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  • Understanding the Complex Mental Health Challenges of Children and Adolescents Seeking Community-based Care

    Gallant, Caitlyn; Department of Psychology
    Studies have shown that children and adolescents with neurostructural and/or neurodevelopmental challenges experience worse mental health outcomes than their neurotypical peers, including more extensive service use, more severe symptomatology, and greater functional impairment. Despite the poor prognoses of these children and adolescents, few studies have investigated the neurocognitive contributions to mental health complexity among those seeking community-based mental health services. At present, environmental/social and behavioural factors remain the primary focus of treatment plans and much of the research examining this complex population has targeted psychosocial determinants. However, interventions based on these factors alone are not always effective, as they fail to account for neurocognitive challenges, which can significantly contribute to psychiatric presentations. This dissertation involves two studies that aimed to address these gaps in the literature and inform current practices in paediatric community mental health settings. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), Study 1 tested the generalizability of a path model predicting service use among those with (n = 66) and without (n = 97) neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). As expected, those with NDs had higher levels of symptomatology and greater service use than those without, and there were notable differences in the predictive pathways across ND groups. Similar paths were found between externalizing challenges and service use among all children/adolescents; however, the paths from internalizing challenges, early life adversity, and sex were only significant among the ND group, indicating that neurodevelopmental status is an important moderator of outcomes. In Study 2, a mixed methods approach was employed to examine how neuropsychological information could help inform current practice. Qualitative results confirmed that neuropsychological factors are often overlooked when utilizing current approaches and that observable symptoms, rather than underlying causes, are a primary focus of treatment. Further, neurocognitive deficits were found to be associated with self-reported interpersonal difficulties and caregivers’ reports of externalizing; however, only caregiver-reported externalizing challenges correlated with poorer treatment outcomes. Importantly, neurocognitive challenges were associated with long-term treatment responses, suggesting that these factors may be an important therapeutic target. Collectively, these findings indicate that using an exclusively psychosocial treatment approach, without considering neuropsychological factors, may not be effective among complex cases.
  • Examining the Role of Physiological Arousal in Laboratory Risk-Taking in Social and Non-Social Contexts

    Resch, Chelsie; Department of Psychology
    Current theoretical models attribute the rise in risk-taking during adolescence to heightened activity in reward processing brain regions when in the presence of social and non-social rewarding stimuli. However, non-rewarding, but very salient stimuli, have also been shown to increase activity in reward processing brain regions and could, in theory, also increase risk taking propensity in adolescents. To examine this, we had participants complete a risk-taking task under “standard” conditions as well as under one of three experimental conditions: virtual peer observer with positive social feedback (positive social), virtual peer observer with neutral social feedback (negative social), and with triple the potential rewards (non-social positive). The study’s sample consisted of 59 mainly young adult participants (Mage = 20.69, SD = 5.08), where 22 identified as men and 37 identified as women. A multi-level model revealed no overall effect of exposure to the experimental context on risk-taking. Greater skin conductance was, unexpectedly, associated with less risk-taking. When examining each context in separate models, exposure to the non-social showed associations with increased risk-taking, whereas the positive social context did not. Negative social contexts showed a pattern of means suggesting that exposure to such contexts may be associated with increased risk-taking, but our models may have been underpowered and were unable to detect this effect. These findings suggest that the salience of a context may be an important factor to consider when exploring what drives adolescent risk-taking.
  • Game Theory-based Allocation Management in VCC Networks

