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  • Power research in adaptive water governance and beyond: a review

    McIlwain, Lisa; Holzer, Jennifer; Baird, Julia; Baldwin, Claudia (Resilience Alliance, Inc., 2023)
    Power dynamics are widely recognized as key contributors to poor outcomes of environmental governance broadly and specifically for adaptive water governance. Water governance processes are shifting, with increased emphasis on collaboration and learning. Understanding how power dynamics impact these processes in adaptive governance is hence critical to improve governance outcomes. Power dynamics in the context of adaptive water governance are complex and highly variable and so are power theories that offer potential explanations for poor governance outcomes. This study aimed to build an understanding of the use of power theory in water and environmental governance and establish a foundation for future research by identifying power foci and variables that are used by researchers in this regard. We conducted a systematic literature review using the Web of Science Core Collection and the ProQuest Political Science databases to understand how power is studied (foci, variables of interest, and methods) and which theories are being applied in the water governance field and in the environmental governance field more broadly. The resulting review can serve as a practical reference for (adaptive) water governance inquiries that seek to study power in depth or intend to integrate power considerations into their research. The identified power variables add to a much needed groundwork for research that investigates the role of power dynamics in collaboration and learning processes. Furthermore, they offer a substantive base for empirical research on power dynamics in adaptive water governance.
  • Faculty members’ use of artificial intelligence to grade student papers: a case of implications

    Kumar, Rahul (Biomed Central, 2023-05-15)
    This paper presents the case of an adjunct university professor to illustrate the dilemma of using artificial intelligence (AI) technology to grade student papers. The hypothetical case discusses the benefits of using a commercial AI service to grade student papers—including discretion, convenience, pedagogical merits of consistent feedback for students, and advances made in the field that yield high-quality work—all of which are achieved quickly. Arguments against using AI to grade student papers involve cost, privacy, legality, and ethics. The paper discusses career implications for faculty members in both situations and concludes with implications for researchers within the discourse on academic integrity.
  • Preservice teachers’ science learning and self-efficacy to teach with robotics-based activities: Investigating a scaffolded and a self-guided approach

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini (Frontiers Media SA, 2023-03-16)
    Introduction: Robotics is viewed as a viable pedagogical strategy for STEM learning because it is characterized by many practices common to the STEM disciplines such as engineering design. With many national curricular calling for STEM integration in K-12 formal educational settings, there is a need for empirical evidence about the effectiveness of different pedagogical approaches to teach with robotics-based activities to promote curriculum learning outcomes and teaching practice. This exploratory study investigated the effectiveness of a scaffolded robotics intervention and a self-guided robotics intervention on pre-service teacher knowledge (PST) of science concepts related to gears and on PST self-efficacy to teach with the robotics-based activities. Methods: A quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study was implemented with two non-equivalent groups of elementary preservice teachers (PSTs) in a Bachelor of Education program. PSTs in the self-guided group (n = 11) worked with robotics kits in the library at their own pace. PSTs in the scaffolded intervention group (n = 16) were guided through the activity by the author with instructional scaffolds. IBM SPSS Statistics 27 was used to analyze the data. Results: The relationship between intervention type and gains in science knowledge was not statistically significant for the self-guided group but was statistically significant for the scaffolded group suggesting that scaffolding supported PST’s learning of the science concepts. With respect to PST self- efficacy to teach with the robotics-based activity, both intervention types revealed statistically significant gains from pre to post tests, however effect sizes indicated that the scaffolded intervention resulted in greater gains in PST self-efficacy to teach with the robotics-based activities. Discussion: The results provide exploratory evidence that the scaffolded robotics approach, modelled for and experienced by the pre-service teachers in this study, was effective for their learning of science curricular concepts related to gears and for developing their self-efficacy for teaching the robotics-based activities. It should be noted that findings may not be generalizable due to the small sample sizes, especially of the self-guided group. Nevertheless, the findings do provide insights for teacher educators incorporating robotics-based activities into curricular courses such as science methods as it provides specific examples of scaffolds that were effective for science learning and for developing PST self-efficacy. The study also contributes to the literature on instructional strategies that promote robotics adoption in K-12 schools to support development of STEM knowledge and skills.
  • Chronic AMPK Activation Reduces the Expression and Alters Distribution of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Yang, Alex J T; Mohammad, Ahmad; Tsiani, Evangelia; Necakov, Aleksandar; MacPherson, Rebecca E K (MDPI, 2022-07-31)
    Neuronal growth and synaptic function are dependent on precise protein production and turnover at the synapse. AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents a metabolic node involved in energy sensing and in regulating synaptic protein homeostasis. However, there is ambiguity surrounding the role of AMPK in regulating neuronal growth and health. This study examined the effect of chronic AMPK activation on markers of synaptic function and growth. Retinoic- acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with A-769662 (100 nM) or Compound C (30 nM) for 1, 3, or 5 days before AMPK, mTORC1, and markers for synapse function were examined. Cell morphology, neuronal marker content, and location were quantified after 5 days of treatment. AMPK phosphorylation was maintained throughout all 5 days of treatment with A-769662 and resulted in chronic mTORC1 inhibition. Lower total, soma, and neuritic neuronal marker contents were observed following 5 d of AMPK activation. Neurite protein abundance and distribution was lower following 5 days of A-769662 treatment. Our data suggest that chronic AMPK activation impacts synaptic protein content and reduces neurite protein abundance and distribution. These results highlight a distinct role that metabolism plays on markers of synapse health and function.
  • Voluntary wheel running alters markers of amyloid-beta precursor protein processing in an ovarian hormone depleted model.

