Now showing items 21-40 of 3105

    • General Case Training via Telehealth for Parents of Young Children At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Shingleton-Smith, Claire; Center for Applied Disability Studies
      Research indicates that young children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show developmental improvements with the implementation of a parent training intervention, although evidence of parent generalization to novel skills is inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on generalization of a parent-mediated early intervention using general case training (GCT) combined with behaviour skills training (BST) via telehealth for young children at-risk for ASD. Six parent-child dyads participated in total. Child target skills were identified through the Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale and confirmed through direct observation. Nine exemplars from three child skill categories that target deficits representative of early signs of ASD were taught to parents using two concurrent multiple baseline across participants designs. Data were collected for the percentage of correct parent teaching skills implemented, as well as the percentage of child correct responses to the target skills. Results demonstrate an increase in parent teaching skills across all trained participants for both trained and untrained child skills. These results provide preliminary support for GCT combined with BST via telehealth as an effective early intervention model.
    • Crawford Lake Consumers: Water Column and Palynological Studies

      Heyde, Autumn; Department of Biological Sciences
      Despite their important role in lake ecosystems, the fossil record of consumers has been underutilized compared to the remains of algae and plants in paleoenvironmental studies. Cladocerans, chironomids, and testate amoebae were found in palynological preparations of sediments throughout Crawford Lake (a unique meromictic lake in Ontario, Canada), but rotifer lorica and cysts of aloricate ciliates were only preserved in seasonally laminated sediments in the monimolimnion of this lake, demonstrating the exceptional preservation potential in this portion of the lake water column. Relatively diverse assemblages of consumer palynomorphs were associated with anthropogenic impact on this lake, and the annual chronological resolution afforded by varves allowed these to be related to historic events in the small watershed, the most notable being the operation of a lumber mill on the south shore of the lake, and to archeological and pollen evidence of several phases of agricultural settlement between the 13th and 15th centuries. Lower diversity of consumer palynomorphs between the Iroquoian and Euro-Canadian settlement phases (i.e., late 15th through early 19th centuries) mainly reflects the sharp decline in most rotifer taxa and the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris, but the persistence of the rotifers Keratella hiemalis and Kellicottia longispina is evidence that the lake ecosystem did not return to pre-human impact conditions after abandonment of the Iroquoian settlement. Understanding how the trophic level of consumers responded to natural and anthropogenic stressors relied heavily on rarely preserved rotifer lorica, but the observation that the cladoceran B. longirostris tended to thrive relative to the typically more common Daphnia at times of cultural eutrophication may have broader application in palynological studies of lakes. Contrary to long-standing assumption, the exceptional preservation of organic-walled microfossils in undisturbed seasonal laminae in the deep basin of Crawford Lake cannot be explained by anoxia. Observations of seasonal migration of zooplankton to and from the mixolimnion in conjunction with instrumental measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, and conductivity in the water column almost monthly from October 2019 through September 2020 demonstrated that this meromictic lake is uncharacteristically well-oxygenated below the chemocline. Instead, exceptional preservation is attributed to the lack of bioturbation and the suppression of bacterial decomposition in the cold, nearly brackish, highly alkaline bottom waters devoid of benthos larger than ostracods able to migrate into the deep basin via interstitial waters. The annual resolution possible in sediments deposited in a typically well-oxygenated setting is an attractive feature in the search for a potential GSSP to define the Anthropocene Epoch using plutonium from fallout of thermonuclear testing as a primary marker.
    • Exploring the Reliability of an Objective Severity Tool to Classify Severe Problem Behaviour

