Half-sandwich silane complexes of ruthenium and iron : synthesis, structure and application to catalysis
Gutsulyak, Dmitry V.
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The present thesis describes syntheses, structural studies, and catalytic reactivity of new non-classical silane complexes of ruthenium and iron. The ruthenium complexes CpRu(PPri3)CI(T]2-HSiR3) (1) (SiR3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiCIMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» were prepared by reactions of the new unsaturated complex CpRu(PPri3)CI with silanes. According to NMR studies and X-ray analyses, the complexes la-c exhibit unusual simultaneous Si··· H and Si··· CI-Ru interactions. The complex CpRu(PPri3)CI was also used for the preparation of the first examples of late transition metal agostic silylamido complexes CpRu(PPri3)(N(T]2-HSiMe2)R) (2) (R= Ar or But), which were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The iron complexes CpFe(PMePri2)H2(SiR3) (3) (SiR3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiCIMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» were synthesized by the reaction of the new borohydride iron complex CpFe(PMePri2)(B~) with silanes in the presence NEt3. The complexes 3 exhibit unprecedented two simultaneous and equivalent Si··· H interactions, which was confirmed by X-ray analyses and DFT calculations. A series of cationic ruthenium complexes [CpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)(112-HSiR'3)]BAF (PR3 = PPri 3 (4), PPh3 (5); SiR'3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiClMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» was obtained by substitution of one of the labile acetonitrile ligands in [CpRu(PR3)(CH3CNh]BAF with sHanes. Analogous complexes [TpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)(T]2 -HSiR' 3)]BAF (5) were obtained by the reaction of TpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)CI with LiBAF in the presence of silanes. The complexes 4-5 were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and the observed coupling constants J(Si-H) allowed us to estimate the extent of Si-H bond activation in these compounds. The catalytic activity in hydrosilylation reactions of all of the above complexes was examined. The most promising results were achieved with the cationic ruthenium precatalyst [CpRu(PPri3)(CH3CN)2t (6). Complex 6 shows good to excellent catalytic activity in the hydrosilylation of carbonyls, dehydrogenative coupling of silanes with alcohols, amines, acids, and reduction of acid chlorides. We also discovered very selective reduction of nitriles and pyridines into the corresponding N-silyl imines and l,4-dihydropyridines, respectively, at room temperature with the possibility of catalyst recycling. These chemoselective catalytic methods have no analogues in the literature. The reactions were proposed to proceed via an ionic mechanism with intermediate formation of the silane a-complexes 4.