• Some Travelling Wave Solutions of KdV-Burgers Equation

      Rab, Md Abdur; Mia, Abdus Sattar; Akter, Tania (Hikari Ltd, 2012)
      In this paper we study the extended Tanh method to obtain some exact solutions of KdV-Burgers equation. The principle of the Tanh method has been explained and then apply to the nonlinear KdV- Burgers evolution equation. A finnite power series in tanh is considered as an ansatz and the symbolic computational system is used to obtain solution of that nonlinear evolution equation. The obtained solutions are all travelling wave solutions.
    • Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

      Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carre, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M. (PloS, 2012-01-20)
      The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers’ judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers’ judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36= 7.43, p= 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as ‘‘honest signals’’.
    • Priming the Governance System for Climate Change Adaptation: The Application of a Social Ecological Inventory (SEI) to Engage Actors in Niagara, Canada

      Pickering, Kerrie; Baird, Julia; Plummer, Ryan (2012-03)
      Adaptive systems of governance are increasingly gaining attention in respect to complex and uncertain social-ecological systems. Adaptive co-management is one strategy to make adaptive governance operational and holds promise with respect to community climate change adaptation as it facilitates participation and learning across scales and fosters adaptive capacity and resilience. Developing tools which hasten the realization of such approaches are growing in importance. This paper describes explores the Social Ecological Inventory (SEI) as a tool to 'prime' a regional climate change adaptation network. The SEI tool draws upon the social-ecological systems approach in which social and ecological systems are considered linked. SEIs bridge the gap between conventional stakeholder analysis and biological inventories and take place through a six phase process. A case study describes the results of applying an SEI to prime an adaptive governance network for climate change adaptation in the Niagara Region of Canada. Lessons learned from the case study are discussed and highlight how the SEI catalyzed the adaptive co-management process in the case. Future avenues for SEIs in relation to climate change adaptation emerge from this exploratory work and offer opportunities to inform research and adaptation planning.
    • UNESCO Biosphere Reserves Towards Common Intellectual Ground

      Michell, Richard C.; May, Bradley; Purdy, Samantha; Vella, Crystal (InTech, 2012-03-14)
    • Larval habitat associations with human land uses, roads, rivers, and land cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in coastal and highland Ecuador

      Pinault, Lauren L.; Hunter, Fiona F. (Frontiers, 2012-03-20)
      Larval habitat for three highland Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (banana, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category “closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests” than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat’s abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in highland regions of the Andes.
    • Transposable Elements Are a Significant Contributor to Tandem Repeats in the Human Genome

      Liang, Ping; Ahmed, Musaddeque (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2012-04-11)
      Sequence repeats are an important phenomenon in the human genome, playing important roles in genomic alteration often with phenotypic consequences. The two major types of repeat elements in the human genome are tandem repeats (TRs) including microsatellites, minisatellites, and satellites and transposable elements (TEs). So far, very little has been known about the relationship between these two types of repeats. In this study, we identified TRs that are derived from TEs either based on sequence similarity or overlapping genomic positions. We then analyzed the distribution of these TRs among TE families/subfamilies. Our study shows that at least 7,276 TRs or 23% of all minisatellites/satellites is derived from TEs, contributing ∼0.32% of the human genome. TRs seem to be generated more likely from younger/more active TEs, and once initiated they are expanded with time via local duplication of the repeat units. The currently postulated mechanisms for origin of TRs can explain only 6% of all TE-derived TRs, indicating the presence of one or more yet to be identified mechanisms for the initiation of such repeats. Our result suggests that TEs are contributing to genome expansion and alteration not only by transposition but also by generating tandem repeats.
    • Cholesterol-Independent Effects of Methyl-b- Cyclodextrin on Chemical Synapses

