Copyright of Brock Student Theses and Major Research Papers (MRPs)

Students retain the copyright of their theses and major research papers. Under the terms of the “Thesis and Major Research Paper Copyright Licence” students grant Brock University the right to preserve and disseminate theses and major research papers via the Brock University Digital Repository, Library and Archives Canada and in other third party thesis databases.

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  • Exploring the COVID-19 Impact and Process of Value Change Towards Work and Leisure Among Millennials: "What Would I Rather Have: A Topped-Up RRSP or Stories of a Month Doing My Dive Master?"

    Coyle, Gerry; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted norms and routines such as employment status, office space, and access to recreational services and programming. Values are defined as a broad set of goals that influence behaviours, perceptions, and attitudes. Value change is thought to occur in the wake of significant lifestyle disruption, such as marriage, parenthood, or the COVID-19 pandemic. Research on value change is limited. Millennials (1981 – 1996) currently make up 33.2% of the Canadian workforce. Therefore, significant change in values could hold wider ramifications on the domains of work and leisure. This research asked two questions: (1) In what way are Millennial males expressing their new values towards work and leisure? And (2) What did the process of value change look like in young male Millennials? This research is guided by a grounded theory approach, using intensive interview techniques to gather rich, experience-driven data from seven young (1989 – 1996) millennial males living in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data was analysed through an initial then axial coding process. A theory on the process of change was determined through the coding process and revealed that participants navigated through five stages: lifestyle disruption occurred to physical and psychological space. Participants became aware of their dissatisfaction, through career choice, routines, and usage of leisure time. Participants took action to address areas of dissatisfaction through career change and implementing boundaries. Participants then proceeded with a maintenance period of tinkering and increasing flexibility to seek the highest form of value-expressive behaviour. Lastly, participants sought validation from self and from others. Keywords: COVID-19, Work, Values, Millennials, Grounded Theory
  • Tactics to Engender Participation in Collaborative Environmental Management

    Heaney, Shannon; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre
    Complexity, uncertainty and conflict characterize contemporary environmental challenges. Addressing these issues is beyond the purview of any one actor. A collaborative approach to environmental management is required; participation in collaboration is needed. However, participation in collaborative environmental management is a persistent challenge in practice. This thesis examines tactics used to engender participation in collaborations. Tactics constitute a strategy for communications with an intended goal and encompass the framing (i.e., wording, imagery) and platform of dissemination. Two complementary studies were undertaken. Study One sought to gain insights about tactics used by organizations to foster participation in various environmental management collaborations. A multiple case study method was employed with five organizations investigated including Niagara Parks Commission, Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority, City of St. Catharines, City of Richmond Hill, and Landscape Ontario. Data was primarily collected through semi-structured interviews with key informants, with websites, reports, and shared documents providing additional information. Qualitative analysis revealed that the organizations use an array of tactics to effectively reach various audiences, employ tactics targeted for specific audiences, and stress the importance of using multiple tactics across a media mix. Study Two examined the influence of tactics on an intention to participate in an environmental management collaboration. Eight tactics were empirically tested on 300 individuals aged 18-29. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was undertaken. Results uncovered the effectiveness of contextual and personal framings in engendering participation and deepened the understanding about past participation, tactics and an individual's intention to participate. In concert, the two studies emphasize the need for greater attention to tactics in environmental management. The thesis contributes to a greater understanding of tactics, identifying effective practices for engendering participation and broad dissemination. Opportunities to engender participation in collaborations using tactics are abundant. The findings from the research indicate a need to allocate greater resources to the creation of tactics including the imagery and wording used; additionally, findings indicate the importance of the platform on which tactics are disseminated and the effectiveness of employing multiple tactics across multiple platforms for maximum audience reach. Recommendations close the thesis and are offered for environmental management practice and future research.
  • On the Physical Demands of Gaming: Quantifying Pain, Muscle Activity, Kinematics, and Performance Changes

