• The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of sec-Butyl peroxide in liquid phase /|nby Sandor Szilagyi. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Szilágyi, Sándor.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1969-07-09)
      Re~tes artd pJ~oducts of tllerma]. d,ecom.position of sec-butyl peroxide at 110 - 150°C i.n four solvents h,ave been determined. The d,ecompos i tion vJas sb.o\'\Tn to be tlnlmolecl.llar wi tho energies of activation in toluene, benzene, and cyclohexane of 36 .7-+ 1.0, 33.2 +- 1..0, 33.t~) +.. 1.0 I'(:cal/mol respectively. The activation energy of thermal decomposition for the d,et.1terated peroxide was found to be 37.2 4:- 1.0 KC8:1/1TIol in toluene. A.bo1J.t 70 - 80/~ ol~ tJJ.e' pl~od.1..1CtS could, be explained by kn01rJ11 reactions of free allcoxy raclicals J and very littJ...e, i.f allY, disPl"Opox~tiol'lation of tll10 sec-butoxy radica.ls in t116 solvent cage could be detected. The oth,er 20 - 30% of the peroxide yielded H2 and metb.:'ll etb..yl 1{etol1e. Tl1.e yield. o:f H2 "'lIas unafJ:'ected by the nature or the viscosity of the solvent, but H2 was not formed when s-t1U202 lrJaS phctolyzed. in tolttene at 35°C nor 'tl!Jrl.en the peroxide 1;'JaS tl1.ermally o..ecoJnposed. in the gas p11ase. ~pC-Dideutero-~-butYlperoxide was prepared and decomposed in toluene at 110 - 150°C. The yield of D2 was about ·•e1ne same 248 the yield. of I{2 from s-Bu202, bU.t th.e rate of decomposition (at 135°C) 1iJas only 1/1.55 as fast. Ivlecl1.anisms fOl') J:1ydrogen produ.ction are discussed, but none satisfactorily explains all the evidence.
    • The vibrational spectra and the normal coordinate analysis of thiocarbonye halides /|nby C. R. Subramaniam. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Subramaniam, Chandrasekarapuram Ramaswamy.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1969-07-09)
      The infrared and the Raman spectra of eSelF has been obtained for the first time and has been analysed to give the in-plane normal vibrational frequencies of the molecule, in the ground state. A normal co-ordinate analysis has been carried out for the molecules CSF2, CSClF and eSel 2 using a Urey-Bradley type of potential function and the elements of the [L] matrix elements, the distribution of the potential energy in Urey-Bradley space, and the displacement vector diagrams for the normal modes of vibration for these molecules, have been obtained. The bond for~e constants obtained through the normal co-ordinate analysis, have given some interesting results. The stretching force constant, Kes ' varies markedly with halogen substitution and the force constants KeF and Keel also vary with substitution.
    • The normal co-ordinate analysis, vibrational spectra and theoretical infrared intensities of some thiocarbonyl halide molecules /

      Brema, John L.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-06-09)
      TITLE: The normal co-ordinate analysis, vibrational spectra and theoretical infrared intensities of some thiocarbonyl halides. AUTHOR: J. L. Brema SUPERVISOR: Dr. D. C. Moule NUMBER OF PAGES: 89 ABSTRACT: The vibrational assignment of the five-in-plane fundamental modes of CSClBr has been made on the basis of infrared gas phase and liquid Raman spectral analyses to supplement our earlier vibrational studies. Even though the one out-of-plane fundamental was not observed spectroscopically an attempt has been made to predict its frequency. The vibrational spectra contained impurity bands and the CSClBr assignment was made only after a thorough analysis of the impurities themselves. A normal co-ordinate analysis calculation was performed assuming a Urey-Bradley force field. This calculation yielded the fundamental frequencies in good agreement with those observed after refinement of the originally transferred force constants. The theoretical frequencies are the eigenvalues of the secular equation and the calculation also gave the corresponding eigenvectors in the form of the very important LLj matrix. The [l] matrix is the transfoirmation between internal co-ordinates and normal co-ordinates and it is essential for Franck-Condon calculations on electronically excited molecules and for infrared Integrated band intensity studies. Using a self-consistent molecular orbital calculation termed "complete neglect of differential overlap" (CNDO/2) , theoretical values of equilibrium bond lengths and angleswere calcuted for a series of carbonyl and thlocarbonyl molecules. From these calculations valence force field force constants were also determined but with limited success. With the CNIX)/2 method theoretical dipole moment derivatives with respect to symmetrized internal co-ordinates were calculated and the results should be useful in a correlation with experimentally determined values.