    Mohammad, Ahmad; Finch, Michael S; Sweezey-Munroe, Jacob; MacPherson, Rebecca E K (Frontiers, 2022-12-06)
    Introduction: Aberrant cleavage of the transmembrane protein, amyloid-beta precursor protein (ABPP), results in the overproduction of amyloid-beta (AB) peptides which can form senile plaques in the brain. These plaques can get lodged within synapses and disrupt neuronal communication ultimately leading to rampant neuron death. The rate-limiting enzyme in AB production is beta-site ABPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). In females, estrogen loss is associated with increases in AB and BACE1 content and activity. Exercise is known to have anti-amyloidogenic effects and may be able to alter BACE1 in cases of ovarian hormone depletion. This study aimed to examine the effects of physical activity on BACE1 in intact and ovariectomized female mice. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice (24 weeks old) underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX; n=20) or SHAM surgery (SHAM; n=20). Mice were assigned to one of four groups (n=10/group) for 8 weeks: (1) sham (SHAM), (2) sham with a wheel (SHAM VWR), (3) ovariectomized (OVX), or (4) ovariectomized with a wheel (OVX VWR). Results: Novel object recognition testing demonstrated that OVX mice had a lower percentage of novel object investigation time compared to SHAM. OVX mice also had higher prefrontal cortex BACE1 activity compared to SHAM (p<0.0001), while the OVX+VWR activity was not different from SHAM. Discussions: Our results demonstrate that voluntary wheel running in an ovariectomized model prevented increases in BACE1 activity, maintained memory recall, and may provide a method of slowing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Heterozygous SOD2 deletion selectively impairs SERCA function in the soleus of female mice.