    Tejani, Binal; Department of Computer Science
    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have contributed significantly towards improving road traffic management and safety. VANETs, integrated with Vehicular Clouds, enable underutilized vehicular resources for efficient resource management, fulfilling service requests. However, due to the frequently changing network topology of vehicular cloud networks, the vehicles frequently move out of the coverage area of roadside units (RSUs), disconnecting from the RSUs and interrupting the fulfillment of ongoing service requests. In addition, working with heterogeneous vehicles makes it difficult to match the service requests with the varying resources of individual vehicles. Therefore, to address these challenges, this work introduces the concept of clustering resources from nearby vehicles to form Combined Resource Units (CRUs). These units contribute to maximizing the rate of fulfillment of service requests. CRU composition is helpful, especially for the heterogeneity of vehicles, since it allows clustering the varying resources of vehicles into a single unit. The vehicle resources are clustered into CRUs based on three different sized pools, making the service matching process more time-efficient. Previous works have adopted stochastic models for resource clustering configurations. However, this work adopts distinct search algorithms for CRU composition, which are computationally less complex. Results showed that light-weight search algorithms, such as selective search algorithm (SSA), achieved close to 80% of resource availability without over-assembling CRUs in higher density scenarios. Following CRU composition, a game-theoretical approach is opted for allocating CRUs to service requests. Under this approach, the CRUs play a non-cooperative game to maximize their utility, contributing to factors such as fairness, efficiency, improved system performance and reduced system overhead. The utility value takes into account the RSS (Received Signal Strength) value of each CRU and the resources required in fulfilling a request. Results of the game model showed that the proposed approach of CRU composition obtained 90% success rate towards matching and fulfilling service requests.
  • Apprehending Stigma: Towards a Reparative Trauma-informed Decolonial Reading of HIV-related Stigma

    Long, Carmen; Interdisciplinary Humanities Program
    Applying a decolonial trauma-informed framework that brings together different disciplinary systems, this project investigates responses to the stigma associated with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the literary work of two Canadian and two South African writers. I approach the literary journalism of Stephanie Nolen and Jonny Steinberg and the novels of Tomson Highway and the late Phaswane Mpe as testimony in which Steinberg, Nolen and Mpe contest Western epistemologies and Highway foregrounds Indigenous knowledges. The four texts reframe stigma as operating within much larger systemic violences and operations of power than can be envisioned within a politics of recognition, indexed to the expository logic of Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick’s paranoid position. Locating HIV-related stigma as emerging within the context of intergenerational collective trauma rooted in colonial violence makes possible the kind of reparative work that Sedgwick envisions, as well as an engagement with the infinite possibilities of encounter as an ethical response to this socially polarizing phenomenon that has proven so difficult to dislodge. Attentive to specific racialized and minoritized colonial histories, this project unravels the entanglement of events and conditions that coalesce around HIV in watershed moments when decolonial work collides with ongoing histories of colonial violence. Such a trauma-informed, decolonial lens offers a non-positivist framework to unsettle, potentially, the stasis of stigma reduction.
  • From their eyes: Nursing student experiences using repeated reflection from the pediatric patient's perspective

    Van der Wal, Melissa; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Simulation-based learning (SBL) has been a core course component in nursing curricula for decades. The growing use of SBL has led to increasingly lifelike simulations and continued development to maximize learning opportunities. Reflection and debriefing are key components of SBL to improve learning outcomes and clinical skills. Reflection is often described as a process; however, nursing students rarely have the opportunity to participate in the same simulation or clinical experience twice to completely engage in the reflective process. Reflection from the patient’s perspective is a new concept to simulation, first done by Taplay (2020) using the Reflective Practice from the Patient’s Perspective (RPPP) tool. In this study, we applied the RPPP 3.0 tool to a pediatric nursing simulation, where the simulated child wore spyglasses to record visual and audio data of the simulation (Taplay, 2020). Participants watched their simulations from the patient’s perspective and partook in an interview guided by the RPPP 3.0 tool (Taplay, 2020). Then, participants returned within 2-9 days to repeat the same simulation and reflection. Participants found value and meaning in the repeated reflection. Themes of reactions, communication, appraisal of performance, and the difference were found. Reflecting from the pediatric patient’s perspective allowed participants to gain insight into how their actions and communication were perceived. Repeating reflection encouraged participants to partake in self-directed preparation and allowed them to gain confidence, implement change, and improve their practice.
  • He Said, She Said: The Role of Self and Peer Rated Attractiveness in the Personality-Victimization Relationship