    • Mass spectral studies of some pentafluorophenyl derivatives of group V /|nby Andrew Tanner Rake. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Rake, Andrew Tanner.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      The mass spectra of compounds of t he series (C6F5 )3-n MP~ (n = 1,2,3, M = P and As ), (C6F5>3Sb, Ph) Sb and (C6F5 )2SbPh have been studied in detail and the important modes of fragmentation were e1ucidated, a ided by metastable ions. Various trends attributed to the central atom and or the . substituent groups have been noted and, where applicable, compared to recent studies on related phenyl and pentafluorophenyl compounds of groups IV and V. The mass spectra of fluorine containing organometallic compounds exhibit characteristic migrations of fluorine to t he central atom, giving an increasing abundance of MF+, MF2+' and RMF+ (R = Ph or C6F5) ions on descending the group_ The mass spectra of pentafluorophenyl , antimony, and arsenic compounds show a greater fragmentation of the aromatic ring than those of phosphorus. The mixed phenyl pentafluorophenyl derivatives show a characteristic pattern depending on the number of phenyl grm.lps present but show t he general characteristics of both the tris(phenyl) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) compounds. The diphenyl pentafluorophenyl der ivatives show the loss of biphenyl ion as the most import ant step, the los s of phenyl t o give the i on PhMC6F5 + being of secondary importance. The ,bis(pentafluorophenyl) phenyl derivatives fragment primarily by loss of PhC6F5 to give C6F5M+ ions, the abundance of t hese increasing r apidly from phosphorus to arsenic. This species then, exhibits a characteristic fragmentation observed in the tris(penta- fluorophenyl ) compounds. However, the abundance of (C6F5)2M+ species in these compounds i s small. I ons of the type C6H4MC6F4 + and tetrafluorobiphenylene ions C6H4C6F4 + also are observed on substitution of a phenyl group for a penta- fluorophenyl group. The fully fluorinated species (C6F4)2M+ is not observed, although octafluorobiphenylene ions , (C6F4)2+' are evident in several spectra . The appearance potentials of the major ions were obtatned from the ionisation efficiency curves. Attempts were made to correlate these to the effect of the central atom in substituent groups, but the large errors involved prevented the reaching of quantitative conclusions, although it would appear that the electron is removed from the ligand in the ionisation of t he parent molecule .
    • NMR studies of the exchange reactions of CH3CN.BX3 with excess CH3CN /|nJoseph Fogelman. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Fogelman, Joseph.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      Exchange reactions between molecular complexes and excess acid or base are well known and have been extensively surveyed in the literature(l). Since the exchange mechanism will, in some way involve the breaking of the labile donor-acceptor bond, it follows that a discussion of the factors relating to bonding in molecular complexes will be relevant. In general, a strong Lewis base and a strong Lewis acid form a stable adduct provided that certain stereochemical requirements are met. A strong Lewis base has the following characteristics (1),(2) (i) high electron density at the donor site. (ii) a non-bonded electron pair which has a low ionization potential (iii) electron donating substituents at the donor atom site. (iv) facile approach of the site of the Lewis base to the acceptor site as dictated by the steric hindrance of the substituents. Examples of typical Lewis bases are ethers, nitriles, ketones, alcohols, amines and phosphines. For a strong Lewis acid, the following properties are important:( i) low electron density at the acceptor site. (ii) electron withdrawing substituents. (iii) substituents which do not interfere with the close approach of the Lewis base. (iv) availability of a vacant orbital capable of accepting the lone electron pair of the donor atom. Examples of Lewis acids are the group III and IV halides such (M=B, AI, Ga, In) and MX4 - (M=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). The relative bond strengths of molecular complexes have been investigated by:- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v] (vi) dipole moment measurements (3). shifts of the carbonyl peaks in the IIIR. (4) ,(5), (6) .. NMR chemical shift data (4),(7),(8),(9). D.V. and visible spectrophotometric shifts (10),(11). equilibrium constant data (12), (13). heats of dissociation and heats of reactions (l~), (16), (17), (18), (19). Many experiments have bben carried out on boron trihalides in order to determine their relative acid strengths. Using pyridine, nitrobenzene, acetonitrile and trimethylamine as reference Lewis bases, it was found that the acid strength varied in order:RBx3 > BC1 3 >BF 3 • For the acetonitrile-boron trihalide and trimethylamine boron