on elderly persons suffering with a life-limiting illness. The study sought to identify common conflicts as well as strategies and helpful tools to negate these challenges from occurring in the future. Strategies and practical tools were introduced in a 2-part workshop (mirroring a flipped classroom approach) designed to assist HCPs in their professional development by providing more clarity through the trajectory of palliative care. A thematic analysis of the literature revealed 4 overarching themes: (a) lack of and ineffective communication (particularly between the bereaved family members and HCPs); (b) delivering effective symptom management for persons with a life-limiting illness; (c) lack of emotional support both for families and HCPs; and (d) feeling unequipped for the care involved during palliative care. The workshop highlighted the importance of effective conversation, establishing a safe and trusting environment, and encouraging consistent discussions that ultimately dictate the care provided in palliative care. The workshop adopted Kolcaba’s theory of comfort as its theoretical framework, which comprised three forms: relief, ease, and transcendence. In addition, the workshop introduced the acronym ADD—advanced care planning, having the discussion, resulting in the delivery of appropriate care unique to the individual with the life-limiting illness—for use as a guideline in HCPs’ practice. Findings of the study can make a positive impact by improving the quality of care during the end-of-life process in palliative care.
    • A Needs Assessment: Language Instruction Stakeholders Engaging in Project Based Learning Outside the Classroom for Effective Strategic Problem Solving

      Soccio, Stephanie A. (2013-05-01)
      Abstract A noted benefit of Project Based Learning (PBL) as a teaching strategy is how it engages the student and enhances learning outcomes as a result of working through challenges intended to depict dilemmas outside the classroom. PBL has seldom been applied outside the parameters of the classroom curriculum. The current needs assessment carried out in this research project examined current practices of language instruction and International Administrative Professionals of both the private and public Language Industry. Participants responded to survey questions on their current administrative practices, strategies, and program characteristics. The study investigated the usefulness of a handbook on the procedure of assisting administrative service teams in language instruction settings to an engaged approach to PBL for student service issues. The diverse opinions, beliefs, and ideas, along with institutional policy, can provide beneficial framework ideas for future tools.
    • Negotiating Education 'Inside and Out': A Feminist Analysis of Educational Programming for Previously Incarcerated Women in Canada

      Sitnik, Valentina
      In this Major Research Paper (MRP), I report on findings from a literature review I conducted on educational programs available to women who have been incarcerated in Ontario, Canada. I use a feminist lens to analyze literature and program documents to understand the educational opportunities available to women who are facing the challenge of reintegration into communities, after incarceration. Specifically, I examine transitional programs offered by Correctional Services Canada, the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services (Ontario), and other key prison programs. I also review various programs offered to women upon release, through the John Howard Society (Ontario), The Elizabeth Fry Society (Ontario), the Walls to Bridges Program (Ontario), the Canadian Family Correctional Network, and the Ontario Halfway Housing Association. In this review, I explore the processes of stigmatization and criminalization that inform women’s educational programming opportunities. I also highlight various gendered challenges and barriers that influence women’s access to, and experience of, educational programming post-release. My goal is to identify the state of existing educational programs for women who have been previously incarcerated and to generate discussion for future program development.
    • Neuroscience, Health, and Well-being: A Podcast Series for Adolescents

      Lachance, Sarah Elizabeth
      This research project explored brain-based topics as they related to adolescents including diet, exercise, memory, sleep, emotions, and structures and functions of the brain. Research into these topics was used to develop a six-part mini-series of podcasts, which utilized analogical reasoning and scientific explanation, targeted at teenage audiences. The goal of the project was to develop a resource that would modify adolescent thinking on these topics. Cognitive behavioural theory suggests that how we think about the world affects our behaviors (Kelly, Melnyck, & Jacobson, 2011). Therefore, the goal of this study is that listening to the developed podcast, titled Teen Brain, may influence adolescent choices. Three Ontario Certified Teachers, who are personal acquaintances of the author, evaluated the product. Evaluators found that the product was appealing and affective for teenage audiences, and believed that it could have the potential to be valuable or even life-changing for a range of audiences.
    • An Ontario-Developed Online Special Education Teacher Course Model for China