    McDowell, Hannah; Department of Psychology
    Our own and others' perceptions of our attractiveness are impressively salient. Such perceptions have the power to influence not only the respect and attention we receive from others but also how we are treated in platonic and romantic relationships. This association is found to be particularly relevant for children and adolescents' victimization. I hypothesized that the relationship between attractiveness and victimization is influenced by personality. Victimization outcomes are thought to differ in shy and attractive adolescents compared to outgoing and attractive adolescents. In the current study, links between personality, attractiveness, and victimization were explored. Participants (N = 539, M = 11.82) completed self-report questionnaires to assess personality (via HEXACO Personality Inventory), self-perceptions of attractiveness and victimization. Peer nominations were used to assess students' perceptions of their peers' level of attractiveness and victimization. Significant negative associations were found between Openness and peer nominations of attractiveness and Honesty-Humility and self-reported attractiveness. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship was found between self-reported attractiveness and self-reported indirect victimization. In contrast, significant negative relationships were found between peer-nominated attractiveness and all measures of peer nominated victimization. Mediation analyses resulted in different paths when comparing self-reported and peer nominated victimization. Lastly, contrasting results were found when direct effects were assessed for gender differences. A positive relationship between Emotionality and peer nominated attractiveness was found for girls, while a negative relationship was found for boys. Furthermore, a positive relationship between self-reported attractiveness and self-reported direct victimization was found exclusively in boys. Results have the potential to expand bullying interventions to include not only those who are customarily regarded as victims but all students
  • Understanding the relationship between body image and menopause in South Asian Canadian women

    Dhillon, Taranjot Kaur; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Research regarding women’s body image during menopause is limited; few studies reflect the experiences of ethnic women, especially South Asian women living in Canada. Cultural differences play an important role in both body image and menopause experiences and may be particularly important to South Asian women, who often fear stigmatization and struggle with openly discussing health concerns. This study used interpretive phenomenological analysis, which focuses on understanding and interpreting the experiences of the participants, to explore the relationship between body image and the transition of menopause in South Asian Canadian women. Nine first generation South Asian immigrant Canadian women (aged 49-59 years), in perimenopause or postmenopause were recruited for semi-structured individual interviews. Overall, three themes were constructed: 1) Complexity and intertwining of body image and menopause experiences, which showed that although women understood body image as a multidimensional construct, their own body image focused on weight and appearance that was impacted by menopause and aging; 2) “It's just something we go through silently”: The challenges of body image and menopause experiences, which highlighted the lack personal support from family and South Asian community and the disconnected feeling from their bodies through the menopause transition; and 3) The push and pull of South Asian and Western cultures, which focused on conflicts between the two cultures and influence of the South Asian culture on beauty, body image, and aging. Results showed that participants often upheld Western body image ideals by equating positive body image practices and attitudes with these ideals, and this was often worsened by South Asian cultural norms. Additionally, women’s understanding of body image and menopause showed a gap between their personal understanding and research. Participants emphasized a lack of ethnically appropriate education for body image and menopause, suggesting there is a need for the implementation of culturally-appropriate and community-based interventions, and resources (e.g., workshops, seminars, support groups). Moreover, an underlying narrative of cultural conflict (Western vs South Asian cultures) and impact of the South Asian culture was evident. Therefore, further examination of the complexity and influence of the South Asian culture on body image and menopause experiences is required.
  • Fan Responses to Virtual Reality Sport Sponsorship Activations: The Influence of Presence on Emotion and Attitude Formation

    Schlieman, Troy; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Considering the massive financial investment into sport sponsorship and the growth of the industry, it is important for managers to understand the strategic implications of their partnership decisions. This is even more essential in the current marketing landscape where advertising clutter and limited attention spans are rampant. Consequentially, experiential marketing has emerged to combat these challenges and provide consumers with unique and memorable experiences. Further, virtual reality (VR) has surfaced as a possible experiential marketing tool in that it has the capabilities of simulating one’s presence in a virtual environment: potentially creating those unique and memorable experiences. With sponsorship activation transitioning into an online environment further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the capabilities of virtual reality make it an attractive option to sport marketers. Presently, this technology is being applied without a clear purpose due to the newness of the platform and the lack of research and understanding regarding its true value. Thus, it is critical to examine how media modes, such as VR, may affect the impact of sponsorship messaging. In exploring sponsorship activation specifically, this study aimed to examine the use of 360-degree video and virtual reality as activation components, and if traditional non-immersive (phone, tablet, laptop, or desktop) and immersive (virtual reality) technologies differ in terms of their influence on important sponsor outcomes such as eliciting emotions and influencing attitudes. This study employed a survey design to compare responses between two groups. The first group experienced a 360-degree sport sponsorship activation video using non-immersive media while the second group experienced the same video in VR. A total of 114 responses were collected (57 in each group). Responses were then analyzed using two-way independent sample t-tests to find any statistically significant differences. Results showed that non-immersive respondents reported higher ratings of arousal compared to immersive respondents. Notably, there was a clear desire for 360-degree activation content from all users regardless of media mode. This study serves as a preliminary basis of valuation for virtual reality technology as it applies to sponsorship activation.
  • Understanding Interorganizational Relationships and Organizational Capacity in a Youth Baseball Network

