• Acute exercise and brain BACE1 protein content: a time course study

      Yang, Alex J.; Hayward, Grant C.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (American Physiological Society, 2019-04-08)
      Obesity and insulin resistance are risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Previous work suggests that one acute bout of exercise may have beneficial neuro-protective effects in obese mice. The rate limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-beta peptides, BACE1, was reduced in the prefrontal cortex 2 h post-exercise, however if these effects remain over time is unknown. We aimed to determine how long exercise–induced alterations persist in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus following a single exercise bout. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low (LFD, 10% kcals from lard) or a high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcals from lard) for 7 weeks. HFD mice then underwent an acute bout of treadmill running (15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by 2-, 8-, or 24-h of recovery. The HFD increased body mass (LFD 27.8 1.05 vs. HFD 41.7 0.60 g; P < 0.05) and glucose intolerance (AUC LFD 63.27 4.5 vs. HFD 128.9 4.6; P < 0.05). Prefrontal cortex BACE1 content was reduced 2- and 8-h post-exercise compared to sedentary HFD mice, however BACE1 protein content at 24 h was not different. Hippocampal BACE1 content was reduced 8- and 24-h post-exercise. Compared to the LFD, the HFD had higher prefrontal cortex phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and AMPK, indicative of increased neuronal stress. Post–exercise prefrontal cortex p38 and JNK phosphorylation were no different between the HFD or LFD groups, while ERK phosphorylation was significantly reduced by 24 h. The HFD increased JNK phosphorylation in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate the direct and potent effects of exercise on reducing BACE1 prefrontal cortex and hippocampal content. However the reduction in prefrontal cortex BACE1 content is short lived.
    • Anticancer Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract and Rosemary Extract Polyphenols

      Moore, Jessy; Yousef, Michael; Tsiani, Evangelia (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2016)
      Cancer cells display enhanced growth rates and a resistance to apoptosis. The ability of cancer cells to evade homeostasis and proliferate uncontrollably while avoiding programmed cell death/apoptosis is acquired through mutations to key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival. Compounds of plant origin, including food components, have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. The exploration into natural products offers great opportunity to evaluate new anticancer agents as well as understand novel and potentially relevant mechanisms of action. Rosemary extract has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. Rosemary extract contains many polyphenols with carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid found in highest concentrations. The present review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the anticancer effects of rosemary extract and the rosemary extract polyphenols carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, and their effects on key signaling molecules.
    • Anticancer Properties of Carnosol: A Summary of In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence

      O’Neill, Eric J.; Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Azizi, Karim; Tsiani, Evangeli (MDPI, 2020)
      Cancer is characterized by unrestricted cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, enhanced invasion and migration, and deregulation of signalling cascades. These properties lead to uncontrolled growth, enhanced survival, and the formation of tumours. Carnosol, a naturally occurring phyto-polyphenol (diterpene) found in rosemary, has been studied for its extensive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. In cancer cells, carnosol has been demonstrated to inhibit cell proliferation and survival, reduce migration and invasion, and significantly enhance apoptosis. These anticancer effects of carnosol are mediated by the inhibition of several signalling molecules including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, carnosol prevents the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and promotes apoptosis, as indicated by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic marker Bcl-2-associated X (BAX), and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo evidence examining the anticancer effects of carnosol across various tissues.
    • Antidiabetic Properties of Naringenin: A Citrus Fruit Polyphenol

      Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2019-03-12)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia and is associated with personal health and global economic burdens. Current strategies/approaches of insulin resistance and T2DM prevention and treatment are lacking in efficacy resulting in the need for new preventative and targeted therapies. In recent years, epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated with health benefits including protection against insulin resistance and T2DM. Naringenin, a citrus flavanone, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, immunomodulatory and antidiabetic properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo animal studies examining the anti-diabetic effects of naringenin
    • The Association of Sleep Disorder, Obesity Status, and Diabetes Mellitus among US Adults—The NHANES 2009-2010 Survey Results