    Forman, Garrick Neville; Applied Health Sciences Program
    With the rapid growth of both the gaming and esports industries, millions of individuals are now playing games as hobbies and careers. The intense and repetitive nature of gaming can likely lead to significant muscle fatigue and increase an individual’s susceptibility to musculoskeletal injuries and pain. However, the physical demands of gaming have largely been unexplored. The objectives of this thesis fell into three categories. 1) Determine where gamers most commonly experience pain while gaming and whether any demographics or gaming habits can predict pain or discomfort in the upper body (Chapter 3). 2) Determine how muscle fatigue and motor performance of the distal upper limb are impacted by a low-force/high-repetition fatiguing protocol utilizing rapid mouse clicking (Chapter 4) and mouse aiming (Chapter 5). 3) Determine the muscular and postural demands associated with high level, competitive gaming (Chapter 6). In Chapter 3, we identified that the neck, low back, and right arm were the most common locations of gaming-related pain. The high prevalence of gaming-related pain reported confirmed that gaming-related pain is a significant problem which requires further investigation. In Chapters 4 and 5, we found that low-force, high repetition fatigue protocols led to few impairments in motor performance. However, changes in EMG characteristics indicated that the mouse clicking protocol led to fatigue of the wrist flexors while the mouse aiming protocol produced muscle fatigue in the wrist extensors. Finally, in Chapter 6, we found that static loading of the shoulder and forearm musculature exceeded guidelines while playing a competitive PC first-person shooter. Musculature of the upper limb produced sustained high levels of muscle activity with little to no rest, exceeding suggested guidelines based on both magnitude of activity and rest time. This thesis provides some of the first research investigating the physical impact of video games on the upper body. It is also the first work to document the impact of low-force fatiguing protocols on fine motor functioning of the distal upper limb and to quantify the physical demands while playing competitive PC video games.
  • Influence of Head Injury on Episodic Memory, Meta-memory, and Cannabis Use

    Patel, Smit; Department of Psychology
    Mild head injuries (MHI) are implicated in impairments of various cognitive constructs, including memory. Specifically, episodic memory performance is shown to be dampened post-MHI. Further, head injuries are also associated with problems in processing and reacting to emotional stimuli and, overall, research has shown that those with head injuries are less able to recall emotional stimuli compared to their No-MHI cohort. This literature is lacking in detailed measures of narrative episodic memory, especially in those with milder versus moderate or severe head injuries. Most studies implement word-list tasks to assess episodic memory, so the aim of the present study was to assess episodic memory using a story task, which is more reflective of memory usage required in day-to-day tasks. The goal of this research was to examine emotionally-valenced narrative recall in persons with MHI, while accounting for possible emotion effects. Subjective-memory, or meta-memory, was also of interest. As head injuries are whole-brain events, various neurological structures can be impacted, but in particular, involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been acknowledged. Even minor disruption to the PFC is associated with impulse control and sensation-seeking behaviours, including substance use. Those with a history of MHI have been shown to be more vulnerable to substance use/abuse. Given the recent legalisation of cannabis in Canada and its increased medical and recreational use, in addition to its influence on memory and cognitive, this research also investigates the nature, and interaction, of cannabis consumption in relation to MHI. This study recruited 134 Brock University students to assess the relationships between MHI and episodic memory, subjective memory, emotional processing, and cannabis use. Results indicated that the MHI group performed similarly to the No-MHI group in recall capacity, and with both groups demonstrating a potent valence-related effect. Further, cannabis use was reported to a greater degree by those with an MHI, demonstrating that high-functioning university students have the facilities to overcome possible narrative episodic memory impairments attributable to a head injury, however, they remain disadvantaged in terms of substance use and are disproportionately affected by it.
  • Preservice Teachers’ Perceived Preparedness to Integrate Technology Into Teaching of Mathematics: A Mixed Method Study