    Willis, Jackson; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Within the Canadian sport system there has been a noted decline in team sport participation among youth athletes. Factors that have contributed to this decline include increased competition amongst organizations, a larger number of sport options and sport specialization. Baseball in particular is a sport that has seen declining participation rates in recent years. Within the sport management literature two key concepts have emerged as key areas of interest for youth sport organizations in their operations; interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity. Interorganizational relationship (IOR) development has been identified as an effective strategy for strengthening the capacity of youth sport organizations (Misener & Doherty, 2013). Organizational capacity has been related to the ability of organizations to draw on a variety of resources to help achieve desired outcomes (Hall et al., 2003), while there is also evidence to support the connection between greater organizational capacity and increased success in achieving these outcomes (Jones et al., 2017). Thus, the purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity within a youth baseball network in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada. Data were collected from representatives of ten youth baseball organizations through a survey instrument via telephone interview format. Data were analyzed using a social network analysis methodology including the use of the UCINET 6.0 software program and NetDraw function that allowed for the calculation of density and centrality measures along with visual representations of the network. QAP Multiple Regression analysis was also conducted and showed that IORs and sector were both found to be statistically significant in their ability to predict organizational capacity ties within this network. Overall, the results of this study allowed for conclusions to be drawn related to network structure, state of organizational capacity, and the relationship between IORs and organizational capacity in this youth baseball network.
  • An Exploratory Study of the Design of Major Junior Hockey Regional Leagues, from the Perspective of Member Team Employees

    Moussa, Jordyn A; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Major Junior Hockey (MJH) is a unique part of the Canadian hockey system. Beginning in the 1960s, regional leagues began to form across Canada, culminating with the creation of the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) in 1974. The CHL is currently the governing body of MJH in Canada which is the most elite level of junior hockey in Canada. MJH regional leagues have been regarded as the best possible route to the National Hockey League (NHL) for junior-aged male hockey players, despite alternative paths existing in the United States and Europe. While much of the hockey literature in the past decade includes a broad scope of scholarly research, Canadian MJH remains a sub-context of that conversation. To date, the operations of MJH regional leagues have yet to be explored. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is to examine how Canadian MJH regional league offices are currently designed. Drawing upon organizational design literature both in and out of sport contexts, the research seeks to understand the design of the MJH regional leagues through specific principles. To explore this study, nine semi-structured interviews with Canadian MJH regional league member team employees were conducted. The findings indicated there exists a hybrid of two interconnected focuses within the MJH regional leagues’ organizational design: player development and revenue generation. The member team employee perceptions of the MJH regional leagues’ design are further discussed relating to previous organizational design literature, and historical developments of Canadian MJH. Several contributions to research and practice, and opportunities for future research are outlined to continue exploring the MJH system in Canada.
  • Examining Conceptualizations of Dance in Ontario University Athletic Contexts

    Tacuri, Natalie; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This research examined perceptions surrounding dance as a sport, art, or combination of both in Ontario universities. Competitive dancers, dance coaches, and athletic department staff in postsecondary participated in online surveys and interviews to share their individual beliefs, knowledge, and understandings about competitive dance and the ways dancers can occupy spaces as artists and athletes. Perceptions of dance from each group of key informants proved to be dependent on a range of factors within universities and across individual participants. Most participants stated they viewed dance as both an art and a sport but demonstrated tension in how dancers occupied spaces as legitimate athletes within various institutions. While participants indicated openness to the idea of dance as a sport and dancers as athletes, the ways in which this was actually attainable at the university-level was hindered by various institutional and systemic barriers.
  • Requisite Characteristics of a Mentor to Establish Positive Relationships in a Type One Diabetes Intervention from the Mentee’s Perspective