      GAO, HEKUN (2013-10-01)
      This study investigated the effectiveness of an Ontario-developed online Special Education teacher training course as a model for in-service teacher professional development in China. The study employed a mixed method approach encompassing both a quantitative survey and a qualitative research component to gather perceptions of Chinese and Canadian teachers, educational administrators, and teacher-educators who have intensive experience with online education, Special Education, and teacher preparation programs both in China and Canada. The study revealed insufficient understanding of Special Education among the general Chinese population, underdevelopment of Special Education teacher preparation in China, and potential benefits of using a Canadian online teacher training course as a model for Special Education in China. Based on the literature review and the results of this study, it is concluded that online Canadian Special Education teacher in-service courses can set an example for Chinese Special Education teacher training. A caveat is that such courses would require localized modifications, support of educational authorities, and pilot testing.
    • Ontology of Language and the Impact on Transformative Learning Materials in Adult Training.

      Garcia Vega, Cecilia
      This study examined three disciplines; Ontology of Language (OoL), Human Resources Development (HRD), and Transformative Learning Theories. The purpose was to find connections between the three topics in the Adult Learning process and develop a Handbook for facilitators containing tools to deliver high-quality experiences by designing competitive spaces equipped for adult learning. The other primary purpose was to share with English speakers the knowledge on the OoL that has been developed in Spanish. This Philosophy has been a powerful tool that assists people to transform learning experiences and promote a lasting change in behaviors, perspectives, and ideas, encouraging critical reflection in every dimension of a person’s life. By reading and following suggestions in the fore mentioned Handbook, the practice of teaching becomes an active exchange of conversations, reflections, and feedback that leads to environments where the learner and facilitator find transformation and growth. The adult education field can also use Ontology of Language to enrich the quality and deepness of discussions held in classrooms to ensure students are transforming their views about the world and themselves as leading participants of their learning process.
    • Oral French Communication in French Immersion Canadian and World Studies Classrooms: A Primer for Educators

      Salvas, Kristen S.
      This project presents a primer for secondary French Immersion teachers that facilitates the use of French oral communicative activities in secondary Canadian and World Studies courses. The primer supports collaborative and inclusive teaching strategies that invite students to speak and develop their oral French communication skills. The primer is divided into 2 main components: (a) Rationale for the Primer, and (b) the Strategies themselves, comprising succinct descriptions as well as potential uses and suggestions. A critical content analysis of various Ontario Ministry of Education documents was undertaken in order to explore the importance of oral communication in second-language learning in Ontario secondary schools. Furthermore, holistic and invitational education perspectives were examined in order to define the advantages of collaborative learning. Moreover, research in the stream of French Immersion studies was also referenced to frame the relevance of second-language learning and the significant role the French Immersion teacher plays. The aforementioned research contributes to the advancement of theory and practice regarding the importance of opportunities for oral French communication in secondary Canadian and World Studies courses.
    • Parental Engagement in Leadership at School: A Function of Community

      Heemskerk, Jason
      This qualitative study sought to explore the impact on parental engagement with schools when parents have the leadership positions in a school. A review of the literature revealed that parental engagement is considered important by many as a means of improving student achievement. The parental engagement that takes place in most schools is something that schools actively promote through various additional programs, such as administrators visiting parents in the community, or special after school programs that parents may attend. These programs were often spearheaded by one or more individuals from the school, and they were often controlled by the school and parents were asked to opt in. Most of the studies conducted took place in publicly funded schools, but little has been done to understand parental engagement with their children’s education in private schools. Private schools in Ontario provide a unique opportunity to study the choices parents make for their children’s education, and how, once they have made that choice it affects their engagement with the children in the school. Two private Christian schools located in southern Ontario and affiliated with the Canadian Reformed Church Federation, participated in this study. One was an elementary school and the other was a high school. Nine people participated in the interviews, which were between 40 and 65 minutes each. Seven participants were parents, and two were Principals. They were asked questions about parental leadership in the school and the impact it has on parental engagement with their children’s education. Findings show that the parents involved in leadership are highly engaged with the school. They also show the importance belonging to a well-defined community when it comes to running and supporting a parent-run school.
    • Parents of the Gifted in Ontario: An Investigation of Parental Satisfaction with the Education of their Gifted Children