      Liu, Jian; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E. (Hindawi, 2013-06-26)
      To examine the association between sleep disorders, obesity status, and the risk of diabetes in adults, a total of 3668 individuals aged 40+ years fromtheNHANES 2009-2010 withoutmissing information on sleep-related questions,measurements related to diabetes, and BMI were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into three sleep groups based on two sleep questions: (a) no sleep problems; (b) sleep disturbance; and (c) sleep disorder. Diabetes was defined as having one of a diagnosis from a physician; an overnight fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL; Glycohemoglobin > 6.4%; or an oral glucose tolerance test > 199mg/dL. Overall, 19% of subjects were diabetics, 37% were obese, and 32% had either sleep disturbance or sleep disorder. Using multiple logistic regression models adjusting for covariates without including BMI, the odds ratios (OR, (95% CI)) of diabetes were 1.40 (1.06, 1.84) and 2.04 (1.40, 2.95) for those with sleep disturbance and with sleep disorder, respectively. When further adjusting for BMI, the ORs were similar for those with sleep disturbance 1.36 (1.06, 1.73) but greatly attenuated for those with sleep disorders (1.38 [0.95, 2.00]). In conclusion, the impact of sleep disorders on diabetes may be explained through the individuals’ obesity status.
    • Asymmetries of Influence: Differential Effects of Body Postures on Perceptions of Emotional Facial Expressions

      Mondloch, Catherine J. (PLoS, 2013-09-10)
      The accuracy and speed with which emotional facial expressions are identified is influenced by body postures. Two influential models predict that these congruency effects will be largest when the emotion displayed in the face is similar to that displayed in the body: the emotional seed model and the dimensional model. These models differ in whether similarity is based on physical characteristics or underlying dimensions of valence and arousal. Using a 3- alternative forced-choice task in which stimuli were presented briefly (Exp 1a) or for an unlimited time (Exp 1b) we provide evidence that congruency effects are more complex than either model predicts; the effects are asymmetrical and cannot be accounted for by similarity alone. Fearful postures are especially influential when paired with facial expressions, but not when presented in a flanker task (Exp 2). We suggest refinements to each model that may account for our results and suggest that additional studies be conducted prior to drawing strong theoretical conclusions.
    • Azo synthesis meets molecular iodine catalysis

      Rowshanpour, Rozhin; Dudding, Travis (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021)
      A metal-free synthetic protocol for azo compound formation by the direct oxidation of hydrazine HN–NH bonds to azo group functionality catalyzed by molecular iodine is disclosed. The strengths of this reactivity include rapid reaction times, low catalyst loadings, use of ambient dioxygen as a stoichiometric oxidant, and ease of experimental set-up and azo product isolation. Mechanistic studies and density functional theory computations offering insight into this reactivity, as well as the events leading to azo group formation are presented. Collectively, this study expands the potential of main-group element iodine as an inexpensive catalyst, while delivering a useful transformation for forming azo compounds.
    • Calmodulin-Binding Proteins in Muscle: A Minireview on Nuclear Receptor Interacting Protein, Neurogranin, and Growth-Associated Protein 43

      Moradi, Fereshteh; Copeland, Emily N; Baranowski, Ryan W; Scholey, Aiden E; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Fajardo, Val A (MDPI, 2020)
      Calmodulin (CaM) is an important Ca2+-sensing protein with numerous downstream targets that are either CaM-dependant or CaM-regulated. In muscle, CaM-dependent proteins, which are critical regulators of dynamic Ca2+ handling and contractility, include calcineurin (CaN), CaM-dependant kinase II (CaMKII), ryanodine receptor (RyR), and dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR).CaM-regulated targets include genes associated with oxidative metabolism, muscle plasticity, and repair. Despite its importance in muscle, the regulation of CaM—particularly its availability to bind to and activate downstream targets—is an emerging area of research. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies revealing the importance of small IQ motif proteins that bind to CaM to either facilitate (nuclear receptor interacting protein; NRIP) its activation of downstream targets, or sequester (neurogranin, Ng; and growth-associated protein 43, GAP43) CaM away from their downstream targets. Specifically, we discuss recent studies that have begun uncovering the physiological roles of NRIP, Ng, and GAP43 in skeletal and cardiac muscle, thereby highlighting the importance of endogenously expressed CaM-binding proteins and their regulation of CaM in muscle.
    • Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus

      Behie, Scott W.; Moreria, Camila C.; Sementchoukova, Irina; Barelli, Larissa; Zelisko, Paul M.; Bidochka, Michael J. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-12-18)
      Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using 13 CO 2 , we show the incorporation of 13 C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of 13 C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex. We determined the amount of 13 C present in root-associated fungal biomass over a 21-day period by extracting fungal carbohydrates and analysing their composition using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These findings are evidence that the host plant is providing photosynthate to the fungus, likely in exchange for insect-derived nitrogen in a tripartite, and symbiotic, interaction.
    • Changes to the Human Serum Proteome in Response to High Intensity Interval Exercise: A Sequential Top-Down Proteomic Analysis

      Kurgan, Nigel; Noaman, Nour; Pergande, Melissa R.; Cologna, Stephanie M.; Coorssen, Jens R.; Klentrou, Panagiota (Frontiers, 2019-04-02)
      Exercise has been shown to improve health status and prevent chronic diseases. In contrast, overtraining can lead to maladaptation and detrimental health outcomes. These outcomes appear to be mediated in part by released peptides and, potentially, alterations in protein abundances and their modified forms, termed proteoforms. Proteoform biomarkers that either predict the beneficial effects of exercise or indicate (mal)adaptation are yet to be elucidated. Thus, we assessed the influence of highintensity interval exercise (HIIE) on the human serum proteome to identify novel exerciseregulated proteoforms. To this end, a top-down proteomics approach was used, whereby two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and differentially profile intact proteoforms, followed by protein identification via liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. Blood was collected from six young-adult healthy males, pre-exercise and 5 min and 1 h post-exercise. Exercise consisted of a maximal cycle ergometer test followed by 8 min × 1 min high-intensity intervals at 90% Wmax, with 1 min non-active recovery between intervals. Twenty resolved serum proteoforms changed significantly in abundance at 5 min and/or 1 h post-HIIE, including apolipoproteins, serpins (protease inhibitors), and immune system proteins, known to have broad anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, involvement in lipid clearance, and cardio-/neuro-protective effects. This initial screening for potential biomarkers indicates that a top-down analytical proteomic approach may prove useful in further characterizing the response to exercise and in understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to health benefits, as well as identifying novel biomarkers for exercise (mal)adaptation.
    • Cholesterol-Independent Effects of Methyl-b- Cyclodextrin on Chemical Synapses

      Ormerod, Kiel G.; Rogasevskaia, Tatiana P.+-; Coorseen, Jens R.; Mercier, A. Joffre (PLoS, 2012-05-20)
      The cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-b-cyclodextrin (MbCD), alters synaptic function in many systems. At crayfish neuromuscular junctions, MbCD is reported to reduce excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) by impairing impulse propagation to synaptic terminals, and to have no postsynaptic effects. We examined the degree to which physiological effects of MbCD correlate with its ability to reduce cholesterol, and used thermal acclimatization as an alternative method to modify cholesterol levels. MbCD impaired impulse propagation and decreased EJP amplitude by 40% (P,0.05) in preparations from crayfish acclimatized to 14uC but not from those acclimatized to 21uC. The reduction in EJP amplitude in the cold-acclimatized group was associated with a 49% reduction in quantal content (P,0.05). MbCD had no effect on input resistance in muscle fibers but decreased sensitivity to the neurotransmitter L-glutamate in both warm- and coldacclimatized groups. This effect was less pronounced and reversible in the warm-acclimatized group (90% reduction in cold, P,0.05; 50% reduction in warm, P,0.05). MbCD reduced cholesterol in isolated nerve and muscle from cold- and warmacclimatized groups by comparable amounts (nerve: 29% cold, 25% warm; muscle: 20% cold, 18% warm; P,0.05). This effect was reversed by cholesterol loading, but only in the warm-acclimatized group. Thus, effects of MbCD on glutamatesensitivity correlated with its ability to reduce cholesterol, but effects on impulse propagation and resulting EJP amplitude did not. Our results indicate that MbCD can affect both presynaptic and postsynaptic properties, and that some effects of MbCD are unrelated to cholesterol chelation.
    • Cognitive testing of the Colon Cancer Screening Behaviours Survey with South Asian immigrants in Canada

      Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Bierman, Arlene S.; Beaton, Dorcas (Springer, 2017)
      The purpose of this study was to cognitively test the Urdu and English language versions of a survey to assess colon cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in Canada.
    • The colon cancer screening behaviours survey for South Asians: a pilot study of feasibility and psychometric evaluation

      Crawford, Joanne; Morfaw, Frederick; Ahmad, Farah; Thabane, Lehana; Frisina, Angela (Springer Open, 2020)
      The purpose of the study was to pilot test the English and Urdu version of the Colon Cancer Screening Behaviours Survey among South Asians in Canada. The first objective was to evaluate feasibility of administration, data collection using computer assisted personal interviewing software on a tablet, and response burden. The second objective was to examine the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening among South Asians and evaluate the psychometric properties of sub-scales in the survey. Purposive, network and snowball sampling were used to recruit participants for this cross-sectional study. Interviewer-led administration of the Colon Cancer Screening Behaviours Survey was conducted across two cities in Ontario, Canada. Qualitative data analysis assessed feasibility; and sub-scales were evaluated through principal component analysis, item-scale correlations, and construct validity using multiple linear and logistic regression. A total of 328 South Asians participated, 47% Urdu speaking, and 53% English speaking. There was a 23% refusal rate to participate. Feasibility identified: (1) successful recruitment despite reasons for refusal; (2) problematic items and response categories; and (3) computer/tablet limitations. Principal component analysis identified 14 components that explained 68.7% of total variance; 34 items were retained after factor analysis. Internal consistency of 4 scales ranged from 0.79-0.91. There were significant differences in perceived barriers scale scores (- 12.21; 95% CI, - 17.13 to - 7.28; p <  0.0001) between those who participated and those who did not participate in screening. No association was found with years of residence and uptake of screening after adjustment (OR 0.91 (0.46-1.79), p = 0.783). Recruitment and data collection methods are feasible among South Asians if functionality of the tablet selected is improved. The Colon Cancer Screening Behaviours Survey was finalized and retained items in sub-scales demonstrated good psychometric properties to assess behaviours for colon cancer screening among South Asians in Canada. The interviewer-led survey may be used by public health, cancer care or other health practitioners to describe or predict colorectal cancer screening behaviours among South Asians in similar settings or adapted and tested in other contexts.
    • Development and application of assay for determining β-glucosidase activity in human saliva

      Stradwick, Lauren; Inglis, Debbie; Kelly, Jennifer; Pickering, Gary (BioMed Central, 2017)
      β-glucosidase is an enzyme important to flavour enhancement. It hydrolyzes glucosides to release aglycones—aroma precursors that are bound to a sugar molecule—thereby making them available to contribute to the flavour of foods and beverages. While there is strong interest within the food and beverage industry to optimizing flavour through the use of exogenous and endogenous glucosidase in production, little is known regarding the possible occurrence of these enzymes within the human oral cavity. This could be an important source of flavour release and/or account for some differences between individuals in flavour perception. In the present study, we determined whether β-glucosidase is present in human saliva. First, an existing spectrophotometric assay that uses p-nitrophenyl-β-O- D -glucopyranoside as a substrate was modified and optimized for use in human saliva. The following variables were evaluated and where necessary, optimized: linearity of the assay signal, possible matrix interference, the effect of heat inactivation of the saliva, absorbance wavelength maxima, substrate saturation concentration, maximum saliva volume and the inclusion of α-cyclodextrin. The modified assay was then used to screen for β-glucosidase activity in the saliva of 20 individuals. Of the 20 samples analyzed, four were tentatively identified as containing active β-glucosidase and were further investigated.
    • Dietary Strategies to Optimize Wound Healing after Periodontal and Dental Implant Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review