      Morgan, Marie-Chanel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The term ‘severe’ is a common descriptor for problem behaviour in research and practice. However, it is often applied inconsistently, and at times based on ill-defined or arbitrary criteria. Existing problem behaviour measurement tools often rely solely on caregiver recall (e.g., interviewing primary caregivers). This study explores the reliability of the first iteration of a severity tool employing direct measurement strategies (e.g., response rate, injury severity as evidenced by permanent product) to classify an individual’s problem behaviour severity. Nine Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) raters were recruited, five novice raters and four expert raters. They each experienced two conditions. In the first condition, raters classified the severity of 20 case scenarios without access to the tool. In the second condition, raters classified the severity of 20 novel scenarios after completing the tool for each case. All items of the tool (n=26) had good internal consistency (∝=.831). Intraclass correlations showed a meaningful increase in reliability for both groups when they had access to the tool (novice r=0.860, expert r=0.912) compared to when they did not have access to the tool to rate case severity (novice r=0.781, expert r=0.803). Most raters either strongly agreed or agreed that the severity tool had good applicability across research and clinical settings. This suggests that inconsistencies that may exist in the classification of severe problem behaviour could be mitigated with the proposed tool.
    • Uncovering the Narratives of the Rehtaeh Parsons Case: A Content Analysis of Canadian Newspapers

      Hogan, Lindsay; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      The present study provides insight into how the Rehtaeh Parsons case was conceptualized by Canadian news sources. Through the use of qualitative content analysis of Canadian newspapers, the present research involved an examination of how the media socially constructed the case with specific focus on how the issues of bullying and harassment were depicted in comparison to broader social inequalities within our society. This research is methodologically qualitative, informed by an intersectional conceptual framework and engages content analysis of media sources as key method. The purpose of this study was to examine how the Rehtaeh Parsons case was constructed by Canadian news sources, with specific focus on aspects of bullying and social inequalities that were discussed by the media in relation to the case, and subsequent reaction and response after the suicide of Rehtaeh Parsons. This analysis provided an in-depth understanding of how the case was conceptualized and the core components of the case that were discussed by news sources across Canada. Through the use of an intersectional framework and content analysis this study examined twenty-three selected Canadian newspapers articles that discussed the core components and issues surrounding the Rehtaeh Parsons case. More specifically, this study sought to address two major research questions: 1. How was the Rehtaeh Parsons case conceptualized by Canadian news outlets? 2. To what extent was the Rehtaeh Parsons case constructed as a case of bullying, harassment and sexual assault in comparison to broader social inequalities within society?
    • Teachers’ Experiences of Implementing a Pedagogical Approach for Meaningful Physical Education

      Beni, Stephanie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Dominant forms of physical education (PE) have been criticized for their inability to promote lifelong movement, with many scholars arguing in favour of an approach oriented toward meaningful experiences in PE. The Meaningful PE approach has been designed in response to this but has yet to be tested extensively in practice. The purpose of this dissertation has been to study teachers’ experiences of learning about and implementing the Meaningful PE approach. Five teachers based in Ireland and 12 teachers based in Canada participated in two separate studies lasting eight weeks and across two school years, respectively. Qualitative data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations, community of practice (CoP) meeting transcripts, and reflections. Results of this dissertation are presented in four articles. Article One highlights the experiences of Irish primary classroom teachers, demonstrating preliminary support for the approach from classroom teachers with little background in PE. Article Two focuses on Canadian elementary teachers’ experiences of implementing the Meaningful PE approach with their students and on the factors that influenced their implementation decisions. Primary factors influencing implementation included teachers’ prior experiences and beliefs, students’ responses to the implementation process, and external organizational pressures. Article Three focuses on Canadian teachers’ experiences of learning about Meaningful PE through a professional (PD) initiative designed around characteristics of effective PD outlined in the literature. Teachers were most supportive of the use of a CoP and modelling of the approach to foster their learning about Meaningful PE, while also highlighting several tensions between ideal and practical forms of PD, taking personal and organizational barriers into account. Article Four focuses on my experience of becoming a facilitator of teachers’ PD through facilitating a CoP for teachers. This article highlights the important role of identity in the process of learning to become a facilitator and navigating the tensions associated with that process. Collectively, this dissertation makes a significant contribution to the literature by a) informing the refinement of the Meaningful PE approach, b) offering insights into educational implementation research, and c) adding to the literature on teachers’ professional learning when being introduced to innovations.
    • The effects of postural threat on sample entropy