    Shahmohammadi, Soheila Belgheis; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
    This study explored preservice teachers’ (PTs’) perceptions of their preparedness to effectively integrate technology into mathematics teaching and the pedagogical strategies that contributed to developing their competencies in this regard. Their perceived preparedness was examined in terms of their knowledge within the TPACK domains and self-efficacy beliefs. Using a concurrent mixed method design, data were collected from 59 PTs in their last semester of study at a Canadian university. Quantitative data were collected through an online survey via three widely used instruments, namely: the TPACK survey, the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS), and the Synthesis of Qualitative Evidence (SQD) Scale. Qualitative data obtained from three open-ended survey questions and follow-up interviews with six participants provided broader insights about PTs’ experiences and activities regarding technology integration into mathematics teaching. The results of descriptive statistics and thematic analysis indicated that PTs perceived their knowledge and self-efficacy beliefs related to integrating technology into mathematics teaching at a moderate to a high level. Correlation analysis also indicated positive relationships between the seven subscales of the TPACK domains and the confidence scale. Participants shared that while their respective programs’ ICT for Teaching and Learning course played an important role in developing their knowledge in the TK and TPK domains, activities such as coding processes, math games, dynamic mathematics software, and graphic calculators were effective tools that encouraged them to use technology in their teaching of mathematics (TPCK). Experiential learning, including practicum experiences, role modeling strategy, and collaboration with peers were identified by participants as effective pedagogical strategies that developed their preparedness to integrate technology into their teaching of mathematics. Some recommendations of this study for teacher education programs include providing math-specific technology courses; incorporating appropriate instructional design that connects the content course to curriculum to promote PTs’ active engagement in meaningful technology-rich learning activities; and using all six pedagogical strategies presented in the SQD model to prepare future teachers to effectively use technology in mathematics teaching.
  • “Congratulations on being drafted … Time to Start Planning for Retirement!”: NHL Players’ reflections on post-career planning

    Graves, Logan; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The purpose of this study is to understand retired NHL players' perceptions of the most important decisions that need to be made during a playing-career to position themselves for a “happy life” post-NHL career. Indeed, the retired NHL player population is underrepresented within academic literature, and to the extent that researchers have mapped out the decision-making process athletes go through upon retirement (e.g., Park et al., 2012; Eggleston et al., 2020), none have considered the tangible decisions that could be made over the course of a playing-career to build what they perceive as a happy life after retiring from sport, especially in the context of an NHL career. Hence, this study sought to accomplish its purpose through a pragmatic epistemology and a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with 11 former NHL players who retired between 1995 and 2017. Each semi-structured interview was conducted via the telephone; the collected data was then analyzed using both in-vivo and focused coding strategies. Collectively, these codes were used to visually amalgamate the findings of this study into the Playing-Career Decision Making Model, which illustrated a) how retired NHL players define a happy life post-NHL career; b) the contributing factors during a playing-career to building a happy life; and c) the most important decisions NHL players need to make to prepare for their lives post-NHL career. Further, the findings of this study offer a practical understanding of retirement preparation and decision-making among retired NHL players, emphasizing the need for earlier pre-retirement planning, during a playing-career, to facilitate high-quality outcomes in retirement. Future research should address the subjectiveness of NHL players’ happiness in retirement, including those who do not exclusively reside in North America, and the tangible decisions they deem essential in facilitating a happy life in retirement.
  • Drawing on the Lived Experiences of Peer Support Workers in the provision of Substance and Addiction Services: A Case Study of ABC Health Center

    Segawa, Patrick; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Substance and drug abuse can have long-term effects on the physical, social, and mental well-being of people, and can lead to death. The highest percentage of drug users in Canada can be found among youth and young adults. The use of substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis may lead them into vulnerable situations and risk of addiction. I conducted a qualitative research study where six (6) peer support workers (18 to 50) working with ABC Health Center were recruited and interviewed to obtain diverse information on their lived experiences in the provision of substance and addiction services in a city in Niagara Region. One (1) FGD was conducted among clinicians and/or counselors who work with and support the peer support workers. Data was collected in January 2023. The semi-structured interviews and FGD were audio recorded, transcribed, de-identified, and analyzed thematically. Many of the peer support workers have previously been clients with ABC Health Center and their greatest motivation is the desire to help other youths who are going through similar situations that they have recovered from. Some of the day-to-day activities conducted by peer support workers include: conducting one-on-one sessions with clients, facilitating group discussions, and providing referrals for information and services. One of the benefits associated with peer support is being in a position to support other people recover from substance and addiction challenges. Some of the challenges faced by peer support workers include: the feeling of being vulnerable; not knowing when to draw the line in oversharing and fear of being put into compromising situations. Peer support workers play a critical function in being role models in the recovery process among their fellow youths and young adults. This is done by establishing mutual relationships based on trust. Their biggest desire is to give back through sharing their lived experience and helping others overcome challenges with substances and addiction.
  • What is the influence of music on performance in practice and competition among university competitive fencers?