      Lau, Beatrice Y.; Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E. (Bentham Science Publishers, 2013-04-05)
      Methods to optimize healing through dietary strategies present an attractive option for patients, such that healing from delicate oral surgeries occurs as optimally as possible with minimal patient-meditated complications through improper food choices. This review discusses findings from studies that have investigated the role of diet, either whole foods or individual dietary components, on periodontal health and their potential role in wound healing after periodontal surgery. To date, research in this area has largely focused on foods or individual dietary components that may attenuate inflammation or oxidant stress, or foster de novo bone formation. These studies suggest that a wide variety of dietary components, including macronutrients and micronutrients, are integral for optimal periodontal health and have the potential to accelerate oral wound healing after periodontal procedures. Moreover, this review provides guidance regarding dietary considerations that may help a patient achieve the best possible outcome after a periodontal procedure.
    • Discourses of Masculinity and Femininity in The Hunger Games: "Scarred," "Bloody," and "Stunning"

      Woloshyn, Vera; Taber, Nancy; Lane, Laura (RedFame Publishing, 2013-02-28)
      This article explores how characters in The Hunger Games trilogy are portrayed relative to Connell's gendered discourses of hegemonic masculinity, marginal masculinity, and emphasized femininity. We briefly review the plot of The Hunger Games trilogy and then discuss the ways in which three of the characters are represented with respect to societal gendered discourses, heteronormativity, and the use of violence. We argue that the ways in which these aspects are portrayed relate to the main characters' performance of discourses of hegemonic masculinity (Gale), marginalized masculinity (Peeta), and a complex amalgamation of the two that also draws somewhat on emphasized femininity (Katniss). Finally, we conclude that, while the trilogy could be read as taking a feminist stance with a strong female protagonist, it nonetheless also constrains Katniss in heteronormative ways.
    • Does bracing affect bone health in women with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

      Akseer, Nasreen; Kish, Kimberly; Rigby, W Alan; Greenway, Matthew; Klentrou, Panagiota; Wilson, Philip M; Falk, Bareket (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Purpose: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is often associated with low bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD). Bracing, used to manage spine curvature, may interfere with the growth-related BMC accrual, resulting in reduced bone strength into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of brace treatment on BMC in adult women, diagnosed with AIS and braced in early adolescence. Methods: Participants included women with AIS who: (i) underwent brace treatment (AIS-B, n = 15, 25.6 ± 5.8 yrs), (ii) underwent no treatment (AIS, n = 15, 24.0 ± 4.0 yrs), and (iii) a healthy comparison group (CON, n = 19, 23.5 ± 3.8 yrs). BMC and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Differences between groups were examined using a oneway ANOVA or ANCOVA, as appropriate. Results: AIS-B underwent brace treatment 27.9 ± 21.6 months, for 18.0 ± 5.4 h/d. Femoral neck BMC was lower (p = 0.06) in AIS-B (4.54 ± 0.10 g) compared with AIS (4.89 ± 0.61 g) and CON (5.07 ± 0.58 g). Controlling for lean body mass, calcium and vitamin D daily intake, and strenuous physical activity, femoral neck BMC was statistically different (p = 0.02) between groups. A similar pattern was observed at other lower extremity sites (p < 0.05), but not in the spine or upper extremities. BMC and BMD did not correlate with duration of brace treatment, duration of daily brace wear, or overall physical activity. Conclusion: Young women with AIS, especially those who were treated with a brace, have significantly lower BMC in their lower limbs compared to women without AIS. However, the lack of a relationship between brace treatment duration during adolescence and BMC during young adulthood, suggests that the brace treatment is not the likely mechanism of the low BMC.
    • The Effect of Different Phases of Synchrony on Pain Threshold in a Drumming Task