    Braun, Jessica L; Messner, Holt N; Cleverdon, Riley E G; Baranowski, Ryan W; Hamstra, Sophie I; Geromella, Mia S; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Fajardo, Val A (Springer, 2023-04-08)
    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) restores intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) to resting levels after muscle contraction, ultimately eliciting relaxation. SERCA pumps are highly susceptible to tyrosine (T)-nitration, impairing their ability to take up Ca2+ resulting in reduced muscle function and increased [Ca2+ ]i and cellular damage. The mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), converts superoxide radicals into less reactive H2 O2 . Heterozygous deletion of SOD2 (Sod2+/- ) in mice increases mitochondrial oxidative stress; however, the consequences of reduced SOD2 expression in skeletal and cardiac muscle, specifically the effect on SERCA pumps, has yet to be investigated. We obtained soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and left ventricle (LV) muscles from 6 to 7 month-old wild-type (WT) and Sod2+/- female C57BL/6J mice. Ca2+ -dependent SERCA activity assays were performed to assess SERCA function. Western blotting was conducted to examine the protein content of SERCA, phospholamban, and sarcolipin; and immunoprecipitation experiments were done to assess SERCA2a- and SERCA1a-specific T-nitration. Heterozygous SOD2 deletion did not alter SERCA1a or SERCA2a expression in the soleus or LV but reduced SERCA2a in the EDL compared with WT, though this was not statistically significant. Soleus muscles from Sod2+/- mice showed a significant reduction in SERCA's apparent affinity for Ca2+ when compared to WT, corresponding with significantly elevated SERCA2a T-nitration in the soleus. No effect was seen in the EDL or the LV. This is the first study to investigate the effects of SOD2 deficiency on muscle SERCA function and shows that it selectively impairs SERCA function in the soleus.
  • Unfamiliar face matching ability predicts the slope of face learning.

    Baker, Kristen A; Mondloch, Catherine J (Nature, 2023-03-31)
    We provide the first examination of individual differences in the efficiency of face learning. Investigating individual differences in face learning can illuminate potential mechanisms and provide greater understanding of why certain individuals might be more efficient face learners. Participants completed two unfamiliar face matching tasks and a learning task in which learning was assessed after viewing 1, 3, 6, and 9 images of to-be-learned identities. Individual differences in the slope of face learning (i.e., increases in sensitivity to identity) were predicted by the ability to discriminate between matched (same-identity) vs. mismatched (different-identity) pairs of wholly unfamiliar faces. A Dual Process Signal Detection model showed that three parameters increased with learning: Familiarity (an unconscious type of memory that varies in strength), recollection-old (conscious recognition of a learned identity), and recollection-new (conscious/confident rejection of novel identities). Good (vs. poor) matchers had higher Recollection-Old scores throughout learning and showed a steeper increase in Recollection-New. We conclude that good matchers are better able to capitalize on exposure to within-person variability in appearance, an effect that is attributable to their conscious memory for both learned and novel faces. These results have applied implications and will inform contemporary and traditional models of face identification.
  • The Effect of Blade Alignment on Kinematics and Plantar Pressure during the Execution of Goaltender-Specific Movement Patterns: A Case Study.

    Dunne, Colin; Holmes, Michael; Lockwood, Kelly (MDPI, 2022-06-20)
    Innovations in material properties of goaltender skates have improved the protective characteristics of the boot, leading to redesign of the blade holder to resemble players' holders. The redesigned blade holder introduces the ability to customize blade alignment, which may grant a performance advantage. We investigated the effect of blade alignment on kinematics and plantar pressure during the execution of two different goaltender-specific movement patterns: (1) the butterfly drop to recovery and (2) the lateral butterfly slide to recovery. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three blade alignment conditions. The secondary objective was to compare two neutral alignment conditions, which was facilitated by studying the effects of two different holders on kinematics and plantar pressure during two goaltender-specific techniques. A male goaltender with professional experience completed an A-B-A design, executing five trials of A, B, and A for both movements with each blade alignment condition (n = 30 per collection, n = 90 overall) on synthetic ice in a controlled lab environment. Blade alignment conditions were defined by the alignment of the blade holder on the boot and the type of blade holder. Kinematic and plantar pressure data were collected simultaneously using 3D motion capture and in-skate pressure insoles, respectively. Increased butterfly drop velocity (2.07 ± 0.09 m/s) and peak plantar pressure (77.19 ± 2.67 psi) were revealed when executing the butterfly drop with medial alignment. This work suggests medial blade alignment may enable the goaltender to drop into the butterfly position faster, potentially increasing the likelihood of making a save.
  • The effects of neurogranin knockdown on SERCA pump efficiency in soleus muscles of female mice fed a high fat diet.