      Bernat, Ethna (2014-04-11)
      The opinions of parents in relation to the education of their gifted child were examined, with particular attention paid to their satisfaction and the type and amount of programming their child is receiving. This study employed a mixed methods research design that focused on parents’ experiences with gifted education programming and their perceptions and level of satisfaction with these programs. A survey was used to gather the perceptions and opinions of parents of gifted children in Ontario. The data were quantified and used to make observations in relation to differences in parental satisfaction and to provide a more thorough understanding of the experiences of parents in Ontario in regards to the education of gifted children. Information was also gathered regarding the recommendations that parents have for the improvement of education for their gifted child. The results of the study found that parents of gifted children were satisfied with the connections their child made within a gifted placement with like-minded peers and with opportunities for their children to learn in a more individualized and in-depth manner. However, parents expressed dissatisfaction with the timing of the initial gifted identification and the lack of knowledge that teachers, in both regular and specialized classrooms, have about gifted children and the types of programming best suited to these children. The results of the study also showed parental dissatisfaction with the lack of funding allocated to gifted education programs by district school boards and the lack of involvement they were allowed with respect to the education of their child.
    • Part-Time Pedagogy?: Examining the Role of Occasional Teachers in Ontario's Classrooms

      Agostinelli, Gianluca
      This study examines the peripherality and precarity of occasional teaching, and explores how the instructional practice of daily substitute teachers in Ontario can be made more meaningful for both themselves and their students. Using an autoethnographic approach informed by my own experiences as an Occasional Teacher (OT), I consider, critically, the ongoing challenges and issues that impede OTs at both the elementary and secondary levels from belonging to a school's culture, and from perceiving their work as enriching and rewarding. Since the number of and demand for OTs in Ontario continue to rise steadily, this Major Research Project (MRP) helps to provide current and prospective OTs with a contemporary perspective from an active member in the teaching profession. While most of the literature on occasional teaching centers on classroom management—in itself, a fundamental component to successful instruction—such an established and rigid focus, I contend, precludes the prospect of considering if and how OTs can shape and apply efficacious pedagogies in the classroom. Working with theories from the fields of legitimate peripheral participation and critical pedagogy, I present, herein, some of the prominent issues that affect both the practice and personal positionality of OTs. More importantly, I offer suggestions, through a series of self-reflexive vignettes, about how substitute teachers can, precisely because of their marginality, perceive their nomadism as an advantageous source of opportunity that affords increased possibility for the construction and dissemination of knowledge, which ultimately contributes toward participatory, liberatory learning and the democratization of the classroom. What this project seeks to express, therefore, is that educators cannot afford to let critical pedagogy be an occasional effort.
    • Perceptions and Strategies for Developing Social Competence in Children With ASD and Down Syndrome

      Nakajima, Sayaka
      This qualitative research project sought to explore discrepancies between research-informed ideal strategies recommended by resource teachers (RTs) and actual strategies used by early childhood educators (ECEs) in a classroom in the Niagara region in Ontario. The exploratory research involved semi-structured individual interviews with 3 RTs and 1 ECE from the Niagara region childcare centres and organizations who participated in semi-structured individual interviews. This study identified strategies recommended by RTs and ECEs to improve social competency in children with ASD and Down syndrome. The finding of this study revealed that although the RTs’ recommended strategies were very similar to research-informed strategies found in the literature, the ECEs’ strategies differed from the ideal strategies. Some of the reasons reported by the ECEs as to why they used different strategies included teacher–child ratio, lack of professional training, and lack of relevant courses taken in college. Although it is essential that children with ASD and children with Down syndrome work on their peerrelationship skills (as it is their major impairment), it is equally important to address joint attention, communication, and emotion recognition skills, and to learn to follow classroom rules and a routine in order for school readiness. Developing these skills in early childhood is closely related to developing peer-relationship skills later on.
    • A Phenomenologically Sensitized Analysis of Images Depicting Stressed Embodiment in an Adolescent Male with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