      Sullivan, Philip; Blacker, Mishka (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2017-06-22)
      Behavioral synchrony has been linked to endorphin activity (Cohen et al., 2010; Sullivan and Rickers, 2013; Sullivan et al., 2014; Tarr et al., 2015, 2016; Weinstein et al., 2016). This has been called the synchrony effect. Synchrony has two dominant phases of movement; in-phase and anti-phase. The majority of research investigating synchrony’s effect on endorphin activity has focused on in-phase synchrony following vigorous activities. The only research to investigate the effects of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity found that anti-phase synchronized rowing did not produce the synchrony effect (Sullivan et al., 2014). Anti-phase synchrony, however, is counterintuitive to the sport of rowing and may have interfered with the synchrony effect. This study investigated the effect of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity in a different task (i.e., drumming). University students (n D 30) were asked to drum solo and in in-phase and anti-phase pairs for 3 min. Pain threshold was assessed as an indirect indicator of endorphin activity prior to and following the task. Although the in-phase synchrony effect was not found, a repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a significant difference in pain threshold change among the three conditions [F(2,24) D 4.10, ! N2 D 0.255, p < 0.05). Post hoc t-tests showed that the anti-phase condition had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions at p < 0.05. This is the first time that anti-phase synchrony has been shown to produce the synchrony effect. Because anti-phase drumming may have required more attention between partners than in-phase synchrony, it may have affected self-other merging (Tarr et al., 2014). These results support Tarr et al.’s (2014) model that multiple mechanisms account for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold, and suggest that different characteristics of the activity may influence the synchrony effect.
    • Effects of Dairy Consumption on Body Composition and Bone Properties in Youth: A Systematic Review

      Kouvelioti, Rozalia; Josse, Andrea R; Klentrou, Panagiota (American Society for Nutrition, 2017-10-11)
      Background: According to previous reviews, there is no clear evidence on the effects of dairy consumption on body composition and bone properties in pediatric populations. There is a need for further assessment of existing findings and the methodologic quality of studies before summarizing the evidence. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the quality, methodologies, and substantive findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of dairy consumption on body size, body composition, and bone properties in children and adolescents. Methods: After searching PubMed and Google Scholar up to December 2016, 15 RCTs were retained and included in this systematic review for further analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed via the Jadad scale; detailed methodologic and statistical characteristics were evaluated, and the main findings were summarized. Results: The effects of dairy consumption were found to be significant for bone structure and nonsignificant for body size and composition. Eight of the 11 RCTs that assessed bone found significant effects (P , 0.05) for bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), with an average 8% increase in BMD after 16 mo of dairy consumption. Conversely, significant effects (P , 0.05) were found only in 2 of the 14 RCTs that focused on body size (i.e., height and weight) and in only 1 of the 11 RCTs that focused on body composition (i.e., lean mass). Conclusions: The systematic consumption of dairy products may benefit bone structure and development, but it does not appear to affect body composition or body size in children and adolescents. On the basis of the Jadad scale, the methodologic quality of the 15 RCTs was rated as good overall. However, there were methodologic disparities and limitations that may have led to nonsignificant results, particularly for body size and composition. Future RCTs designed to address these limitations are warranted.
    • Electrophysiological correlates of the fexible allocation of visual working memory resources

      Salahub, Christine; Lockhart, Holly A; Dube, Blaire; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-19)
      Visual working memory is a brief, capacity-limited store of visual information that is involved in a large number of cognitive functions. To guide one’s behavior effectively, one must efficiently allocate these limited memory resources across memory items. Previous research has suggested that items are either stored in memory or completely blocked from memory access. However, recent behavioral work proposes that memory resources can be flexibly split across items based on their level of task importance. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of flexible resource allocation by manipulating the distribution of resources amongst systematically lateralized memory items. We examined the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a waveform typically associated with the number of items held in memory. Across three experiments, we found that, in addition to memory load, the CDA flexibly tracks memory resource allocation. This allocation occurred as early as attentional selection, as indicated by the N2pc. Additionally, CDA amplitude was better-described when fit with a continuous model predicted by load and resources together than when fit with either alone. Our findings show that electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and memory maintenance not only track memory load, but also the proportion of memory resources those items receive.