      Ormerod, Kiel G.; Rogasevskaia, Tatiana P.+-; Coorseen, Jens R.; Mercier, A. Joffre (PLoS, 2012-05-20)
      The cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-b-cyclodextrin (MbCD), alters synaptic function in many systems. At crayfish neuromuscular junctions, MbCD is reported to reduce excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) by impairing impulse propagation to synaptic terminals, and to have no postsynaptic effects. We examined the degree to which physiological effects of MbCD correlate with its ability to reduce cholesterol, and used thermal acclimatization as an alternative method to modify cholesterol levels. MbCD impaired impulse propagation and decreased EJP amplitude by 40% (P,0.05) in preparations from crayfish acclimatized to 14uC but not from those acclimatized to 21uC. The reduction in EJP amplitude in the cold-acclimatized group was associated with a 49% reduction in quantal content (P,0.05). MbCD had no effect on input resistance in muscle fibers but decreased sensitivity to the neurotransmitter L-glutamate in both warm- and coldacclimatized groups. This effect was less pronounced and reversible in the warm-acclimatized group (90% reduction in cold, P,0.05; 50% reduction in warm, P,0.05). MbCD reduced cholesterol in isolated nerve and muscle from cold- and warmacclimatized groups by comparable amounts (nerve: 29% cold, 25% warm; muscle: 20% cold, 18% warm; P,0.05). This effect was reversed by cholesterol loading, but only in the warm-acclimatized group. Thus, effects of MbCD on glutamatesensitivity correlated with its ability to reduce cholesterol, but effects on impulse propagation and resulting EJP amplitude did not. Our results indicate that MbCD can affect both presynaptic and postsynaptic properties, and that some effects of MbCD are unrelated to cholesterol chelation.
    • Discourses of Masculinity and Femininity in The Hunger Games: "Scarred," "Bloody," and "Stunning"

      Woloshyn, Vera; Taber, Nancy; Lane, Laura (RedFame Publishing, 2013-02-28)
      This article explores how characters in The Hunger Games trilogy are portrayed relative to Connell's gendered discourses of hegemonic masculinity, marginal masculinity, and emphasized femininity. We briefly review the plot of The Hunger Games trilogy and then discuss the ways in which three of the characters are represented with respect to societal gendered discourses, heteronormativity, and the use of violence. We argue that the ways in which these aspects are portrayed relate to the main characters' performance of discourses of hegemonic masculinity (Gale), marginalized masculinity (Peeta), and a complex amalgamation of the two that also draws somewhat on emphasized femininity (Katniss). Finally, we conclude that, while the trilogy could be read as taking a feminist stance with a strong female protagonist, it nonetheless also constrains Katniss in heteronormative ways.
    • Variability in the Insect and Plant Adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the Fungal Genus Metarhizium Suggest Plant Adaptation as an Evolutionary Force

      Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael (PLoS, 2013-03-13)
      Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1a, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 59 EF-1a than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.
    • Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior: A Latent Class Analysis among Young Adults

      Hamza, Chloe E.; Willoughby, Teena (PLoS, 2013-03-27)
      Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior.
    • Dietary Strategies to Optimize Wound Healing after Periodontal and Dental Implant Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review

      Lau, Beatrice Y.; Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E. (Bentham Science Publishers, 2013-04-05)
      Methods to optimize healing through dietary strategies present an attractive option for patients, such that healing from delicate oral surgeries occurs as optimally as possible with minimal patient-meditated complications through improper food choices. This review discusses findings from studies that have investigated the role of diet, either whole foods or individual dietary components, on periodontal health and their potential role in wound healing after periodontal surgery. To date, research in this area has largely focused on foods or individual dietary components that may attenuate inflammation or oxidant stress, or foster de novo bone formation. These studies suggest that a wide variety of dietary components, including macronutrients and micronutrients, are integral for optimal periodontal health and have the potential to accelerate oral wound healing after periodontal procedures. Moreover, this review provides guidance regarding dietary considerations that may help a patient achieve the best possible outcome after a periodontal procedure.
    • The Association of Sleep Disorder, Obesity Status, and Diabetes Mellitus among US Adults—The NHANES 2009-2010 Survey Results