    Braun, Jessica L; Ryoo, Jisook; Goodwin, Kyle; Copeland, Emily N; Geromella, Mia S; Baranowski, Ryan W; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Fajardo, Val A (Frontiers, 2022-08-22)
    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump is responsible for the transport of Ca2+ from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum at the expense of ATP, making it a regulator of both muscle relaxation and muscle-based energy expenditure. Neurogranin (Ng) is a small protein that negatively regulates calcineurin signaling. Calcineurin is Ca2+/calmodulin dependent phosphatase that promotes the oxidative fibre type in skeletal muscle and regulates muscle-based energy expenditure. A recent study has shown that calcineurin activation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency, ultimately raising energy expenditure. Since the biomedical view of obesity states that it arises as an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure which favors the former, we questioned whether heterozygous Ng deletion (Ng+/- ) would reduce SERCA efficiency and increase energy expenditure in female mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Young (3-4-month-old) female wild type (WT) and Ng+/- mice were fed a HFD for 12 weeks with their metabolic profile being analyzed using metabolic cages and DXA scanning, while soleus SERCA efficiency was measured using SERCA specific Ca2+ uptake and ATPase activity assays. Ng+/- mice showed significantly less cage ambulation compared to WT mice but this did not lead to any added weight gain nor changes in daily energy expenditure, glucose or insulin tolerance despite a similar level of food intake. Furthermore, we observed significant reductions in SERCA's apparent coupling ratio which were associated with significant reductions in SERCA1 and phospholamban content. Thus, our results show that Ng regulates SERCA pump efficiency, and future studies should further investigate the potential cellular mechanisms.
  • Super-Spreaders or Victims of Circumstance? Childhood in Canadian Media Reporting of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Critical Content Analysis.

    Ciotti, Sarah; Moore, Shannon A; Connolly, Maureen; Newmeyer, Trent (MDPI, 2022-01-14)
    This qualitative research study, a critical content analysis, explores Canadian media re- porting of childhood in Canada during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Popular media plays an important role in representing and perpetuating the dominant social discourse in highly literate societies. In Canadian media, the effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents’ health and wellbeing are overshadowed by discussions of the potential risk they pose to adults. The results of this empirical research highlight how young people in Canada have been uniquely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Two dominant narratives emerged from the data: children were presented “as a risk” to vulnerable persons and older adults and “at risk” of adverse health outcomes from contracting COVID-19 and from pandemic lockdown restrictions. This reflects how childhood was constructed in Canadian society during the pandemic, particularly how children’s experiences are described in relation to adults. Throughout the pandemic, media reports emphasized the role of young people’s compliance with public health measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and save the lives of older persons.
  • Individual differences in naturally occurring affect predict conceptual breadth: evidence for the importance of arousal by valence interactions.

    Chung, Andrew; Busseri, Michael A; Arnell, Karen M (Springer, 2022-11-18)
    Several studies have investigated the effect of induced mood state on conceptual breadth (breadth and flexibility of thought). Early studies concluded that inducing a positive mood state broadened cognition, while inducing a negative mood state narrowed cognition. However, recent reports have suggested that valence and arousal can each influence conceptual breadth. Individual differences in affective dispositions may bias perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors and, in turn, may be biased by them. Here, we examine whether individual differences in valence and arousal dimensions of self-reported, naturally occurring affect relate to conceptual breadth (using the Remote Associates Test, the Object Categorization Task, and the Alternative Uses Task), with no mood manipulations or cues. The three conceptual breadth tasks loaded onto a latent conceptual breadth factor that was predicted significantly by the interaction of valence and arousal. For participants low in arousal, greater positive affect was associated with greater conceptual breadth. For participants high in arousal, greater positive affect was associated with reduced conceptual breadth. In contrast to most existing theories of conceptual breadth that highlight the importance of valence or arousal alone, the present results suggest that the interaction between arousal and valence is key to predicting individual differences in conceptual breadth. We posit that positive mood states predict greater conceptual breadth in the presence of low versus high arousal due to a relaxation of cognitive control under low arousal.
  • The Maillard reaction in traditional method sparkling wine.