    Tait, Tamara; Tait, Tamara; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Fencing as a sport and music as an expressive form are two topics that may seem very distant in comparison, but both have many aspects that are intertwined. The purpose of this study was to understand how music is used within practice and competition settings and how rhythm, tempo and timing in fencing might be influenced by music. This study used grounded theory and its three-phase thematic analysis and applied a social-constructivist lens. The research question was: What is the influence of music on performance in practice and competition among university competitive fencers? The participants were interviewed using semi-structured interviews and the researcher kept retrospective notes on observations as an insider to the fencing community. The main findings were split into two groups that included practice and competition. Practice music influence showed that music was used to increase motivation but could also cause distraction from the practice. It also showed how one learned to develop fencing rhythm using music, and how auditory cues from music and from saying sounds that correspond to physical movements help with development of timing. Other findings were that fencers have practice structured around the way they learn, moving from learning in parts to wholes or easy to complex. Also noted was that each weapon has its own style that is free to be discovered and developed. Competition music influence was discovered to be almost non-existent other than for the use of pre-competition preparation and was used sometimes between bouts for relaxation purposes. Other findings were that due to external stressors, fencers tend to not be aware of what their body is doing. In their minds, the action feels correct, but it might have been too big or small or too fast or slow. Also, partner rhythm within a competition is difficult to manipulate as both opponents are trying not to follow each other’s footwork. Music seems to have an influence on those who use it to their advantage, but is connected to the athletes, coaches, and their way of learning.
  • Sublimating the Singularity of an Author(ity): Textual Publics, Textual Agency, and a Case Study of "Eikon Basilike" (1649-1660)

    Morris-Warkentin, Julie; Interdisciplinary Humanities Program
    This dissertation utilizes a critical post-human theorization of textual agency to demonstrate how, within certain historical circumstances, autobiographical texts are capable of assuming surrogate authorial agency for their $ubject-authors through the expression of what Mari Ruti (2012) identifies as singularity of being. Building upon the works of Ruti, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek, and others, I illustrate how, through authorial cathexis, the singularity of the foreclosed $ubject-author registers its presence in the Symbolic field through what I call sublimated metaphoric-metonymic essences of the Real. This project employs its theory of the text-agent in a psychoanalytic case study of the regicide of Charles I (1649); the posthumous publication of his book, "Eikon Basilike"; and royalist textual responses to these events during the English Interregnum (1648/9–1660/1). I argue that "Eikon Basilike"—Charles I’s textual agent—was fetishized and sublimated with the king’s singularity, which enabled royalists to transfer his paternal-monarchical authority to the "Eikon." Specifically, the book was able to channel the king’s monarchical power through the Freudian paternal no. The "Eikon" became a Lacanian stain on the English Interregnum literary landscape, and it prompted royalists to combat the parliamentarians as a royalist textual public in response to the regicide. Through lenses of psychoanalysis and trauma theory, I investigate how royalist texts were disrupted by moments of what Mathew Martin (2015) calls traumatic mimesis. These texts exhibit moments of destabilized emotional surplus, which manifested mimetically as textual symptoms in the Symbolic field as their authors attempted to process the loss of the English monarchy. In so doing, royalist texts helped to condition public imagination of the Restoration through their individual contributions to a trans-subjective royalist textual fantasy: the sublimated $ubject-object a of monarchical ideology, "Eikon Basilike."
  • An Investigation on the Influence of Parental Physical Activity on Physical Activity Behaviours of Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Gaffan, Joceline; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    As children grow and develop there are many factors that play a role in influencing a child. Physical activity (PA) is important for children and youth development. Parents are widely acknowledged as significant influences in various aspects of their children’s lives, particularly serving as role models for PA. In the literature pertaining to this topic, multiple findings support the notion of a positive influence of parental PA on their child’s PA (Barkin et al., 2017; 2017; Song et al., 2017; Xu et al., 2018). The aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between parent and child PA over time through device-assessed measures. Additionally, this thesis will examine whether a distinction exists in the relationship between parent PA and PA of typically developing (TD) children and children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The current study will utilize data from the Coordination and Activity Tracking in children study. This study will look at 330 child-parent dyads (TD=204; DCD=126) by utilizing the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) through path analysis. For this study the APIM looks at the relationship between parent and child PA. The actor effects represent the effect of the participants own PA on their future PA. The partner influences represent the impact of the participants PA on their partners PA. Three models were utilized, the first examining the full sample and then subsequently stratifying the children into TD and DCD groups. For the APIM it was found that there were significant actor effects for both parent and child meaning that their PA was predictive of their future PA, which was consistence across all three models. There were no significant partner influences in each of the APIM models indicating that parent and child PA were not predictive of each other at any timepoint. Overall, the results of this study reveal that there is no evident relationship between parent and child PA over time, regardless of whether they belong to the TD or DCD group. These findings emphasize the need for standardized accelerometer processes to enhance result consistency and reliability when investigating the relationship between parent and child PA.
  • Effects of a Disengagement Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Those with a Mild Head Injury

