• Synthesis and utilization of guanidine catalysts for applications directed towards the preparation of butenolide and modified amino acid derivatives

      Lupa, Peter; Centre for Biotechnology (Brock University, 2012-07-04)
      Development of guanidine catalysts is explored through direct iminium chloride and amine coupling, alongside a 2-chloro-l,3-dimethyl-IH-imidazol-:-3-ium chloride (DMC) induced thiourea cyclization. Synthesized achiral catalyst N-(5Hdibenzo[ d,t][1,3]diazepin-6(7H)-ylidene)-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) aniline proved unsuccessful towards O-acyl migrations, however successfully catalyzed the vinylogous aldol reaction between dicbloro furanone and benzaldehyde. Incorporating chirality into the guanidine catalyst utilizing a (R)-phenylalaninol auxiliary, generating (R)-2-((5Hdibenzo[ d,t] [1,3 ]diazepin-6(7H)-ylidene ) amino )-3 -phenylpropan-l-ol, demonstrated enantioselectivity for a variety of adducts. Highest enantiomeric excess (ee) was afforded between dibromofuranone and p-chlorobenzaldehyde, affording the syn conformation in 96% ee and the anti in 54% ee, with an overall yield of30%. Attempts to increase asymmetric induction were focused on incorporation of axial chirality to the (R)phenylalaninol catalyst using binaphthyl diamine. Incorporation of (S)-binaphthyl exhibited destructive selectivity, whereas incorporation of (R)-binaphthyl demonstrated no effects on enantioselectivity. Current studies are being directed towards identifying the catalytic properties of asymmetric induction with further studies are being aimed towards increasing enantioselectivity by increasing backbone steric bulk.