    Charnock, Hannah M; Pickering, Gary J; Kemp, Belinda S (Frontiers, 2022-08-26)
    The Maillard reaction between sugars and amino acids, peptides, or proteins generates a myriad of aroma compounds through complex and multi-step reaction pathways. While the Maillard has been primarily studied in the context of thermally processed foods, Maillard-associated products including thiazoles, furans, and pyrazines have been identified in aged sparkling wines, with associated bready, roasted, and caramel aromas. Sparkling wines produced in the bottle-fermented traditional method (Méthode Champenoise) have been the primary focus of studies related to Maillard-associated compounds in sparkling wine, and these wines undergo two sequential fermentations, with the second taking place in the final wine bottle. Due to the low temperature (15 ± 3°C) and low pH (pH 3-4) conditions during production and aging, we conclude that Maillard interactions may not proceed past intermediate stages. Physicochemical factors that affect the Maillard reaction are considered in the context of sparkling wine, particularly related to pH-dependent reaction pathways and existing literature pertaining to low temperature and/or low pH Maillard activity. A focus on the origins and composition of precursor species (amino acids and sugars) in sparkling wines is presented, as well as the potential role of metal ions in accelerating the Maillard reaction. Understanding the contributions of individual physicochemical factors to the Maillard reaction in sparkling wine enables a clearer understanding of reaction pathways and sensory outcomes. Advancements in analytical techniques for monitoring the Maillard reaction are also described, and important areas of future research on this topic are identified.
  • Assessment of the Compression Properties of Different Giant Bamboo Species for Sustainable Construction

    Drury, Ben; Padfield, Cameron; Russo, Mirko; Swygart, Lowri; Spalton, Oliver; Froggatt, Sam; Mofidi, Amir (MDPI AG, 2023-04-11)
    In this study, compression mechanical properties of five giant bamboo species from different continents were investigated based on the ISO 22157:2019 standard. The selected species have been used for rural construction for centuries. The chosen bamboo species for this study, which are considered strong candidates to be used in modern construction as well, are as follows: Phyllostachys edulis (Moso), Guadua angustifolia (Guadua), Gigantochloa apus (Tali), Gigantochloa atroviolacea (Black Java), and Phyllostachys bambusoides (Madake). The excellent properties of bamboo species in tension are well established. Hence, this article principally focuses on the behaviour of selected giant species in compression to be used as structural members. In this study, the mentioned bamboo species were gathered from different continents of origin to be critically assessed, analysed, and compared with one another to better understand their compression behaviour as structural columns. The compression properties of these bamboo species have not been evaluated and compared with one another in an academic study so far. The results show that all tested species were able to provide mean compressive strengths greater than 50 MPa, which makes them highly promising construction material candidates for modern construction. The Guadua test series was able to provide outstanding consistency in the presented compression behaviour and strengths among all the tested species. The specimens with the maximum sustained load belonged to the Tali species. The greatest average failure load belonged to the Moso species. The greatest mean compressive strength measured was 88.9 MPa, reported for Madake species with smaller diameters compared to the other test series. Among the specimens with larger diameters, the greatest mean ultimate strengths were for Moso, Guadua, and Tali species with 69.9 MPa, 60.7 MPa, and 59.1 MPa compressive strengths, respectively.
  • Contemporary nutrition-based interventions to reduce risk of infection among elderly long-term care residents: A scoping review