    Amodio, Francesco; Department of Psychology
    Mild head injury (MHI) is a major public health concern and cognitive fatigue following injury is one of the most commonly reported and debilitating symptoms that interfere with everyday life. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is especially susceptible during injury and is an important brain region in the context of traumatic brain injury; the vmPFC is responsible for regulating physiological arousal and the neuropathology following MHI has been shown to lead to physiological underarousal. Dampened physiological arousal has been shown to precede and give rise to cognitive fatigue, and that more severe injuries lead to both worsened physiological arousal and fatigue outcomes. The frontal regions most susceptible during injury are also largely involved in attentional processes, such that attentional processes are compromised following the neuropathology associated with MHI as well as from the onset of cognitive fatigue. Attentional deficits then arise in those with a history of MHI as a function of injury as well as cognitive fatigue compounding together; these attentional deficits then go on to impair overall cognitive functions which then present as poor performance on cognitively demanding tasks and, or, as a lessened ability to make optimal decisions in everyday life. Due to this, physiological arousal may then reflect cognitive resources available to individuals, and an opportunity to replenish these cognitive resources (i.e., a disengagement intervention) may lead to better performance outcomes on cognitively demanding tasks as well as improved fatigue ratings. This study sought to examine the effects of a disengagement intervention on cognitive performance across cognitively demanding tasks (i.e., Go/No-Go Task and Mental Rotation Task [MR Task]) in those with, and without, a history of MHI. It was found that those with a history of MHI exhibited lower physiological arousal as a function of injury severity, higher fatigue, and required more effort to meet task demands. It was also found that the Go/No-Go Task reliably induced cognitive fatigue as evidenced by diminished performance as a function of time on task, and that the stimulus-driven Go/No-Go Task slowly depleted cognitive resources while the goal-directed MR Task quickly exhausted cognitive resources. It was also found that having the opportunity to disengage from the task for a short period of time buffered performance decrements and lead to requiring less effort across cognitively demanding tasks. Additionally, it was also found that physiological arousal was dampened and fatigue was heightened as a function of the lockdowns imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Tukisiven: Nunatsiavummiut Share Their Experience of Participating in a Nova Scotia Community College Child and Youth Care Diploma