    Sjaarda, Vanessa; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Background: Diabetes has reached global epidemic proportions. Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) typically strikes in childhood and is now becoming more prevalent in young adults. Evidence suggests that proactive harnessing of the positive attributes of a peer-to-peer mentor-mentee relationship could help mediate and decrease prevalence, assist with better glycemic control, reverse nonadherence and provide psychosocial support and education to people with diabetes. Research Question: What are the requisite components of a mentor needed to establish an effective mentorship relationship in a peer-to-peer coaching intervention for young adults with type one diabetes from the mentee’s perspective? Methods: A qualitative research design was used with Sandelowski’s (2010) qualitative descriptive approach. The Right Who, Respect, Information gathering, Consistency, and Support (TRICS) model was used as a theoretical framework (Donlan et al., 2017). Sample: 20 young adults aged 18-30 with T1D were recruited through snowball sampling. One semi-structured interview was completed with each participant. Data Analysis: All interview data were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and managed through NVIVO. Findings/Discussion: Three themes were revealed in the data; 1) T1D is a personal journey through self-realization and acceptance; 2) inconsistencies in social support systems and 3) a mentor- is a companion on the journey. One supplemental theme highlights the perceived impact of COVID-19 on participants T1D. Conclusion: Individuals with T1D perceived there is value in cultivating a mentored form of peer support. Developing and evaluating a mentor/mentee dyad as a supportive intervention for T1D adults transitioning to adult care is the next step for future research.
  • The Relationship Between Sport Participation, Perceived Athletic Competence and Performance in University Sprinters

    Moore, Trevor; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Purpose: There is a need for research that investigates confidence, performance, and previous sports involvement among particular sports such as in track and field sprinters. The objective of this study was to investigate relations between previous sport participation, perceived athletic competence, and performance results in university track and field sprinters. Methods: The perceived athletic competence scale and previous sport participation questionnaire were implemented in the form of an online survey. The best performance times were collected from an online results database. All of the participants were enrolled in university and were members of their respective school’s track and field team. Measures of variability and descriptive statistics were calculated, and Analysis of Variance and t-tests were implemented to analyze potential differences amongst the variables of this study. Results: There were a total of 42 university track and field sprinters between the age of 18 and 23. The highest participated sports (sum) were track and field sprints (624), soccer (234), hockey (189), and basketball (164). A repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in sports participation across all and between each of the three age groups (ages 8 to 13, 14 to 17, and 18+). Sports participation was the highest in the 8 to 13 age group. A bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses showed statistical insignificance between sport participation and perceived athletic competence. There was a low positive, but not statistically significant relationship from the 8 to 13 age group. Lastly, there was a statistically non-significant positive correlation for the first age (8 to 13) group and sprint performance times. Conclusion: The findings of the study contribute to the areas of sport participation, sport specialization, and athlete development by confirming what is already presently known while adding new support for track and field sprinting as a late specialization sport and the need for further analysis and investigation in the future with a more diverse sample and a larger sample size.
  • The Role of Dopamine on Central Neuromuscular Activation during Passive Hyperthermia

    Scholey, Aiden; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Acute methylphenidate (MPH) (dopamine reuptake inhibitor) ingestion improves cycling time trial performance and power output in hot conditions (30 C), while also allowing for tolerance of higher core temperatures. However, the mechanisms for why this occurs have not been isolated. One potential explanation for this ergogenic benefit is that MPH intake was enhancing neuromuscular activation. Thus, this research project examined the influence of MPH on neuromuscular activation during hyperthermia. Participants ingested either placebo (PLA; 20mg) or MPH (Ritalin; 20mg) 1 hour prior to a passive heating protocol. 6 participants were passively heated until volitional cessation, or after 3 hours of heating had passed. Neuromuscular responses, as indicated by maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, and voluntary activation (VA) percentage were assessed prior to drug ingestion, 1 hour after MPH wash-in, throughout the heating protocol and at cessation of heating. A primary non-significant finding of this research project was that participants reached higher rectal temperatures (Tre) by ~0.3 C in trials where they ingested MPH (p = 0.065). This effect occurred in absence of any differences in thermal comfort or sensation ratings or heating durations. However, while MPH improves thermal tolerance, it was not able to attenuate the decreases in MVC force and VA that occurred during passive heating. Therefore, the aforementioned ergogenic benefits that MPH has in hot conditions are not occurring as a result of enhanced neuromuscular activation.
  • Exploring Mental Health in Sport: The Behaviors, Perspectives and Needs of Stakeholders