      Boyd, Chris (2014-12-18)
      Each person with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comes with unique characteristics (idiosyncratic) that give clues to the world they know (Connolly, 2008). It is through their body that they (a) know the world they are experiencing, (b) make meaning, and (c) express certain behaviours. I used Laban’s Movement Analysis (LMA) to practice an attuned and appreciative approach to describing and understanding the body movement in one severe manifestation of autism in an adolescent male. LMA observes human movement across many disciplines and can be applied in many contexts providing a body honoring discourse for description (Connolly, 2008). The framework examines movement in body, space, quality, and relation. Each theme provides a detailed description of the individual’s movement, thus, giving us a richer understanding of patterns and possible triggers to self-injurious behaviours (SIB). During the summer of August 2013, I participated in Brock University’s annual Autism Camp and worked with a 15 year old male named “Aaron” who manifests with low functioning autism. The purpose of my research project was to code and analyze a series of photos taken to help gain insight into movement patterns associated with stressed embodiment and self-injury in “Aaron”. As I understood more about these embodied expressions, I uncovered valuable information on how to read patterns and discover what triggers these events, thus providing strategies on how to help people do more refined observations and make meaning of the behaviour. Laban’s movement analysis provided a sensitized discourse appropriate to the embodied expressions depicted in the photos.
    • Playbuilding for Environmental Literacy: A Guidebook Resource for Secondary Educators

      Taylor, Monica Lyne
      This MRP presents a guidebook resource for secondary educators who wish to use the method of Playbuilding (PB) in the classroom to investigate the environmental literacy (EL) of their students. EL is a set of skills that enables people to read, write, and interpret information and opinions about the environment and translate them into personal, contextual meaning that impacts people’s ability to take action and agency with environmental issues in their lives. This research project first presents a literature review of all relevant PB and EL research and resources for secondary educators. Then, this study collects and analyses data to inform a new Ontario-based resource for using PB to explore EL that includes the planning, facilitating, and evaluating components of implementing a learning lesson with secondary students.
    • Popular Pedagogy in Canadian Television: A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Trailer Park Boys

      Haddow, Andrew
      This major research paper studied the representations of masculinity in the Canadian television program Trailer Park Boys from the perspective of public pedagogy and education. Motivated by a desire to expose how patriarchal discourses are learned through everyday practices and texts, a methodology of feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was formulated. Trailer Park Boys is a long-running mockumentary series set in a fictional trailer park near Halifax, Nova Scotia. It focuses on a cast of male characters with exaggerated personalities, and is satirical in tone. Prior to the main analysis of this paper, a collection of relevant literature was conducted and an opportunity to address a lack of gender-focused studies of Canadian television, including Trailer Park Boys, was noted. This study used the feminist CDA method to analyze what masculinities were reinforced as normal or abnormal in Seasons 3 and 9 of the program, based on the understanding that popular culture is a site of everyday learning. After the data was collected episode-by-episode, it became apparent that the themes of family, authority, and sexuality were helpful in understanding what relationship Trailer Park Boys had with traditional representations of heteronormative masculinity. It was found that despite the presence of some non-traditional forms of masculinity, the show ultimately reproduced stereotypical, and often harmful, discourses of masculinity. A final explanation of the connection between the results of the study and Canadian pedagogy and everyday learning was offered, and directions for future research were identified.
    • Post Post-Trip Follow-Up With Postsecondary Students After Short-Term Study Abroad: Transformational Learning and International Experiential Education