trihalide complexes in nitrobenzene, an-NMR study (7) showed that the shift to lower field was. greatest for the BB~3 adduct ~n~ smallest for the BF 3 which is in agreement with the acid strengths. If electronegativities of the substituents were the only important effect, and since c~ Br ,one would expect the electron density at the boron nucleus to vary as BF3<BC1~ BBr 3 and therefore, the acid strength would vary as BF~BC1)BBr3: However, for the boron trihalides, the trend is in the opposite direction as determined experimentally. Considerable back-bonding (20), (21) between the halogen and the boron atoms has been proposed as the predominating factor, i.e. ~rt- back-bond between a lone electron pair on the halogen and the vacant orbital on the boron site. The degree of back-bonding varies inversely as the bo~on halogen distance and one would therefore expect the B-F bond to exhibit greater back-bonding character than the B-Cl or B-Br bonds. Since back-bonding transfers electron density from substituent to the boron atom site, this process would be expected to weaken the Lewis acid strength. This explains the Lewis acid strength increasing in the order BF 3 BC1 3 BBr 3 . When the acetonitrile boron trihalide complex is formed, the boron atom undergoes ~_cbange of hybridization from sp2 to sp3. From a linear relationship between the heat of formation of ethyl acetate adducts and the shift in the carbonyl I.R. stretch, Drago (22) et al have proposed that the angular di~tortion of the X-B-X bonds from sp2 (12 ) to sp3 (10 hybridization is proportional to the amount of charge transferred, i.e. to the nature of the base, and they have rejected the earlier concept of reorganization energy in explaining the formation of the adduct bond (19).
    • The near ultraviolet absorption spectrum of phosgene /

      Foo, Pang Dow.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-06-09)
      The near ultraviolet absorption of phosgene has been assigned to a * 1 1 ~.--n, A;-- Al electronic transition from vapour phase spectra recorded under conditions of high resolution and low_t~mperature. Progressions in Vi, v2' V3' V4 and V4 ha\1e been identified in the spectrum and have been analyzed in terms of vibronic transitions between a planar ground and a nonplanar excited state. A ba~rier height of 3170 cm~l:and a nona planar equilibrium angle of 32.5 were calculated for the upper state from a fit of the energy levels of a Lorentzian-guadratic potential func- ~ion to the observed levels of V 4 . ' ~he false ori- 3in, 41 0 , of the spectrum has been assigned to the band at 33,631 cm -1 . An oscillator strength of -3 1 . 1 f = 1. a x 10 has been obtained for the A - A 2 1 transition.
    • The structural effects of divalent cations and insulin on phospholipid model membranes /

      SenGupta, Sutapa.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1971-06-29)
      It is well accepted that structural studies with model membranes are of considerable value in understanding the structure of biological membranes. Many studies with models of pure phospholipids have been done; but the effects of divalent cations and protein on these models would make these studies more applicable to intact membrane. The present study, performed with above view, is a structural analysis of divalent io~cardio1ipin complexes using the technique of x-ray diffraction. Cardiolipin, precipitated from dilute solution by divalent ionscalcium, magnesium and barium, contains little water and the structure formed is similar to the structure of pure cardiolipin with low water content. The calcium-cardiolipin complex forms a pure hexagonal type II phase that exists from 40 to 400 C. The molar ratio of calcium and cardiolipin in the complex is 1 : 1. Cardiolipin, precipitated with magnesium and barium forms two co-existing phases, lamellar and hexagonal, the relative quantity of the two phases being dependent on temperature. The hexagonal phase type II consisting of water filled channels formed by adding calcium to cardiolipin may have a remarkable permeability property in intact membrane. Pure cardiolipin and insulin at pH 3.0 and 4.0 precipitate but form no organised structure. Lecithin/cardiolipin and insulin precipitated at pH 3.0 give a pure lamellar phase. As the lecithin/cardiolipin molar ratio changes from 93/7 to SO/50, (a) the repeat distance of the lamellar changes from 72.8 X to 68.2 A; (b) the amount of protein bound increases in such a way that cardiolipin/insulin molar ratio in the complex reaches a maximum constant value at lecithin/cardiolipin molar ratio 70/30. A structural model based on these data shows that the molecular arrangement of lipid and protein is a lipid bilayer coated with protein molecules. The lipid-protein interaction is chiefly electrostatic and little, if any, hydrophobic bonding occurs in this particular system. So, the proposed model is essentially the same as Davson-Daniellifs model of biological membrane.