      Fischer, Olivia; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The objectives of this thesis were to 1) explore the effects of postural threat on sample entropy, a measure interpreted to reflect the attentional investment in postural control, and to 2) examine the relationships between threat-related changes in physiological arousal, perceived anxiety, attention focus, conventional postural control measures, and sample entropy. A secondary data analysis was conducted on a combined data set derived from two published studies; each study used the postural perturbation threat model which allowed for a comparison between No Threat and Threat conditions. Young adults (N = 105) stood without (No Threat) and with (Threat) the expectation of receiving a temporally and directionally unpredictable support surface translation in the forward or backward direction. Mean electrodermal activity and anterior-posterior centre of pressure mean position, root mean square, mean power frequency, power within low (0–0.05 Hz), medium (0.5–1.8 Hz), and high frequency (1.8–5 Hz) components, and sample entropy were calculated for each trial. Anxiety and attention focus to movement processes, task objectives, threat-related stimuli, self-regulatory strategies, and task-irrelevant information were rated after each trial. The results of the thesis showed that postural threat had a significant effect on sample entropy; higher values were reported in the Threat compared to No Threat condition. However, threat-related changes in physiological arousal, perceived anxiety, and attention focus were not significantly related to changes in sample entropy. Threat-related changes in sample entropy were related to changes in sway amplitude and frequency. The results of this thesis suggest a shift to a more automatic control of posture when threatened despite evidence of increased attention to postural control.
    • Thermal tasting: methodological considerations and implications for alcohol behaviour.

      Thibodeau, Margaret; Department of Biological Sciences
      Thermal tasting is a phenomenon whereby some individuals perceive thermally-induced taste sensations when their tongue is warmed or cooled. These individuals, known as thermal tasters (TT), report a variety of thermally-induced tastes and the tastes reported can vary with temperature regime used and location on the tongue tested. TT are typically compared to thermal non-tasters (TnT), individuals who do not experience thermally-induced sensations. The literature suggests that TT give higher intensity ratings to orosensory stimuli than TnT; however, small sample sizes and differences in classification schemes between studies confound our understanding of TTS (thermal taste status). It is unknown whether the increased orosensory responsiveness of TT is universal or whether it is driven by a subgroup of TT. Furthermore, up to 50% of individuals are non-classifiable (NC). The largest database of individuals who have undergone TTS screening was compiled to address the literature gaps. Findings indicate that TT are more responsive than TnT to orosensory stimuli, regardless of the classification scheme used. The orosensory responsiveness of NC is not homogeneous, suggesting that NC are not a separate group but rather misclassified TT and TnT. Sweet TT are more likely than non-sweet TT to experience thermally-induced sensations during lingual warming. Similarly, sour TT are more likely than non-sour TT to report thermally-induced tastes during cooling. However, no differences in orosensory responsiveness based on these or other subgroups are identified, suggesting that the heightened orosensory responsiveness of TT is universal across this phenotype. The final study sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four orosensory stimuli (fructose, quinine, tartaric acid and alum sulphate) both overall and by comparing TT and TnT. In general, TT are more responsive than TnT to all stimuli in the study. Few interactions between TTS and stimulus intensity exist suggesting that TT and TnT perceive the sensations elicited by alcoholic beverages similarly, albeit at different intensities. Together, the thesis helps inform best practices for TTS screening and classification, provides insights into TTS mechanisms and furthers our understanding of alcoholic beverage perception.
    • First impressions of child faces: Facial trustworthiness influences adults’ interpretations of children’s behaviour in ambiguous situations

      Thierry, Sophia; Department of Psychology
      Despite the profound behavioural consequences that first impressions of trustworthiness have on adult populations, few studies have examined how adults’ first impressions of trustworthiness influence behavioural outcomes for children. Using a novel task design, we examined adults’ perceptions of children’s behaviour in ambiguous situations. After a brief presentation of a child’s face (high or low trust), participants viewed the child’s face embedded within an ambiguous scene involving two children (Scene Task) or read a vignette about a misbehaviour done by that child (Misbehaviour Task). In the Scene Task, participants described what they believed to be happening in each scene; in the Misbehaviour Task, participants indicated whether the behaviour was done on purpose or by accident. In both tasks, participants also rated the behaviour of the target child and indicated whether that child would be a good friend. In Experiment 1, young (n=61) and older (n=57) adults viewed unaltered face images. Ambiguous scenes and misbehaviours were interpreted more positively when the target child had a high- versus low-trust face, with comparable patterns of results for the two age groups. In Experiment 2, young adults (N=59) completed the same tasks while viewing images of child faces morphed towards high- and low-trust averages. The pattern of results mirrored that of Experiment 1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a child’s facial trustworthiness biases how adults interpret children’s behaviour—a heuristic that may have lasting behavioural consequences for children through a self-fulfilling prophecy.
    • Dimensions Underlying First Impressions of Older Adult Faces by Young and Older Adult Perceivers