    Psihogios, Athanasios; Madampage, Claudia; Faught, Brent E. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022-08-02)
    Background Elderly long-term care residents (ELTCRs) face considerable burden of infection, especially evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The nutritional status of the host can influence sus- ceptibility to infection by altering immune system integrity, therefore, nutrition-based inter- ventions may be a viable complement to existing infection prevention measures. Objective This scoping review sought to identify nutritional interventions and factors that have the strongest evidence to benefit ELTCRs, and thus best poised for rigorous clinical trial evalua- tion and subsequent implementation. Methods A database search of OVID-Medline, OVID-Embase, and Web of Science was performed from 2011 to 2021 to identify nutritional intervention studies which attribute to changes in infection in contemporary ELTCR settings. Articles were screened in duplicate and data extraction completed by a single reviewer, while a second reviewer verified the data which was fitted to identify evidence for nutritional interventions related to reducing rates of infec- tion among ELTCRs. Results The search identified 1018 studies, of which 11 (nine clinical trials and two observational cohort studies) satisfied screening criteria. Interventions that significantly reduced risk of infection included whey protein (any infection), Black Chokeberry (urinary tract infection), and vitamin D (acute respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection). Both zinc and a dedicated meal-plan significantly improved lymphocyte parameters. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with the development of respiratory tract infections. Probiotic and soy- based protein interventions did not significantly affect risk of infection or lymphocyte parameters, respectively.
  • A need for speed: Objectively identifying full-body kinematic and neuromuscular features associated with faster sprint velocities

    Vellucci, Chris L.; Beaudette, Shawn M. (Frontiers Media SA, 2023-02-03)
    Sprinting is multifactorial and dependent on a variety of kinematic, kinetic, and neuromuscular features. A key objective in sprinting is covering a set amount of distance in the shortest amount of time. To achieve this, sprinters are required to coordinate their entire body to achieve a fast sprint velocity. This suggests that a whole-body kinematic and neuromuscular coordinative strategy exists which is associated with improved sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to leverage inertial measurement units (IMUs) and wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) to find coordinative strategies associated with peak over-ground sprint velocity using machine learning. We recruited 40 healthy university age sprint-based athletes from a variety of athletic backgrounds. IMU and sEMG data were used as inputs into a principal components analysis (PCA) to observe major modes of variation (i.e., PC scores). PC scores were then used as inputs into a stepwise multivariate linear regression model to derive associations of each mode of variation with peak sprint velocity. Both the kinematic (R2 = 0.795) and sEMG data (R2 = 0.586) produced significant multivariate linear regression models. The PCs that were selected as inputs into the multivariate linear regression model were reconstructed using multi-component reconstruction to produce a representation of the whole-body movement pattern and changes in the sEMG waveform associated with faster sprint velocities. The findings of this work suggest that distinct features are associated with faster sprint velocity. These include the timing of the contralateral arm and leg swing, stance leg kinematics, dynamic trunk extension at toe-off, asymmetry between the right and left swing side leg and a phase shift feature of the posterior chain musculature. These results demonstrate the utility of data-driven frameworks in identifying different coordinative features that are associated with a movement outcome. Using our framework, coaches and biomechanists can make decisions based on objective movement information, which can ultimately improve an athlete’s performance.
  • Using Memes as an Elicitation Tool: The Interview Prompt You Didn’t Know You Needed

    Julien, Karen (Nova Southeastern University, 2022-09-05)
    Building rapport with participants at the outset of an interview is a common goal for researchers. Creating rapport is critical for trustworthiness of interview data and for building a supportive environment for participants. This paper brings the research on emes together with elicitation techniques to present a novel approach to rapport-building in interviews through meme elicitation. Memes provide a focal point for shared attention and their humorous nature offers opportunities for light-hearted segue into deeper emotional discussions. Participants report finding the meme elicitation process an effective icebreaker and a meaningful entry point for discussions. Personal reflections and suggestions for ethically engaging with the process are presented.
  • News media impact on sociopolitical attitudes