    • Elliptical orbital studies of H21 and H2 molecules /|nS. K. Gupta. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Gupta, S. K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      Calculations are performed on the \S <:Jd ground states of d ' + the H and HC) molecules using a basis set of non-integral ~ ~ I elliptical orbitals. Different variational wavefunctions constructed i- for H~ involved one parameter to three par~~eter variation. In order to l"'educe the ntunber of parameters in most commonly 0- used basis orbitals set, the importance of the term (,+~) Y\ over the term ;u 'Where n is a variational pararneter and the value of cr may be given by boundary condition or cusp condition is outlined in Chapters II and III. It is found that the two parameter -+ <J""' wavefunction for H~ including the ternl (~+~) , a- given by the bound~ condition, gives lower variational energies than any wavefunction published to date for small and moderate internuclear separations. c;. In order to find out the importance of the term (I +~ ) Y\ over ;U for the two electron problem, the variational energy is computed for the H~ molecule from unrestricted two parameter closed shell wavefunctions including the term U+ft)<J w11ere the value of rr is obtained from the boundary condition in one case and from the cusp condition in the second case. In order to take into account in-out correlation partially, open shell calculation for the ground state of the hydrogen molecule for R =1.4 (equilibrium internuclear separation) is perfonaed. The results are excellent.
    • NMR studies of mixed tetrahaloborates and some related boron trihalide complexes /|nGary John Schrobilgen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Schrobilgen, Gary John.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with several ureas, tetramethylthiourea, tetramethylselenourea, and tetramethylquanidine as well as adducts of tetramethyl- -urea with BF2Cl, BFC1 2 , and BC1 3 - A large number of mixed tetrahaloborate ions, including some of the ternary ones such as BF2CIBr-,have been obtained by ligand exchange reactions and studied by NMR techniques. The bonding in these ions is of the same inherent interest as the bonding in the isoelectronic tetrahalomethanes which have been the subject of many detailed studies and have been involved in a controversy concerning the existence of and the nature of "fluorine hyperconjugation" or C-F P1T- Pn bonding_ Ligand exchange reactions also gave rise to the difluoroboron cation, (TMU)20BF2+o The difluoroboron cation has been observed in solutions of TMU-BF3 , and has been proposed as a possible intermediate for fluorine exchange reactions in BF3 adducts.
    • The electronic spectra and the determination of the excited state geometry of 3A" propynal /|nby Chhiu-Tsu Lin. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Lin, Chhiu-Tsu.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      Impurity free eluission spectra of HCCCHO and DCCCHO have been rephotographed using the electronic-energy-exchange method with benzene as a carrier gas. The near ultraviolet spectra of ReeCHO and DCCCHO were photographed in a sorption under conditions of high resolution with absorption path lengths up to 100 meters. The emission and absorption spectra of Propynal resulting from 3 n 1 t 1\ - A excitation has been reanalyzed in som.e detail. Botrl of the eH out-of-plane wagging modes were found to have negative anharmonicity. A barrier height of 56.8/0.0 cm- 1 and a nonplanar oft , , equilibrium angle of 17 3 /30 are calculated for the V 10/ lJ 11 modes. The in-plane and out-of-plane v1. brational modes in the 3A." and 1a~. ' elec ronic states of Propynal were subjected to a normal coordinate treatment in the approximat :on of tIle Urey-Bradley force field. From the relative oscillator strengths of the trans1·t1·0ns connect i ng t he v ibrat1•0n1ess lA' , state and t,he V1· bron1·C 3· if levels of the A state, the differences in equilibrium configuration were evaluated from an approximate Franck-Condon analysis based on the ground state normal coordinates. As this treatment gave 512 possible geometrical structures for the upper state, it 4 was necessary to resort to a comparison of the observed and calculated moments of inertia along with chemical intuition to isolate the structure. A test of the correctness of the calculated structure change and the vibrational assignment was raade by evaluating the intensities of the inplane and out-oi-plane fundarnental, sequence, and cross sequellce transitions y the exact Franck-Condon method.