      Twele, Anita; Department of Psychology
      First Impressions (FIs) based on facial cues have significant consequences in real-world contexts and have the potential to influence how older adults (OAs), a vulnerable population, are treated by others. The present study used a data-driven approach to examine dimensions underlying FIs of OAs and whether those dimensions vary by perceiver age. In Experiment 1, young adult (YA) and OA participants provided unconstrained, written descriptions in response to OA faces. From these descriptors, 18 trait categories were identified that were similar, but not identical, across age groups. In Experiment 2, YA and OA participants rated OA faces on the trait words identified for their age group in Experiment 1. In separate principal components analyses, two dimensions of sternness and confidence emerged for OA faces for both YA and OA participant ratings. Our results suggest that there are no significant differences in perceiver age when forming first impressions of OA faces.
    • Cardiac Rehabilitation Maintenance and Prevention Exercise Program: Effects on Depression and Body Image

      Madanat, Sara; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In Ontario, individuals who have experienced a cardiac event are prescribed to participate in cardiac rehabilitation. Most research examining the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation has focused on early phases (i.e., phase 1 and 2) and virtually none has looked at phase 3 maintenance programs, nor have they examined prevention-based programs. Therefore, this study looked at characteristics of those attending a cardiac rehabilitation maintenance and prevention exercise program, differences between those that finished 6-months of the program and those who did not, and the effects of the program on body image and depression. Eligible members (n = 111 males, n = 101 females, Mage = 63.3) of the Brock-Niagara Centre for Health and Well-Being completed anthropometric tests (height, body mass, heart rate, blood pressure) and self-reported measures of body satisfaction and depression at baseline and after 6 months of participating in the program. At baseline, individuals were identified as being at risk for clinical depression and were slightly dissatisfied with their body function and appearance. Three separate two-way ANCOVAS (for depression, satisfaction with function and satisfaction with appearance) showed that responders reported more favorable psychological profiles than non-responders at baseline, with significantly higher levels of satisfaction with body appearance [F (1, 204) = 5.95, p < .05] and function [F (1, 203) = 8.58, p < .05], albeit no differences in depression scores [F (1, 206) = .78, p > .05]. However, men did report lower satisfaction with their body function than women. A two-way mixed MANCOVA was conducted to examine changes in depression and body satisfaction across the 6-month program; there was no significant overall effect [F (1, 67) = 1.48, p > .05]. Our findings suggest that moderately active men and women may not differ on satisfaction with appearance. Given that those who completed 6-months of the program reported higher satisfaction with appearance and function than those who did not, it may be possible to identify those who are likely to drop out of a cardiac rehabilitation maintenance and prevention exercise program and develop programming to improve body image upon program entry to increase adherence.
    • Don Cherry's Final Rant: Illuminating Canadian nationalism, racial xenophobia, and hegemonic masculinity

      Falk, Jessica; Social Justice and Equity Studies Program
      Don Cherry was fired from his position as co-host on the national show “Hockey Night in Canada: Coach’s Corner” in November 2019, following a rant where he singled out new immigrants for not wearing a poppy in support of Remembrance Day. Cherry’s firing was met with fury and outrage by many of his long-time supporters. In this thesis project, I explore these responses in relation to the following broad research question: How does Don Cherry’s final rant on Sportsnet and the popular response to his firing on Twitter, illuminate the continuing salience of white supremacy, xenophobia, hegemonic masculinity and colonialism in Canadian sports discourse? Drawing on the fields of feminist, anti-colonial and anti-racist studies, and literature in sport studies I conducted a critical discourse analysis of comments on selected national news reports, posted on Twitter. The overall objective of my project was to question taken-for-granted narratives and ideas of Canadian national identity, and explore the implications of these ideals. Using Canadian hockey culture as a case study, my aim was to develop a rich and accessible entry point for theorizing sports culture and to assess the possibilities and problems associated with re-imagining hockey as a more equitable site of engagement.
    • Psychopathy and Fear Enjoyment: The Role of Invincibility