    Shaw, Kelly; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    It is well documented that there are gaps in the research related to Inuit education and to Child and Youth Care (CYC) pre-service education. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore the experience of 4 Nunatsiavummiut who graduated from a Nova Scotia Community College with a diploma in CYC. Three superordinate themes and seven subordinate themes were interpreted with the Nunatsivummiut participating as co-inquirers. The first superordinate theme was powerful emotions; subordinate themes were identified as passion, doubt, and balance/unbalance. It was clear through the analysis of the interviews that the Nunatsiavummiut stayed engaged in a two-year college diploma because they were passionate about working with young people and they wanted to know more about how to do this better. They did find the programme overwhelming at times and doubted if they could stay and complete it. For a variety of reasons, throughout the diploma, the co-inquirers all experienced a sense of shifting between a need for balance and yet feeling unbalance. The second superordinate theme was Our Land, Our People. The subordinate themes were shared purpose, and what I knew, I knew. It was interpreted that their knowing of Nunatsiavut and Nunatsiavummiut was shared collectively and supported them to know what they knew. They experienced having a shared purpose through the course work and the goal to support Nunatsiavummiut children, youth, and families. They were inspired and motivated by each other and learned together towards a common goal. The third superordinate theme was empowered to advocate, I have voice. With subordinate themes identified as heard and supported, and transformed. They felt that they were heard and supported and experienced this as being empowered to have voice; they perceived that their responsibility with this voice was to advocate for themselves; their communities; children, youth, and families from Nunatsiavut; other Nunatsiavummiut; and for the profession of CYC. A deepened understanding of the experience of Nunatsiavummiut participating in CYC pre-service education in a post-secondary environment will enhance confidence for educators and policy makers that their decisions are supporting student engagement and success. This information may assist potential students in making increasingly informed decisions about post-secondary education programmes.
  • The Lived Sport Experiences of Muslim Females Athletes Leading Advocacy and Activist Initiatives in Sport

    Mohamed Hussein, Fitriya; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Using Zine’s (2004) Critical Faith-Centered Framework, this research focused on Muslim female athletes who engaged in advocacy and activist initiatives in sport. To be exact, the research purpose was to explore the lived sport experiences of Muslim female athletes' advocacy and activist initiatives, specifically as they create sport opportunities for Muslim girls and women. The intended three research questions included 1), what are the sport experiences of Muslim female athletes who are actively advocating for Muslim girls and women?, 2), how are Muslim female athletes facilitating sport opportunities for Muslim girls and women?, and 3), in what ways are Muslim female athletes engaging in advocacy and activist initiatives? Two virtual interviews took place with eight Muslim female athletes whose work revolved around creating sport opportunities for Muslim girls and women in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Using Braun and Clark's (2006) thematic content analysis, three themes were identified. The first theme identified was Muslim women’s catalyst for current work, related to the ways participants experienced sport and how that served as a catalysts with their current work creating sport opportunities for the next generations of Muslim girls and women. The second theme identified was, Muslim women navigating their identity(ies) with their work, related to participants various identities and the ways they navigated such identities with their work, and the third theme identified was, factors shaping and evolving Muslim female athletes work, which related to the support that shaped and evolved their work. The finding indicated that participants' youth sport experience played a significant role in the ways they facilitated sport opportunities for Muslim girls and women, and participants both engaged in advocacy and activist initiatives with their work.
  • Automatic Generation of Human Readable Proofs

    Hu, Xuehan; Department of Computer Science
    Declarative sentences are statements constructed from propositions that can be either true or false. To be easily manipulated by a program, we present a formal system for handling such declarative sentences called propositional logic. Currently, widely used methods for automatically generating proofs have readability limitations: the deduction process does not conform to human reasoning processes, or the proof tree generated is too complicated. The primary objective of this thesis is to design a program that automatically gen- erates human-readable propositional logic proofs using Natural Deduction. Natural Deduction is a calculus for deriving conclusions from a finite set of premises using proof rules. The deduction process is a tree structure with assumptions as leaves, natural deduction rules as nodes, and the conclusion as the root. This calculus mod- els human reasoning very well because it builds proofs incrementally using logical deductions from known facts and assumptions. Our approach will be capable of proving any valid sentence of Propositional Logic automatically and producing a proof tree in the Natural Deduction calculus.
  • Innovation Through Repurposing in Times of Crisis: An Exploratory Study