    • The Smiles rearrangement in hydrazidic systems and related syntheses /|nG. A. Pawelchak. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Pawelchak, G. A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      This research was directed towards the investigation of the Smiles rearrangement in hydrazidic systems and the synthesis of related heterocyclic compounds. The work can be conveniently divided into two main sections. Section 1 of the thesis relates to the synthesis and examination of the O+N migration of phenoxy- derivatives of hydrazidic halides. In general, hydrazidic halides were found to react with 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to give corresponding a-nitrophenoxy- compounds. These a-nitrophenoxy- compounds were found to rearrange in warm base to give the corresponding N-benzoyl compounds via a proposed five-membered transition state. Experiments conducted in styrene revealed no radical contribution to the rearrangement. Cross-over product analysis indicated the rearrangement as intramolecular and consistent with the Smiles rearrangement. The preparation of N-a-chlorobenzylidene-N'-2-nitrophenyl- -N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine from N-benzoyl-N'-2-nitrophenyl- N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine was accomplished using phosphorus oxychloride. Examination of this hydrazidic chloride indicated a marked decrease .in reactivity as compared to the N-a-chlorobenzylidene-N'-phenylhydrazine case. Section 2 concerns itself with the preparation of heterocyclic compounds using an analogy of the five-membered transition state present in the Smiles rearrangement of a substituted benzylidene derivatives A new preparation of 2,4-phenyl1,3,4- oxadiazol-S-one using N-benzoyl-N'-phenylhydrazine and ethyl thiochloroformate is reported. Two new preparations of N-a-thiobenzoyl-N'-(2,4-dibromophenylhydrazine are reported using sodium hydrosulfide in conjunction with N-a-bromobenzylidene-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine in the first, and phosphorus pentasulfide with N-benzoylN'-( 2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine in the second. The latter is preferred due to the formation of a sulfide co-product in the former. Two preparations of 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-1,3,4- thiadiazol-S-one are reported using N-thiobenzoyl-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl) hydrazine and ethyl chloroformate and ethyl thiochloroformate Two rapid and easy preparations of 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)- 1,3,4-triazol-S-one are reported using ethyl chloroformate and ethyl thiochloroformate. Sodium cyanate in conjunction with a-aminobenzylidene-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine also provided 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-1,3,4-triazol-S-one Section 2 concludes with an examination of two possible mechanistic routes to the prepared heterocycles.
    • The suppression of the Haller-Bauer scission for synthetic purposes /|nby S. M. Vines. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Vines, S. M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      A number of 2-chlorobenzophenones, containing electron releasing groups (e.g. hydroxy, thiomethoxy and methoxy) in the 4' - position, were prepared by the Friess rearrangement, or the Friedel-Crafts reaction. These ketones, when treated with potassamide in liquid ammonia, underwent partial Haller-Bauer scission, unlike 2-chlorobenzophenone which is known to undergo complete scission. Under similar conditions 4-nitrobenzophenone also underwent partial scission, but the main reaction in this case was nucleophilic amination of the nitro containing ring. This amination reaction was shown not to be a useful general reaction for aromatic nitro compounds. 3-Methylxanthone was then prepared by treatment of 2- and 3- chloro-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylbenzophenone with . little, if any, attendant scission. The corresponding 2fluoro- compound also gave the xanthone, but as the 3-fluoro compound did not, it was concluded that the 2-fluoro compound reacted through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism, rather than the benzyne mechanism invoked for the chloro and bromo compounds. 3-Methylthioxanthone was synthesised by treatment of methyl 4-tolyl sulphide and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride with aluminum chloride in carbon disu1phide, followed.by heating. This compound was also prepared by treatment of 3-chloro-2'thiomethoxy- 5'-methylbenzophenone with potassamide in liquid ammonia.