      Wattam, Tori; Department of Psychology
      Previous research has found a significant positive relationship between psychopathic traits and fear enjoyment (Book et al., 2020; Hosker-Field et al., 2016a). Because enjoyment of fear may be contingent on not feeling like one is actually in danger (Hitchcock, 1949), the current study investigated whether a sense of invincibility could explain the relationship between psychopathy and fear enjoyment. Participants included two online samples, one from two universities, and one from MTURK (Total N = 825). Participants viewed exciting and fear-inducing videos and completed affective appraisals for each video. As expected, psychopathic traits were associated with less negative and more positive responses to the fear-inducing video. Also as expected, invincibility partially explained the relationship between psychopathy and fear enjoyment. Mediation analyses confirmed a significant indirect effect for negative (but not positive) ratings of the fear-inducing video. The results of the current study supply further support for the Fear Enjoyment Hypothesis (Hosker-Field et al., 2016a) and support invincibility as one possible mechanism of the relationship between psychopathy and fear enjoyment.
    • Association Between Concussion Understanding and Stakeholder Knowledge Translation in Collegiate Sports

      Giguere, Debbie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an association between concussion understanding and stakeholder knowledge translation in collegiate sports following the mandate of Rowan’s Law in July 2019. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine concussion knowledge translation within a sport network using social network analysis. A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate 76 collegiate athletes (54 females, 21 males, 1 not identified), aged 20.55 years (SD=3.4) who completed a survey on sport demographics, concussion knowledge and stakeholders who provided concussion information during the sport season. Athlete concussion knowledge scores and reported stakeholders were examined. An average of 3 key stakeholders provided concussion information to 82% of the varsity athletes in our study. Athletes reported that a coach or athletic trainer most often provided concussion knowledge. Overall, athlete concussion knowledge scores were the same for athletes who sought concussion knowledge from stakeholders and those who did not. Over 95% of athletes in the study did not access the Rowan’s Law website for mandated concussion education. These findings suggest that Rowan’s Law is hugely neglected resulting in stakeholder knowledge translation having minimal influence on an athletes’ understanding of concussions. Future recommendations include verified review of mandated concussion education resources and testing of concussion knowledge for all persons associated with sport in Ontario. Due to the large number of athletes seeking concussion knowledge in their varsity athlete network, accurate sport specific resources should be provided to support stakeholders who are in direct contact with athletes.  
    • An Exploratory Study of a Coach's Response to Mandated Regulation Change

      Wilson, Jenna; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 the University Interscholastic League mandated a regulation change that all Texas high school football coaches required certification through Atavus Tackling Training. The mandate represented a significant modification to the way tackling is taught, aimed at addressing risk of concussion and serious trauma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore how coaches’ respond to mandated regulation change. This qualitative study utilized an individual level of analysis contributing to academic works concerning the understanding of organizational change, including the use of Bridges’ (1991) Transition Model within a sporting context, and the call for agent focused perspective work in neo-institutional theory. Through an abductive analysis blend consisting of inductive coding, and deductive a priori concept of the Bridges Transition Model, this study aimed to discern the role transition played in actualizing institutional change by addressing the research questions: RQ1: How do coaches respond when faced with mandated regulation change? RQ2: How does their response reflect transition? To account for the complex nature of the 15 interviewed head football coaches’ responses, the qualitative methodology of this study utilized various triangulation methods such as data, analysis, and theory triangulation, to capture rigor and trustworthiness. Rich findings were mined from the data including 15 propositional statements that represented the a priori model and 10 inductive themes that contributed to defining the identity of a coach, and the sport. The overlap between inductive and deductive findings explored factors earmarking why coaches progress or regress through transition. This study found a relationship between responses and the Bridges Transition Model phases (addressing RQ2), in addition to multiple transition cycles, and triggers for movement through the phases based on coaches' individual needs. This research not only provided examples of what those responses were (addressing RQ1), but also discussed why coaches responded in various ways. Discussion included use of organizational change literature, Bridges’ (1991) Transition Model, and institutional theory, accounting for what coaches experienced and the beliefs and values impacting their decisions and thus, responses to mandated regulation change.
    • Investigating the Effects of Markers of Biological Stress on the Association between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Central Artery Stiffness