      Bright, Devin
      Postsecondary students are increasingly participating in short-term study-abroad experiences organized by educational institutions in Canada. There are relatively fewer long-term studies of participants from a variety of international contexts after they have returned home for a year or more. From the view of transformative learning theory, this study investigated if/how the passage of time allows people to reflect on the personal impact of these experiences and if/how other factors that require more time (e.g., subsequent experiences, further education) influence such change. Drawing from one-on-one interviews with 8 participants, this study found that a short-term experience abroad can be the necessarily disorienting experience needed to initiate a transformative trajectory. Experiences during and post-travel that provide evidence of transformative learning are discussed. This research is intended to serve as a guide for those interested in social justice oriented outcomes for their students through international experiential education.
    • Poverty and Education: Preparing Teacher Candidates for Economically Diverse Classroom Environments

      Robinson, Nicole (2013-04-25)
      The poverty rate in Ontario affects approximately 1 in 6 children. Consequently, many classrooms in the province include students who come from poverty, and teachers are faced with the challenge of providing an equitable education to students who come from economically diverse backgrounds. Because student poverty in our education system is so prevalent, this challenge exists also for teacher candidates who enter the education system and complete their practicums in classrooms that often include students from impoverished backgrounds. This project examined issues of poverty and education and developed a workshop to assist teacher candidates to develop knowledge in this area. The project combined existing pedagogical approaches with participants’ recommendations and developed a workshop that could be delivered to Faculty of Education students. The workshop addresses poverty, the relationship between poverty and education, student academic achievement and well-being, and the relationship between school and home. The goal and hope of the workshop is that teacher candidates will be better prepared when working in economically diverse school environments.
    • Private Coaching Centres in India: A Document Analysis of JEE-Advanced Preparation Centres on the Lives of Students in Kota

      Kaur, Gurbinder
      Gone are the days when tuition or coaching classes were meant for academically weak students. With the Economic Reforms of 1991 (ER91), the Indian education system went through a series of changes, the most prominent being the growth of private educational institutions across the country. This led to creation of a billion-dollar coaching industry in India. Due to the ease of setting up private institutions and the absence of any regulatory body to vouch for them, the private institutions became immensely commercialized. The purpose of this study is to investigate the organizational structure of such coaching centres and analyze the various aspects of the organizational framework within which they operate. As the coaching industry is widespread, the study focuses on one of the popular coaching sectors that prepares aspiring engineers for the national level JEE- Advanced examination in a small town (Kota, in the northern state of Rajasthan) that has garnered a significant reputation as the coaching capital of the country.
    • Producing Strong and Effective Writers Using the Peer Feedback Process

      Stayzer, Danielle
      The peer feedback process is an effective and engaging literacy activity used to support student writers learning from each other. This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the potential impact of the peer feedback process on students providing the feedback. The study focused on peer feedback’s impact on reviewers’ development of stronger writing skills. Research questions included: How does peer reviewers’ training on the peer review process for writing impact their writing skills? How does such training impact their ability to be effective peer reviewers? How does the experience as peer reviewers impact reviewers’ own writing skills? Communicating with the research participants over a 3-month period provided opportunities for them to reflect upon their experience as peer reviewers and offered insights about the impacts it had on their development as writers. Data collection methods included a student questionnaire, a focus group, and an in-depth interview, all of which encouraged students to offer detailed thoughts and ideas. Additionally, the researcher kept a journal of thoughts, questions, and ideas that contributed to the understanding of the student data. Data analysis revealed that training provided reviewers with foundational skills and knowledge that helped prepare them to be more effective reviewers and was useful when applied to their own writing process. Findings also revealed the experience of reviewing helped reviewers develop critical thinking, analysis, and synthesizing skills that assisted their own development as writers. Over time, student reviewers began to internalize the lessons they were teaching to their peers and apply them to their own writing, acting as an expert and providing support to their own process. Implications for practice are also discussed.