• Volume-Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN), Market Volatility, and High-Frequency Liquidity

      Jiang, Jinzhi; Faculty of Business Programs
      We assess the predictive ability of three VPIN metrics on the basis of two highly volatile market events of China, and examine the association between VPIN and toxic-induced volatility through conditional probability analysis and multiple regression. We examine the dynamic relationship on VPIN and high-frequency liquidity using Vector Auto-Regression models, Granger Causality tests, and impulse response analysis. Our results suggest that Bulk Volume VPIN has the best risk-warning effect among major VPIN metrics. VPIN has a positive association with market volatility induced by toxic information flow. Most importantly, we document a positive feedback effect between VPIN and high-frequency liquidity, where a negative liquidity shock boosts up VPIN, which, in turn, leads to further liquidity drain. Our study provides empirical evidence that reflects an intrinsic game between informed traders and market makers when facing toxic information in the high-frequency trading world.
    • When job dissatisfaction leads to customer-oriented citizenship behaviors

      Boichuk, Jeffrey, P.; Faculty of Business Programs (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      This thesis places boundary conditions on the withdrawal model in the frontline setting of service organizations by considering continuance commitment and supervisory support as moderators of the relationship between job dissatisfaction and customer-oriented citizenship behaviors (COCBs). Departing from traditional research in the areas of the service-profit chain and employee withdrawal, the author advances our understanding of conditions that may lead frontline service employees who are dissatisfied to deposit COCBs into the organizational system. Specifically, based on principles derived from social exchange theory, high continuance commitment and high supervisory support are expected to lead to COCBs, because under this condition the benefits of performing such behaviors are increased (i.e., promotion-based, reciprocity-based), while the costs are decreased (i.e., opportunity costs). Utilizing a sample of 127 frontline employees from both the financial services and travel agency industries, the hypothesized relationships are empirically supported using moderated hierarchical regression analysis. To conclude discussion, implications of the results for both academics and p
    • Y works : average hours worked and average salaries

      Nicholls, Shane; Faculty of Business Programs (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Generation Y is entering the workforce in large numbers and, because this generation holds different values than previous generations, accounting firms are having difficulty managing these new hires. I t is important to determine whether Generation Y is associated with meaningful, long-term trends or i f they will adapt to the given situation. Gen Y' s association with average hours worked per person and average salaries in the Canadian Accounting, Marketing, and Legal professions is examined. I find that an increasing percentage of Generation Y employees in the workforce is associated with significant decreases in average hours worked, but is not associated with any significant trend in average salary. I t is concluded that Generation Y is associated with changing trends in the workplace. These trends are contrary to wha t might be expected under traditional definitions of success, therefore it is postulated that Gen Y may view workplace success differently than previous generations.