• Examining The Impact of Campus Intramural Sports Participation on Students’ Sense of Community Using A Pre-Test Post-Test Design

      Arkell, Stephen; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Participation in out-of-class activities and campus recreation/intramural sports are some of the most popular activities for students on college campuses and one of the most beneficial social outlets for students. However only recently has this connection been examined more deeply. Due to the overwhelming number of students participating in these programs and services it is important to examine the impact of participation in an attempt to better understand the degree to which involvement in campus recreational sports contributes to students’ sense of community. The purpose of this quantitative pre-test post-test study was to examine changes in students’ perceived sense of community over the duration of an intramural season. One hundred and forty-seven intramural participants (N=147) completed a pre-test questionnaire on their first week of their intramural sport season and a post-test on their last week of their intramural sport season. The initial plan of analysis to complete a Repeated Measures Multiple Analysis of Co-Variance (MANCOVA) was stopped promptly due to high mean scores from participants. For each question and factor the data was so consistently skewed and high it was simply not normally distributed leading to assumptions to be broken immediately. A Non-parametric design model Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the data instead which indicates that there was not a significant change testing factors mean score ranks between the pre and post-test. This finding demonstrates that there was not a significant difference in participants perception of sense of community but rather participants had high perceived feelings of sense of community both times they were tested. This study supports the findings of previous research which has found that those students who are involved in recreational sports in a post-secondary environment receive both perceived feelings of sense of community but also relationship building opportunities and experiences. Future research should focus on studying perceptions of sense of community and to explore other areas of a campus community, such as; clubs, varsity sports teams, events, etc. Through studying other areas of a campus community there would be the ability to indicate if there are differences or similarities between feelings of sense of community by specific programs.
    • The Relationship between Intramural Sport Participation, Social Integration, and Institutional Commitment

      Power, Shenise; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Higher education administrators are increasingly scrutinizing budgets and limited resources for the allocation of financial support to all academic and non-academic services, including campus recreational sports. With the current fiscal climate the benefits of campus recreation programs need to be examined and identified in order to remain relevant within post-secondary institutions. The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between students’ participation in intramural sports, social integration into the campus community, and institutional commitment. Three hundred and twenty-four intramural participants (N=324) at a Canadian University completed a questionnaire before or after participating in their chosen intramural sport. MANOVA’s, Correlation Matrices, and Hierarchical Regression analyses were conducted, revealing that the quality of intramural participation, consisting of the effort, energy, time, and money a student invests, is a significant predictor of Social Integration into the campus community. Students who are personally invested in their intramural sport participation are more socially integrated into the campus community at their institution. Social integration was not found to be a significant predictor of Institutional Commitment as suggested by Tinto (1993). Future research should explore the relationship between social integration and institutional commitment as identified in Tinto’s (1993) Model of Departure, through the investigation of other contributing factors that lead to institutional commitment.