    Tran, Khanh Ngoc; Faculty of Business Programs
    This research examines the concept of Innovation Through Repurposing (ITR), a strategic alternative to traditional innovation from scratch, particularly in the face of crises. ITR, as defined for the purpose of this study, involves the creative utilization of existing resources, often enhanced by information technologies, to generate novel solutions. This study seeks to understand the factors that contribute to a firm's decision to undertake ITR, drawing on current innovation literature and theoretical precepts related to adaptability and resourcefulness. We advance the notion of ITR, particularly under crisis conditions, where it may present a more viable option for innovation due to heightened uncertainty, constrained timelines, and limited resources. Recent examples indicate that firms may prefer or benefit from ITR during crises, underscoring the need for a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. This research is an exploratory study that further examines the conditions under which firms might be motivated to undertake ITR. We propose that the urgency to innovate, coupled with the interplay of information technology and organizational capabilities, plays a significant role in shaping the direction and success of ITR. Our methodology involves a mixed-method research design. Initially, we adopt a qualitative approach involving individual interviews with executives and managers. Their experiences and insights form a preliminary model for understanding crisis-driven innovation. Following this, we validate and further probe these emergent ideas through focus group discussions. This approach allows us to cross verify findings and explore different perspectives, enhancing the richness and robustness of our understanding. The findings from our qualitative study provided critical insights into how firms navigate and pivot their strategies during crises by leveraging existing resources, confirming the potential and importance of ITR in times of crisis. These results can form a substantive basis for further theorization and quantitative empirical studies in the future. Ultimately, this research aims to construct a well-structured nomological network of crisis-driven innovation, offering actionable insights for organizations navigating future crises. By shedding light on the dynamics of ITR, we aspire to enrich the literature on IS innovation and crisis management.
  • Language Agnostic Software Energy Kernel Framework

    Dipanzan, Sarwat Islam; Department of Computer Science
    Software efficiency has taken a toll in recent times and code quality and optimization is often an afterthought nowadays. Also there exists no standard operating system support or unified tooling to gather fine grained energy consumption data about source code. Current tooling that exist tackles this problem by running the entire process/application as a whole, therefore localizing the exact part in source code is a blind endeavour. It is also time consuming and expensive to improve such efficiency concerns during the development phase. Coupled with the fact that recent hardware leaps has made it possible to write non-performant software to run relatively fast without much regards to code efficiency. The downside to this phenomenon is that, the hardware compensates for bad code quality by using far more resources increasing energy usage. In this thesis, we focus on an energy centric view of running applications and devise tooling to assist the software developer when choosing libraries, frameworks, programming languages and critical architecture designs. We propose a standard unified way of gathering energy consumption data from the operating system kernel and propose two solutions: a kernel energy module and associated energy reading libraries. The objective is to introspect process/applications without massively altering source code. The idea is to probe into source code and gather energy data for comparison against different implementations to create awareness amongst software developers. The tooling is designed to be application and programming language agnostic so that it can infer runtime metrics without much assumption of the underlying software. This allows to gather virtually any scenario and compare software models with different versions, environments and systems. The thesis also does extensive machine-learning tests using different libraries and synthetic datasets to shed light on ML experiments and their energy consumption. Together with these approaches, the developers can make informed decisions about which part to prioritize improvement and achieve greener software.
  • Examination of physical activity, barriers, and wellbeing in mothers within one year of giving birth