    Murphy, Jessica; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Student-athletes are at high risk for poor mental health. Leaders within the varsity sport environment influence athlete mental health and help-seeking. This dissertation explored the behaviors, perspectives and needs of athletes, coaches, and athletic trainers as it pertains to mental health in sport. Three studies were conducted, the first utilized the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore factors associated with coach-athlete conversations about mental health. A coach’s Attitude towards having a conversation with an athlete significantly influenced their Intention to do so. Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) significantly influenced the relationship between Social Norms and Intention. Both PBC and Social Norms had a significant relationship with the Behavior (having a conversation about mental health with an athlete). The second study applied a conceptual model from Horn’s Working Model of Coach Effectiveness to explore how an athlete’s perception of coach behavior impacts attitudes and help-seeking behaviors. Psychological distress levels influenced an athlete’s Perception of their coach’s behavior. Openness to help-seeking was significantly related to help-seeking Behaviors and influenced the relationship between personal characteristics and help-seeking. Perception of coach behaviors influenced the relationship between psychological distress and help-seeking from a coach. The last study sought to determine the acceptance of an online varsity sport-specific mental health resource. Preliminary results were promising; The PEER Network was frequently used over the study period and participants had positive and supportive feedback. Overall, results from the three studies suggest that perceived ability and social support may influence whether coach-athlete conversations about mental health occur. Due to the effects of these variables, coach mental health training should focus on improving the skills required for these conversations and normalizing mental health in sport. As an athlete’s perception of coach behavior mediated the relationship between psychological distress and help-seeking, training should also focus on clear ways to show athletes that coaches are supportive of mental health. Athlete-specific training should try and improve attitudes towards help-seeking and highlight the value from seeking help. The PEER Network may be an easily accessible and context-specific way of achieving these educational goals for members of the varsity athletic community.
  • Burnout of Direct Support Workers of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Soucie-Vukmanich, Katelyn; Center for Applied Disability Studies
    Several work-related, client-related, and personal stressors have shown to increase burnout levels of developmental support workers (DSWs) who support adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). These stressors have included work overload, control, client challenging behaviour, job satisfaction, and much more. However, a previous systematic review by Skirrow and Hatton (2007) reported that there remain no conclusive results about which variables trigger the development of burnout in this population and they reported that burnout levels of this population is average and comparable to other human service professions. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the methods of Skirrow and Hatton (2007), a systematic review of the literature was completed which reports the consistencies and magnitudes of correlations and predictors of burnout in the population of DSWs supporting adults with IDDs. Classical meta-regression analyses and forest plots were also completed and analyzed to compare the difference in burnout levels in the review completed by Skirrow and Hatton (2007) compared to the sample of burnout levels in this review. The results show that there are several variables which were consistently significantly associated with burnout of this population across studies while other variables were inconsistent in their association with burnout across the studies. For burnout levels, it was found that both emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment scores have significantly worsened since Skirrow and Hatton’s (2007) review while depersonalization scores have improved. Overall, this research shows the vast array of variables which can impact the development of burnout, where client and work-related variables appear to have a more significant impact on burnout development than personal characteristics of DSWs.
  • An Evaluation of Video Prompting Procedures to Teach First Aid Skills to Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Sureshkumar, Brittney; Center for Applied Disability Studies
    Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). First aid training involves teaching critical first aid skills, some of which are designed to treat unintentional injuries. To date, no study has (a) evaluated the effects of video prompting procedures to teach first aid skills to children with IDD or (b) attempted to teach these skills to children using a telehealth delivery format. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across skills design to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompting procedures via telehealth to teach five children with IDD to perform first aid on themselves for insect stings, minor cuts, and minor burns under simulated conditions. For all participants, training resulted in large improvements, which maintained for a minimum of 4 weeks. Further, effects of the training generalized to novel confederates for all participants, and these effects maintained for a minimum of 4 weeks. In addition, participants and their caregivers expressed high satisfaction with the video prompting procedures and telehealth experience.
  • General Case Training via Telehealth for Parents of Young Children At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Shingleton-Smith, Claire; Center for Applied Disability Studies
    Research indicates that young children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show developmental improvements with the implementation of a parent training intervention, although evidence of parent generalization to novel skills is inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on generalization of a parent-mediated early intervention using general case training (GCT) combined with behaviour skills training (BST) via telehealth for young children at-risk for ASD. Six parent-child dyads participated in total. Child target skills were identified through the Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale and confirmed through direct observation. Nine exemplars from three child skill categories that target deficits representative of early signs of ASD were taught to parents using two concurrent multiple baseline across participants designs. Data were collected for the percentage of correct parent teaching skills implemented, as well as the percentage of child correct responses to the target skills. Results demonstrate an increase in parent teaching skills across all trained participants for both trained and untrained child skills. These results provide preliminary support for GCT combined with BST via telehealth as an effective early intervention model.
  • Crawford Lake Consumers: Water Column and Palynological Studies