    • Some ecological effects of beaver upon the watersheds in the Porcupine Hills, Alberta /

      Sverre, S. F. S.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1972-06-15)
      This ecological investigation of the beaver (Castor canadensis canadensis Kuhl) was part of the Eastern Slopes (Alberta) Watershed Research program conducted during the summers of 1968 . 1969 . 1970. and 1971 . A soil particle size analysis indicated that soil heavy with clay was used by the beaver for construction purposes in the Porcupine Hills . Examples were given of the beaver controlling erosion with the construction of dams . and also causing erosion to occur . However . in general . the beaver slow down soil erosion and decrease the loss of soil from this region. The beaver utilized measureable amounts of herbaceous vegetation . However, the utilization of herbs by the beaver requires further investigation. A system of ex~sures and enclosures of herbaceous vegetation plots was used to study the utilization of sedges , grasses , and forbs . The beaver indicated stronger species preference for willow as compared to aspen . The size preference for willow was in the 1.0 to 10.0 centimeters basal diameter classes , while the beaver utilization of aspen indicated a preference for the largest trees with basal diameter greater than 20.0 centimeters. Willow was the most important plant in the low lying areas with regard to distribution, abundance and to produce sustained yield. The beaver used this plant for food and construction throughout the study area. The distribution of aspen was limited. and this species did not appear to produce more than one crop in the lifetime of a beaver colony. Nine out of 15 woody plant types were sampled by the beaver in this region. A plot-intercept transect technique was used for systematic vegetation sampling of the woody vegetation in six intensively studied watersheds. The beaver population of the Porcupine Hills region of SW-Alberta is believed to depend upon the chinooks. During the 1971 ground census, a total of 60 active beaver colonies were tallied on the 930 square kilometers large study area. The beaver of the region were not found to store large food caches during fall and winter, however, they are believed to collect feed periodically throughout the winter months. It was observed that the severe winter in 1968-69, reduced by 27 per cent the number of active beaver colonies within the study area. The Porcupine Hills region had 0.07 beaver colony per square kilometer in 1971, a low density of beaver colonies due to the rough topography of the area. However, the importance of the beaver ponds was somewhat clarified as they provide increased moisture, which lessens the fire damage, and store water for wildlife and cattle in the area. Meteorological data was collected by the author in collaboration with the Department of Transport.
    • Host-parasite relationships in mycoparasite /

      Lee, Kwai Yiu Dennis.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-06-15)
      A mycoparasite, Piptocephalis virginiana ^ shows a resemblance to fungal parasites of higher plants in the fine structure of hyphae and haustoria. The morphology and fine structure of host and parasitic fungi have been described. The mode of penetration of the host cell, Choanephora cucurbitarum , probably involves mechanical forces. Although the presence of cell wall degrading enzyme was not detected by conventional techniques, its role in penetration can't be ruled out. A collar around the haustorial neck is formed as an extension of the host cell wall. No papilla was detected although appressorixim was seen during penetration. The young haustorium is enclosed in highly invaginating plasmalemma of the host cell and n\imerous cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Appearance of an electron—dense sheath around the mature haustorium seems to coincide with the disappearance of cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum from the host cystoplasm in the vicinity of the haustorium. The role of host cytoplasm particularly of endoplasmic reticulum in the development of the sheath is discussed. Extensive accumulation of spherosomes-like bodies, containing lipids, is found in haustorium, parasite and host hypha. Electron microscope revealed the parasiticculture spore has more lipid content than the axenic culture spore of P. virginiana . The biochemical and cytochemical tests also support these results. The mature spore of C. cucurbitarum possesses a thick three-layered cell wall, different from the hyphal wall. Its germination is accompanied by the formation of an elastic thin inner layer which surrounds the emerging germ tube and the growing hypha. High resolution autoradiography showed that H N-acetyl-glucosamine , a precursor of chitin, was incorporated preferentially in the thin inner layer of the spore wall and also in the cell wall of the growing hypha. When the label was fed to the infected cells, at different intervals after inoculation, grains were observed on the sheath which developed around the haustorium of P. virginiana , 30 hours after inoculation. The significance of these results in relation to the origin and composition of the sheath is discussed.