    Osborne, Jenna; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Many new moms express a desire to be physically active but encounter a variety of barriers, such as lack of perceived social support. Different types of support might be needed for new mothers to be active (e.g., for exercise- or postpartum-related barriers). While social support (SS) has been shown to improve physical activity and well-being, there is a need to understand moderators of these relationships. Exercise-related cognitive errors (ECEs) bias how accurately individuals view their physical activity and might impact the support-activity relationship. It was hypothesized that ECEs and social support would interact to predict physical activity, barrier self-efficacy, and psychological well-being in the first year after giving birth. New moms (N= 268, Mage=29.96 years ± 6.12) completed a self-reported survey using the ECE questionnaire (ECE-Q), Social Support for Exercise scale (SSES; 2 subscales family and friends), a modified Postpartum Support questionnaire (PSSQ; 2 subscales: family and friends), Psychological Well-being scale (PWBS), barrier self-efficacy, and the short form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). SSES friends individually predicted physical activity bouts (B = .270, p < .001; R2 =.06, p < .001) beyond covariates. SSES family (B = .219, p < .001) and the ECE-Q (B = .141, p = .025) predicted physical activity bouts (R2 = .04, p < .001) beyond covariates. SSES from friends (B = .261, p <.001) and the ECE-Q (B = -.180, p = .002) predicted barrier-efficacy (R2 = .03, p < .001) beyond covariates. SSES from family (B = .274, p < .001) and the ECE-Q (B = -.145, p = .014) predicted barrier-efficacy (R2 = .02, p < .001) beyond covariates. SSES (B = -.288, p <.001) PSSQ (B = .490, p <.001) from friends and ECEs (B = -.121, p = .027) were predictors for PWBS (R2 = .01, p < .001) beyond the covariates. PSSQ from family (B = .433, p < .001), and the ECE-Q (B = -.150, p = .007; predicted PWBS (R2 = .02, p < .001) beyond covariates. None of the interactions were significant. While previous research has observed an interaction between SSES and ECEs in predicting physical activity bouts during pregnancy, the current findings did not support this interaction after birth for new mothers. Findings underscore possible predictors of how new mothers view and overcome their physical activity barriers and of their wellbeing.
  • Adaptive Logging System: A System Using Reinforcement Learning For Log Placement

    Khosravi Tabrizi, Amirmahdi; Department of Computer Science
    The efficient management of software logs plays a key role in software development, as it allows for the examination of runtime information for post-execution analysis. Given the significance of logs and the possibility that developers may not possess the necessary knowledge to make informed logging decisions, it is important to have a robust log-placement framework that supports developers. Prior attempts to address this challenge have proposed various frameworks, however, these frameworks are either limited to a single logging objective or rely on methods that exhibit poor cross-project consistency. This study introduces a novel performance logging objective to capture and reveal performance bugs, and presents an adaptive software logging approach based on reinforcement learning, which can adapt to multiple logging objectives. This framework is not limited to a specific project and shows superior cross-project accuracy.
  • Memory Pressure: Early Identification and Proactive Taming in Resource Constrained Devices

    Chakraborty, Pranjal; Department of Computer Science
    Latency critical systems face significant performance challenges when encountering memory pressure, and the existing approaches mainly focus on reactive and instantaneous approaches, but they often fail to accurately identify the root cause of memory pressure, resulting in delayed and ineffective response strategies. In this work, we address this limitation by proposing an alternative approach to proactively detect memory pressure and identify the root cause in such systems. Our method enables the activation and deactivation of extended process-level profiling based on the predicted memory pressure, facilitating the identification of the root cause process. Through evaluation, we achieved an 85% accuracy in forecasting memory pressure situations and correctly identified the responsible process in 83% of use-cases. We also propose an effective adaptive sampling framework to further optimize the system monitoring and data collection, and was able to leverage a state of the art technique to make useful sampling rate changes 78.5% of the time.
  • Exploring Pedestrianism in Contemporary Streetscape Planning: A Scrutiny of the YongeTOmorrrow Initiative in Downtown Toronto

    Geraghty, Aaron; Department of Geography
    In a study of Toronto’s YongeTOmorrow plan, my thesis explains the significance of pedestrianism and the role that it plays in the planning and regulation of the urban streetscape. However, the plan under scrutiny proposes an overhaul to the streetscape that creates a reinvented pedestrianism. This is a danger to publicness, as its benefits will be limited to businesses and their middle-class consumers, whose presence and interests are prioritized. Meanwhile, street-present non-consumers will be urged to move along under the regulatory absolutism of The Safe Streets Act, 1999. In this context, efficient flow is being reshaped to privilege consumption while continuing to restrain the liberty it alleges to cultivate.

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