      Iannarelli, Nathaniel J.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). One mechanism by which ACEs may increase CVD risk is through their association with central artery stiffness. Pathways linking ACEs to arterial stiffness have not yet been fully elucidated; however, increased biological stress has been postulated to play a critical role. Recently, two markers have emerged as being potentially useful measures of biological stress—telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn). Here, the potential effects of TL and mtDNAcn on the association between ACEs and central artery stiffness were examined. It was hypothesized that TL and/or mtDNAcn would be associated with both ACEs and central artery stiffness, and that these markers would influence the association between ACEs and arterial stiffness. 185 individuals (n = 102 females) aged 19-25 years (mean age 22.5 ± 1.5 years) were included in the current analyses. ACEs were assessed using the CTES 2.0. Central artery stiffness was assessed non-invasively as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). TL and mtDNAcn were assessed using qPCR techniques. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between ACEs, TL, mtDNAcn, and cfPWV after adjustment for several covariates. ACEs were independently associated with cfPWV (β = 0.147, p = 0.035). Both TL and mtDNAcn were independently associated with cfPWV (β = -0.169, p = 0.012 and β = -0.525, p = 0.017, respectively). There was no significant association between ACEs and either TL or mtDNAcn (both p > 0.05); and neither marker influenced the association between ACEs and cfPWV. Increasing ACEs were associated with a faster cfPWV. This association was not influenced by either TL or mtDNAcn, suggesting that these markers do not provide a link between ACEs and arterial stiffness. Reduced TL and mtDNAcn were also associated with a faster cfPWV. Future studies are required to better understand the association between ACEs, markers of biological stress, and arterial stiffness.
    • Quantifying the Relationship of Bilateral Blood Flow in Glabrous Skin at Rest and During Sympathetic Perturbations

      McNabb, Leed; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Sympathetic nervous system regulation of blood flow within glabrous skin occurs through control of vasoconstrictor tone, with vasodilation being a passive process. As bursts of sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity occur simultaneously at separate sites of the body, blood flow patterns should also be closely matched due to the direct connection between sympathetic nerves and peripheral microvessels. With sympathetic activity difficult and invasive to measure directly, the possibility of using blood conductance as an indirect measure seems promising. We investigated the relationship of bilateral blood conductance recordings of both middle fingers in ten (7M, 3F) healthy participants, while at rest and in response to perturbations known to elicit sympathetic activity. Cutaneous vascular conductance was measured from both middle fingers via laser Doppler flowmetry, while at rest in a thermoneutral room for 20 minutes and in response to 4 randomized sympathetic perturbations (2 breath holds and 2 cold stimuli) while centrally vasodilated via heating of the back. Correlation coefficients while at thermoneutral rest were high (0.80 ± 0.22) demonstrating a strong temporal relationship for blood conductance in both fingers. During the sympathetic perturbations, blood conductance in both fingers were more related during (0.93 ± 0.11) and post (0.87 ± 0.11) administration of the sympathetic perturbation than prior (0.67 ± 0.25) to the administration (p = 0.002). Taken together, these findings indicate that blood conductance patterns at separate sites of the body are significantly more related during vasoconstrictor activity and that blood conductance may have potential as a non-invasive measure of sympathetic activity.
    • ‘Molida’, That’s Shimshali Food: Modernization, Mobility, Food Talk, and the Constitution of Identity in Shimshal, Pakistan