    Heyde, Autumn; Department of Biological Sciences
    Despite their important role in lake ecosystems, the fossil record of consumers has been underutilized compared to the remains of algae and plants in paleoenvironmental studies. Cladocerans, chironomids, and testate amoebae were found in palynological preparations of sediments throughout Crawford Lake (a unique meromictic lake in Ontario, Canada), but rotifer lorica and cysts of aloricate ciliates were only preserved in seasonally laminated sediments in the monimolimnion of this lake, demonstrating the exceptional preservation potential in this portion of the lake water column. Relatively diverse assemblages of consumer palynomorphs were associated with anthropogenic impact on this lake, and the annual chronological resolution afforded by varves allowed these to be related to historic events in the small watershed, the most notable being the operation of a lumber mill on the south shore of the lake, and to archeological and pollen evidence of several phases of agricultural settlement between the 13th and 15th centuries. Lower diversity of consumer palynomorphs between the Iroquoian and Euro-Canadian settlement phases (i.e., late 15th through early 19th centuries) mainly reflects the sharp decline in most rotifer taxa and the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris, but the persistence of the rotifers Keratella hiemalis and Kellicottia longispina is evidence that the lake ecosystem did not return to pre-human impact conditions after abandonment of the Iroquoian settlement. Understanding how the trophic level of consumers responded to natural and anthropogenic stressors relied heavily on rarely preserved rotifer lorica, but the observation that the cladoceran B. longirostris tended to thrive relative to the typically more common Daphnia at times of cultural eutrophication may have broader application in palynological studies of lakes. Contrary to long-standing assumption, the exceptional preservation of organic-walled microfossils in undisturbed seasonal laminae in the deep basin of Crawford Lake cannot be explained by anoxia. Observations of seasonal migration of zooplankton to and from the mixolimnion in conjunction with instrumental measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, and conductivity in the water column almost monthly from October 2019 through September 2020 demonstrated that this meromictic lake is uncharacteristically well-oxygenated below the chemocline. Instead, exceptional preservation is attributed to the lack of bioturbation and the suppression of bacterial decomposition in the cold, nearly brackish, highly alkaline bottom waters devoid of benthos larger than ostracods able to migrate into the deep basin via interstitial waters. The annual resolution possible in sediments deposited in a typically well-oxygenated setting is an attractive feature in the search for a potential GSSP to define the Anthropocene Epoch using plutonium from fallout of thermonuclear testing as a primary marker.
  • Exploring the Reliability of an Objective Severity Tool to Classify Severe Problem Behaviour

    Morgan, Marie-Chanel; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The term ‘severe’ is a common descriptor for problem behaviour in research and practice. However, it is often applied inconsistently, and at times based on ill-defined or arbitrary criteria. Existing problem behaviour measurement tools often rely solely on caregiver recall (e.g., interviewing primary caregivers). This study explores the reliability of the first iteration of a severity tool employing direct measurement strategies (e.g., response rate, injury severity as evidenced by permanent product) to classify an individual’s problem behaviour severity. Nine Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) raters were recruited, five novice raters and four expert raters. They each experienced two conditions. In the first condition, raters classified the severity of 20 case scenarios without access to the tool. In the second condition, raters classified the severity of 20 novel scenarios after completing the tool for each case. All items of the tool (n=26) had good internal consistency (∝=.831). Intraclass correlations showed a meaningful increase in reliability for both groups when they had access to the tool (novice r=0.860, expert r=0.912) compared to when they did not have access to the tool to rate case severity (novice r=0.781, expert r=0.803). Most raters either strongly agreed or agreed that the severity tool had good applicability across research and clinical settings. This suggests that inconsistencies that may exist in the classification of severe problem behaviour could be mitigated with the proposed tool.

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