Self-directed learning, lifelong learning and transformative learning in the Society for Creative Anachronism
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AbstractThis study examines the connection between leisure group participation and learning activities undertaken by participants in the Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA), a medieval recreationist group. The thesis of this connection was developed through the researcher's observations during SCA participation. The intent of this study is to understand adult learning from the self-directed learning, lifelong learning, and -transformative learning components derived from participant's SCA experiences. This qualitative study was conducted by interviewing eight active SCA participants, two in each participation theme of historical research, artistic representation, performance, and martial skills. Informants' responses demonstrated an integration of their leisure activity with learning. The contextualization of learning a s both a primary activity and a necessary support to participation, places learning a t the heart of participants' SCA related activities. The positive descriptions of learning activities, descriptive terms of ownership, and situating learning as an enjoyable activity engaged for the pleasure of the experience, provides adult educators with a fascinating glimpse of willing and engaged adult learners pursuing lifelong learning outside of the traditional educational structure. Two themes emerged during the interviews. First, bonding with others provided the motivation to continue their activities. Secondly, a feeling of commitment and helonging defined their enjoyment and satisfaction with SCA participation. The clear implications are that adult educators can create effective learning communities by developing educational structures that engage adult learners wi th meaningful social interaction.
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Implicit and explicit functions in the acquisition of a phonics rule in the word recognition of learning disabled and non learning disabled students /McNamara, John Kennedy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)One group of 12 non learning disabled students and two groups of 12 learning disabled students between the ges of 10 and 12 were measured on implicit and explicit knowledge cquisition. Students in each group implicitly cquired knowledge bout I of 2 vocabulary rules. The vocabulary rules governed the pronunciation of 2 types of pseudowords. After completing the implicit acquisition phase, all groups were administered a test of implicit knowledge. The non learning disabled group and I learning disabled group were then asked to verbalize the knowledge acquired during the initial phase. This was a test of explicit knowledge. All 3 groups were then given a postlest of implicit knowledge. This tcst was a measure of the effectiveness of the employment of the verbalization technique. Results indicate that implicit knowledge capabilities for both the learning disabled and non learning disabled groups were intact. However. there were significant differences between groups on explicit knowledge capabilities. This led to the conclusion that implicit functions show little individual differences, and that explicit functions are affected by ability difference. Furthermore, the employment of the verbalization technique significantly increased POStlest scores for learning disabled students. This suggested that the use of metacognitive techniques was a beneficial learning tool for learning disabled students.
Cooperative learning and elaborative interrogation: effects on children's learningKahl, Barbara L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)This experimental study examined the effects of cooperative learning and a question-answering strategy called elaborative interrogation ("Why is this fact true?") on the learning of factual information about familiar animals. Retention gains were compared across four study conditions: elaborative-interrogation-plus-cooperative learning, cooperative-learning, elaborative-interrogation, and reading-control. Sixth-grade students (n=68) were randomly assigned to the four conditions. All participants were given initial training and practice in cooperative learning procedures via three 45-minute sessions. After studying 36 facts about six animals, students' retention gains were measured via immediate free recall, immediate matched association, 30-day, and GO-day matched association tests. A priori comparisons were made to analyze the data. For immediate free recall and immediate matched association, significant differences were found between students in the three experimental conditions versus those in the control condition. Elaborative-interrogation and elaborativeinterrogation- plus-cooperative-learning also promoted longterm retention (measured via 30-day matched association) of the material relative to repetitive reading with elaborative-interrogation promoting the most durable gains (measured via GO-day matched association). The relationship between the types of elaborative responses and probability of subsequent retention was also examined. Even when students were unable to provide adequate answers to the why questions, learning was facilitated more so than repetitive reading. In general, generation of adequate elaborations was associated with greater probability of recall than was provision of inadequate answers. The findings of the study demonstrate that cooperative learning and the use of elaborative interrogation, both individually and collaboratively, are effective classroom procedures for facilitating children's learning of new information.
Elaborative interrogation as a learning technique for students with learning disabilitiesStockley, Denise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)This study examined whether or not students with learning disabilities could effectively use a question and answer strategy known as elaborative interrogation. This technique involved students answering why they thought facts based on familiar animal stories were true. Thirty students from a provincial demonstration high school (for students with learning disabilities) were assigned to one of two study conditions, (a) elaborative interrogation or (b) reading for understanding. Three students, one from the experimental condition and two from the control did not complete the study. Both conditions required that the students learn 36 facts concerning six familiar animals. Immediately following the study session the students completed a free-recall test, a matched association test and a questionnaire regarding their perceived difficulty of the animal stories. After 30 days a matched association test was completed. The oneway ANOVA, 2 x 2 split plot ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Test were used to determine significance. There was no significant difference in the two conditions for free recall retention. There were significant differences in the elaborative interrogation condition for the immediate matched association test and for the 30-day matched association test. The probability of the students' responses in the elaborative interrogation were measured to determine the effects of adequate responses on long-term retention. It was found that the adequate responses were more likely to promote retention than inadequate responses. In conclusion, long-term retention of factual information was significantly better in the elaborative interrogation condition in comparison to the reading for understanding control. For future research, the dependent measure, free recall should be given both verbally and in written format. In addition, extra time should be allowed for processing of the new information to occur.