    • A mass spectrometric study of some pesticides /|nK. S. Subramanian. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Subramanian, K. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The fragmentation processes in the mass spectra of a series of organophosphorus, organochlorine, thio and dithiocarbamate as well as a number of miscellaneous pesticides have been studied i n detail by using the Bendix timeof- flight, MS-12 single-focussing and MS-30 double-focussing mass spectrometers. Interpretation of all the spectra have been presented; their mode s of dissociation elucidated, aided by metastable transitions wherever possible and the structures of the various f ragmentation species postulated wherever f easible. The fragmentation mechanisms are based on the concepts of inductive, resonance and steric ef~ects. Multiple bond cleavages accompanied by simultaneous bond formation and rearrangement reactions involving cycli c t r ansition states have clarified t he formation of various ions . Due emphasis has been placed on the effect of the functional groups or substituents in altering the mass spectral behaviour of the pesticides as they form the basis for the identifi cation of the otherwise identical pesticides. The organophosphorus pesticides which have been studied include i) the phosphates (eg: DDVP and Phosdrin ); ii) phosphorothionates (eg: Parathion, 0-2, 4 dichloro phenyl 0, O-diethyl thionophosphate); iii) phosphorothioites (eg: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite); i V) phosphorothioates (eg: Ethion) and v) phosphorodithioates (eg: Carbophenolthion). Cleavages and rearrangements of the ester moiety dominate the spectrum of phosdrin while that of DDVP is + dominated by t he fragmentation modes of the (OH30)2P=0 + moiety. Fragmentation §f the (CH30)2P=S characterises the spectrum of (OH30)2"P -Cl while cleavages of the + (C2H50 )2P=S species mark the spectra of parathion and 0-2, 4- di chlorophenyl O, O-diethyl thiophosphate. The 0(, cl eavages of the thioether f unction rather than + cleavages of the (C2H50)2P=S signify the spectrum of carbophenolthion. Tributyl phosphorotrithioite behaves more like an aliphatic hydrocarbon than like the corresponding phosphites. The isopropyl and butyl esters of 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid show cleavage and rearrangement ions typical of an ester. In spite of its structural similari ty to pp' - DDT and pp' - DDD, Kalthane has a completely different mass spectral behaviour due to the influence of its hydroxyl function. The thiocarbamate pesticides studied include Eptam and Perbulate. Both are structurally similar but having different alkyl substituents on nitrogen and sulphur. This structurQlsimilarity leads to similar types of (N-C), (O-S) and (S-alkyl cleavages). However, perbulate differs from Eptam in showing a rearrangement ion at mle 161 and in forming an isocyanate ion as the base peak. In Eptam the base peak i s the alkyl ion. The dithiocarbamate, Vegadex, resembles the thiocarbamates in undergoing simple cleavages but it differs from them in having a weak parent ion; in the formation of its base peak and in undergoing a series of rearrangement reactions. The miscellaneous pesticides studied include 1-Naphthalene acetic aCid- methyl ester, Fiperonyl butoxide and Allethrin. The ester i s stable to electron impact and shows only fewer ions. Piper onyl butoxide, a polyether, shows characteristics of an et her, alcohol and aldehyde . Allethrin is regarded as an ester of the type R-C-O-R1 with n R being a substituted cyclopr opane moiety and o Rt, a substituted cyclopentenone mOiety. Accordingly it shows cleavage ions typical of an aliphatic ester and undergoes bond ruptures of the cyclic moieties to give unusual ions. Its base peak is an odd electron ion, quite contrary to expectations.
    • An aryne route to aporphine alkaloids and related topics / |nIjaz Ahmad Chanda. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Chanda, Ijaz Ahmad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      This research was directed towards the investigation and development of an aryne route to the syntheses of aporphi ne and dibenzopyrrocolinium (dibenzoindolizinium) alkaloids and to the stability of the latter under the conditions used for aryne formation. The work c an be divided into three main sections . i) - Synthesis of Glaucine 6-Bromo-3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid, prepared by the action of bromine i n acetic acid on3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic a cid, was converted into its acid chloride by t he action of thionyl chloride. This on treatment with 3,4- dimethoxyphenylethylamine pr ovided N-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)- 2-(2-bromo-4,S-dimethoxyphenyl)-acetamide which on dehydration with phosphoryl chloride (Bischler Napieralski reaction) in dry benzene afforded l -(2-bromo-4,S-dimethoxybenzyl)- 3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, isolated as hydrochl oride. A new method o f destroying the excess of phosphoryl chloride was developed which proved to be quite useful. Methylation of the dihydroisoquinoline'with methyl iodide in methanol , and subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride provided (±)-6-bromolaudanosine. Act ion of potassamide or sodamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on (±)-6-bromolaudanosine yielded the corresponding amino derivative along with other products. Diazotization and ring closure of (±)-6-aminolaudanosine then a f forded (±)-glaucine which was isolated as methiodide. ii) - Intramolecular Capture of Aryne During Glaucine Synthesis, and Subsequent Reactions . This section deals with the by-products formed under the conditions of the aryne stage of t he glaucine synthesis. The crude product, obtained in the reaction of potassamide or sodamide in liquid ammonia on (±)-6-bromolaudanosine, was s eparated by chromatography, Three products were separated and identified. a ) - 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-( 3,4-dimethoxy-6-ethylphenyl)-lmethylindole. Two mechanisms are proposed for the formation of this interesting product. This compound also was prepared by the action of potassamide in l,iquid ammonia on 5,6 ,l2,l2atetrahydro- 2,3,9,lO-tetramethoxy-7-methyldibenz[b,g]indolizinium i odide . b) - 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxy-6-vinylphenyl)-lmethylindoline. Its formation represented a new method of Hofmann degradation . Further confirmation of structure was done by performing the normal Hofmann reaction on 5, 6,12,12a-tetrahydro -2/3,9,lO-tetramethoxy ~7-methyldibe nz[ b,g]indolizinium iodide. The indoline prepared i n this way was identical in all respects with that prepared above . c) - 1- (2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl ) -l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2- methyl-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, was converted t o glaucine as stated in section 1 . iii) - Attempt:,ed Sxnthesis of Liriodenine Piperonal was converted into 3,4-methylenedioxyinitrostyrene which on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride provided 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylethylamine. The method of extraction after the reduction was improved t o some extent. The amine on condensation with m-chlorophenylacetyl chloride, prepared by the action of oxalyl chloride on 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetic acid, provided N-[ ~ -(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)- e thyl)-3-chlorophenylacetamide. This on dehydration with phosphoryl chloride in dry benzene followed by air oxidation afforded l-(3-chlorobenzoyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyi soquinoline. This compound on r eaction with potassamide in liquid ammonia afforded a crude product from which. one product was separated by chromatography i n a pure condition . This yellow compound analysed as,c17Hl ON2021 and was t he main product i n the reaction ; a t entative structure is proposed. A second compound, not obtained in pure condition, was submitted to Pschorr reaction in the hope of obtaining liriodenine, but without success.
    • Anharmonic Helmholtz free energy to O(lambdaâ ´) in the non- leading term approximation /|nby Leslie Wilk. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Wilk, Leslie.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      Expressions for the anharmonic Helmholtz free energy contributions up to o( f ) ,valid for all temperatures, have been obtained using perturbation theory for a c r ystal in which every atom is on a site of inversion symmetry. Numerical calculations have been carried out in the high temperature limit and in the non-leading term approximation for a monatomic facecentred cubic crystal with nearest neighbour c entralforce interactions. The numbers obtained were seen to vary by a s much as 47% from thos e obtai.ned in the leading term approximati.on,indicating that the latter approximati on is not in general very good. The convergence to oct) of the perturbation series in the high temperature limit appears satisfactory.
    • Heats of formation of some hydrates /|nA. Phillipson. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Phillipson, A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      A great deal of data on the heats of formation of various hydrates has been compiled i n the J.A.N.A.F. and other tables such as the National Bureau of Standards circulars. Comparison of the heat of f ormation of a hydrate with that of the corresponding anhydrate exposes anomalies i n a surprising number of cases. Some of the results are so discordant that i t is apparent that one or the other value is seriously mistaken. No attempt has been made i n this work to determine which value may be correct, but measurements have been made of the difference between these two values. The procedure adopted has been to dissolve the hydrate and the anhydrate, to achieve the same final concentration of the compound in solution, and so to measure the difference in heats of solution .. Measurements were made at OOC in a modified Bunsen ice calorimeter, well insulated and surrounded by an icewater mixture . The observed differences in heats of solut ion were corrected t o 25°0 by using appropriate heat capacity data. These differences offer a direct measure of the enthalpy involved in binding a mole of water into the crystal structure and so should shed light on the nature of binding involved. The following hydrates were studied : MgS04.nH20 (n = 1,4,7), MnC12.nH20 (n = 1, 2), LiI. nH20 (n = 1,3), MnS04. nH20 (n = 1,4), CaC12. nH20 (n = 2,6) , K2C03.1~H20, LiCl.H20, LiBr.2H20, CdC12.2t H2o, and N2H4eH20.