      Liu, Jian; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E. (Hindawi, 2013-06-26)
      To examine the association between sleep disorders, obesity status, and the risk of diabetes in adults, a total of 3668 individuals aged 40+ years fromtheNHANES 2009-2010 withoutmissing information on sleep-related questions,measurements related to diabetes, and BMI were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into three sleep groups based on two sleep questions: (a) no sleep problems; (b) sleep disturbance; and (c) sleep disorder. Diabetes was defined as having one of a diagnosis from a physician; an overnight fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL; Glycohemoglobin > 6.4%; or an oral glucose tolerance test > 199mg/dL. Overall, 19% of subjects were diabetics, 37% were obese, and 32% had either sleep disturbance or sleep disorder. Using multiple logistic regression models adjusting for covariates without including BMI, the odds ratios (OR, (95% CI)) of diabetes were 1.40 (1.06, 1.84) and 2.04 (1.40, 2.95) for those with sleep disturbance and with sleep disorder, respectively. When further adjusting for BMI, the ORs were similar for those with sleep disturbance 1.36 (1.06, 1.73) but greatly attenuated for those with sleep disorders (1.38 [0.95, 2.00]). In conclusion, the impact of sleep disorders on diabetes may be explained through the individuals’ obesity status.
    • A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

      Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo (Co-Action Publishing, 2013-08-07)
      Background: In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective: This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods: Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results: The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions: The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution to the MDGs. Furthermore, increased research activity and the ensuing improvement in performance indicators at the prime Honduran research institution invoke the need for a national research system in Honduras.
    • Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

      Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes (PLoS, 2013-08-08)
      Background: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children’s health. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate heightfor- age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results: Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.7661.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children .10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p,0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions: STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children’s nutritional status warrants more research.
    • Asymmetries of Influence: Differential Effects of Body Postures on Perceptions of Emotional Facial Expressions

      Mondloch, Catherine J. (PLoS, 2013-09-10)
      The accuracy and speed with which emotional facial expressions are identified is influenced by body postures. Two influential models predict that these congruency effects will be largest when the emotion displayed in the face is similar to that displayed in the body: the emotional seed model and the dimensional model. These models differ in whether similarity is based on physical characteristics or underlying dimensions of valence and arousal. Using a 3- alternative forced-choice task in which stimuli were presented briefly (Exp 1a) or for an unlimited time (Exp 1b) we provide evidence that congruency effects are more complex than either model predicts; the effects are asymmetrical and cannot be accounted for by similarity alone. Fearful postures are especially influential when paired with facial expressions, but not when presented in a flanker task (Exp 2). We suggest refinements to each model that may account for our results and suggest that additional studies be conducted prior to drawing strong theoretical conclusions.
    • Interpreting Quantifier Scope Ambiguity: Evidence of Heuristic First, Algorithmic Second Processing

      Dwivedi, Veena D. (PLoS, 2013-11)
      The present work suggests that sentence processing requires both heuristic and algorithmic processing streams, where the heuristic processing strategy precedes the algorithmic phase. This conclusion is based on three self-paced reading experiments in which the processing of two-sentence discourses was investigated, where context sentences exhibited quantifier scope ambiguity. Experiment 1 demonstrates that such sentences are processed in a shallow manner. Experiment 2 uses the same stimuli as Experiment 1 but adds questions to ensure deeper processing. Results indicate that reading times are consistent with a lexical-pragmatic interpretation of number associated with context sentences, but responses to questions are consistent with the algorithmic computation of quantifier scope. Experiment 3 shows the same pattern of results as Experiment 2, despite using stimuli with different lexicalpragmatic biases. These effects suggest that language processing can be superficial, and that deeper processing, which is sensitive to structure, only occurs if required. Implications for recent studies of quantifier scope ambiguity are discussed.
    • Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

      Barron, Carly C; Moore, Jessy; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Pickering, Gary; Tsiani, Evangelia (Springer, 2014-01-23)
      Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events.
    • Higher PLIN5 but not PLIN3 content in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria following acute in vivo contraction in rat hindlimb