      Hamill, Julia; Department of Geography
      This thesis examines how “food talk” – or talking about food – is used by members of a rural community in mountainous northern Pakistan called Shimshal to articulate identities to both local and transcultural audiences. Food and food practices have been well-established as important resources for the constitution and performance of identity, including in contexts of mobility and modernization. However, the literature on food, identity, and mobility tends to focus on contexts that involve primarily linear, unidirectional, and permanent movement from one country to another. My thesis draws attention to contexts of multilocality, a common livelihood strategy in Shimshal and other rural communities in the Global South in which household members move between and maintain connections in multiple spatially-distanced locations at once. In particular, I examine instances of transcultural identity constitution, in which Shimshalis construct representations for themselves and for outsiders. These kinds of interactions exemplify the increasingly common representational contexts that are both produced by and characteristic of the circumstances of mobility, multilocality, and modernization in which I am interested. To examine how food talk was used as a conversational resource for transcultural articulations of identity, I conduct discourse analysis on two sets of pre-existing published texts: a collection of oral testimonies and an archive of narrativized photographs. I identify four main discourses of modern Shimshali identity in the texts – unity, agropastoralism and modernity, exceptionalism, and multilocality – and trace how food talk is used to help perform these identity tropes to local and transcultural audiences, with talk about food as an agropastoral mode of production, community, health, ‘modernity’, ritual, ‘tradition’, and wealth particularly salient as identity resources. I also show how the use of food talk as an identity resource is shaped by the context in which it is employed, including the perceived aims of different texts and the symbolic and material changes in food itself. Drawing on an autoethnographic sensibility, I suggest that we can gain more meaningful insights into the performance of identity and food talk by attending to the specific contexts of their production and reception. Finally, I show how food talk and identity have changed (and been maintained) in the two sets of texts I analyze, which take place across a period of rapid increases in mobility and multilocality. By doing so, this thesis brings together and contributes to preoccupations from mobility studies, modernization and development studies, migration and multilocality, food studies, identity studies, discourse analysis, and geographical research on rural northern Pakistan.
    • Looking in the Mirror of Authenticity: A Self-Study of Teacher Education Practice

      Huizenga, Jack; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study explored the notion of authenticity within the context of teacher education. A qualitative research approach was chosen employing methods associated with self-study in order to explore the dissonance I experienced as a relatively new teacher educator. The purpose of the study was to explore the significance and potential of authenticity in teacher education. The study involved teacher candidates in an elementary science curriculum and instruction course that I was teaching. Teacher candidates reflected on their learning experiences in a course in which I intentionally applied the concept of authenticity. The study also involved experienced teacher educators whom I engaged in conversations as critical friends. Analysis of the teacher candidates’ reflections revealed that the notion of authentic learning resonated with these soon to be teachers. Analysis of the conversations with teacher educators revealed an important distinction between teaching the subject authentically and teaching the student authentically.
    • The Effects of Behavioural Skills Training on a Parent-Implemented Feeding Treatment via Telehealth

      Alami, Arezu; Center for Applied Disability Studies
      Extensive research has established the effectiveness of in-person behavioural skills training (BST; i.e., instruction, modeling, rehearsal, feedback) to teach individuals to perform a variety of novel skills, including how to implement behaviour analytic treatments for food selectivity. To date, no study has evaluated the effects of a telehealth BST training package to teach parents to serve as primary interventionists and implement a feeding treatment with their child at home. We used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a telehealth BST training package to teach parents to implement a sequential presentation and nonremoval of the spoon feeding treatment with their child in their home. We found the telehealth BST training package was an effective means of teaching parents to implement a feeding treatment and contribute to the existing literature on parent-implemented feeding treatments to increase children’s consumption of low-preferred food. Results are discussed within the context of treatment implications and suggestions for future research.
    • Multi-Guide Particle Swarm Optimization for Large-Scale Multi-Objective Optimization Problems

      Madani, Amirali; Department of Computer Science
      Multi-guide particle swarm optimization (MGPSO) is a novel metaheuristic for multi-objective optimization based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). MGPSO has been shown to be competitive when compared with other state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithms for low-dimensional problems. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the suitability of MGPSO for high-dimensional multi-objective optimization problems has not been studied. One goal of this thesis is to provide a scalability study of MGPSO in order to evaluate its efficacy for high-dimensional multi-objective optimization problems. It is observed that while MGPSO has comparable performance to state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithms, it experiences a performance drop with the increase in the problem dimensionality. Therefore, a main contribution of this work is a new scalable MGPSO-based algorithm, termed cooperative co-evolutionary multi-guide particle swarm optimization (CCMGPSO), that incorporates ideas from cooperative PSOs. A detailed empirical study on well-known benchmark problems comparing the proposed improved approach with various state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithms is done. Results show that the proposed CCMGPSO is highly competitive for high-dimensional problems.