    Earle, Megan; Hodson, Gordon (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022-03-09)
    In the present project we assessed whether partisan news affects consumers’ views on polarizing issues. In Study 1 nationally representative cross-sectional data (N = 4249) reveals that right-leaning news consumption is associated with more right-leaning attitudes, and left-leaning news consumption is associated with more left-leaning attitudes. Additional three-wave longitudinal data (N = 484) in Study 2 reveals that right-leaning news is positively (and left-leaning news is negatively) associated with right-leaning issue stances three months later, even after controlling for prior issue stances. In a third (supplemental) study (N = 305), random assignment to right-leaning (but not left-leaning) news (vs. control) experi- mentally fostered more right-leaning stances, regardless of participants’ previously held political ideology. These findings suggest that partisan news, and particularly right-leaning news, can polarize consumers in their sociopolitical positions, sharpen political divides, and shape public policy.
  • Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Increases White Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Markers in Male and Female Rats in a Depot Specific Manner

    Ryan, Chantal R.; Finch, Michael S.; Dunham, Tyler C.; Murphy, Jensen E.; Roy, Brian D.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (MDPI AG, 2021-07-14)
    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic endocrine organ that can play a significant role in thermoregulation. WAT has the capacity to adopt structural and functional characteristics of the more metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) and contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis under specific stimuli. Non-shivering thermogenesis was previously thought to be uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent however, recent evidence suggests that UCP1-independent mechanisms of thermogenesis exist. Namely, futile creatine cycling has been identified as a contributor to WAT thermogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation to alter mitochondrial markers as well as adipocyte size and multilocularity in inguinal (iWAT), gonadal (gWAT), and BAT. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with varying doses (0 g/L, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L) of creatine monohydrate for 8 weeks. We demonstrate that mitochondrial markers respond in a sex and depot specific manner. In iWAT, female rats displayed significant increases in COXIV, PDH-E1alpha, and cytochrome C protein content. Male rats exhibited gWAT specific increases in COXIV and PDH-E1alpha protein content. This study supports creatine supplementation as a potential method of UCP1-independant thermogenesis and highlights the importance of taking a sex-specific approach when examining the efficacy of browning therapeutics in future research.
  • Theorizing Community for Sport Management Research and Practice

    Rich, Kyle A.; Spaaij, Ramón; Misener, Laura (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-11-19)
    Community is a context for much research in sport, sport management, and sport policy, yet relatively few authors explicitly articulate the theoretical frameworks with which they interrogate the concept. In this paper, we draw from communitarian theory and politics in order to contribute to a robust discussion and conceptualization of community in and for sport management research and practice. We provide a synthesis of current sport management and related research in order to highlight contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches to studying community. We distinguish between community as a context, as an outcome, as a site for struggle or resistance, as well as a form of regulation or social control. We then advance a critical communitarian agenda and consider the practical implications and considerations for research and practice. This paper synthesizes current research and establishes a foundation upon which sport management scholars and practitioners might critically reflect on community and deliberatively articulate its implications in both future research and practice.
  • Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations

    Pickering, Gary J.; Willwerth, Jim; Botezatu, Andreea; Thibodeau, Margaret (MDPI AG, 2021-10-15)
    Alkyl-methoxypyrazines are an important class of odor-active molecules that contribute green, ‘unripe’ characters to wine and are considered undesirable in most wine styles. They are naturally occurring grape metabolites in many cultivars, but can also be derived from some Coccinellidae species when these ‘ladybugs’ are inadvertently introduced into the must during harvesting operations. The projected impacts of climate change are discussed, and we conclude that these include an altered alkyl-methoxypyrazine composition in grapes and wines in many wine regions. Thus, a careful consideration of how to manage them in both the vineyard and winery is important and timely. This review brings together the relevant literatures on viticultural and oenological interventions aimed at mitigating alkyl-methoxypyrazine loads, and makes recommendations on their management with an aim to maintaining wine quality under a changing and challenging climate.

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