      Ramos, Sofhia; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K.; Turnbull, Patrick C; Bott, Kirsten N.; LeBlanc, Paul; Ward, Wendy E.; Peters, Sandra J. (American Physiological Society, 2014-08-22)
      Contraction-mediated lipolysis increases the association of lipid droplets and mitochondria, indicating an important role in the passage of fatty acids from lipid droplets to mitochondria in skeletal muscle. PLIN3 and PLIN5 are of particular interest to the lipid droplet–mitochondria interaction because PLIN3 is able to move about within cells and PLIN5 associates with skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study primarily investigated: 1) if PLIN3 is detected in skeletal muscle mitochondrial fraction; and 2) if mitochondrial protein content of PLIN3 and/or PLIN5 changes following stimulated contraction. A secondary aim was to determine if PLIN3 and PLIN5 associate and whether this changes following contraction. Male Long Evans rats (n = 21;age, 52 days; weight = 317 6 g) underwent 30 min of hindlimb stimulation (10 msec impulses, 100 Hz/3 sec at 10–20 V; train duration 100 msec). Contraction induced a ~50% reduction in intramuscular lipid content measured by oil red-O staining of red gastrocnemius muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from red gastrocnemius muscle by differential centrifugation and proteins were detected by western blotting. Mitochondrial PLIN5 content was ~1.6-fold higher following 30 min of contraction and PLIN3 content was detected in the mitochondrial fraction, and unchanged following contraction. An association between PLIN3 and PLIN5 was observed and remained unaltered following contraction. PLIN5 may play a role in mitochondria during lipolysis, which is consistent with a role in facilitating/regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. PLIN3 and PLIN5 may be working together on the lipid droplet and mitochondria during contraction-induced lipolysis.
    • Interprofessional Collaboration: The Experience of Nursing and Medical Students’ Interprofessional Education

      Prentice, Dawn; Engel, Joyce; Taplay, Karyn; Stobbe, Karl (Sage, 2014-10-14)
      In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, we examined the experience of interprofessional collaboration from the perspective of nursing and medical students. Seventeen medical and nursing students from two different universities participated in the study. We used guiding questions in face-to-face, conversational interviews to explore students’ experience and expectations of interprofessional collaboration within learning situations. Three themes emerged from the data: the great divide, learning means content, and breaking the ice. The findings suggest that the experience of interprofessional collaboration within learning events is influenced by the natural clustering of shared interests among students. Furthermore, the carry-forward of impressions about physician–nurse relationships prior to the educational programs and during clinical placements dominate the formation of new relationships and acquisition of new knowledge about roles, which might have implications for future practice.
    • Does bracing affect bone health in women with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

      Akseer, Nasreen; Kish, Kimberly; Rigby, W Alan; Greenway, Matthew; Klentrou, Panagiota; Wilson, Philip M; Falk, Bareket (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Purpose: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is often associated with low bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD). Bracing, used to manage spine curvature, may interfere with the growth-related BMC accrual, resulting in reduced bone strength into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of brace treatment on BMC in adult women, diagnosed with AIS and braced in early adolescence. Methods: Participants included women with AIS who: (i) underwent brace treatment (AIS-B, n = 15, 25.6 ± 5.8 yrs), (ii) underwent no treatment (AIS, n = 15, 24.0 ± 4.0 yrs), and (iii) a healthy comparison group (CON, n = 19, 23.5 ± 3.8 yrs). BMC and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Differences between groups were examined using a oneway ANOVA or ANCOVA, as appropriate. Results: AIS-B underwent brace treatment 27.9 ± 21.6 months, for 18.0 ± 5.4 h/d. Femoral neck BMC was lower (p = 0.06) in AIS-B (4.54 ± 0.10 g) compared with AIS (4.89 ± 0.61 g) and CON (5.07 ± 0.58 g). Controlling for lean body mass, calcium and vitamin D daily intake, and strenuous physical activity, femoral neck BMC was statistically different (p = 0.02) between groups. A similar pattern was observed at other lower extremity sites (p < 0.05), but not in the spine or upper extremities. BMC and BMD did not correlate with duration of brace treatment, duration of daily brace wear, or overall physical activity. Conclusion: Young women with AIS, especially those who were treated with a brace, have significantly lower BMC in their lower limbs compared to women without AIS. However, the lack of a relationship between brace treatment duration during adolescence and BMC during young adulthood, suggests that the brace treatment is not the likely mechanism of the low BMC.