• Disease-Gene Association Using a Genetic Algorithm

      Tahmasebipour, Koosha; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2014-10-09)
      Understanding the relationship between genetic diseases and the genes associated with them is an important problem regarding human health. The vast amount of data created from a large number of high-throughput experiments performed in the last few years has resulted in an unprecedented growth in computational methods to tackle the disease gene association problem. Nowadays, it is clear that a genetic disease is not a consequence of a defect in a single gene. Instead, the disease phenotype is a reflection of various genetic components interacting in a complex network. In fact, genetic diseases, like any other phenotype, occur as a result of various genes working in sync with each other in a single or several biological module(s). Using a genetic algorithm, our method tries to evolve communities containing the set of potential disease genes likely to be involved in a given genetic disease. Having a set of known disease genes, we first obtain a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network containing all the known disease genes. All the other genes inside the procured PPI network are then considered as candidate disease genes as they lie in the vicinity of the known disease genes in the network. Our method attempts to find communities of potential disease genes strongly working with one another and with the set of known disease genes. As a proof of concept, we tested our approach on 16 breast cancer genes and 15 Parkinson's Disease genes. We obtained comparable or better results than CIPHER, ENDEAVOUR and GPEC, three of the most reliable and frequently used disease-gene ranking frameworks.
    • Multi-objective Genetic Algorithms for Multi-depot VRP with Time Windows

      Biswas, Sanjib; Department of Computer Science
      Efficient routing and scheduling has significant economic implications for many real-world situations arising in transportation logistics, scheduling, and distribution systems, among others. This work considers both the single depot vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) and the multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time windows (MDVRPTW). An age-layered population structure genetic algorithm is proposed for both variants of the vehicle routing problem. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is first work to provide a multi-objective genetic algorithm approach for the MDVRPTW using well-known benchmark data with up to 288 customers.
    • Object-Oriented Genetic Programming for the Automatic Inference of Graph Models for Complex Networks

      Medland, Michael; Medland, Michael; Department of Computer Science
      Complex networks are systems of entities that are interconnected through meaningful relationships. The result of the relations between entities forms a structure that has a statistical complexity that is not formed by random chance. In the study of complex networks, many graph models have been proposed to model the behaviours observed. However, constructing graph models manually is tedious and problematic. Many of the models proposed in the literature have been cited as having inaccuracies with respect to the complex networks they represent. However, recently, an approach that automates the inference of graph models was proposed by Bailey [10] The proposed methodology employs genetic programming (GP) to produce graph models that approximate various properties of an exemplary graph of a targeted complex network. However, there is a great deal already known about complex networks, in general, and often specific knowledge is held about the network being modelled. The knowledge, albeit incomplete, is important in constructing a graph model. However it is difficult to incorporate such knowledge using existing GP techniques. Thus, this thesis proposes a novel GP system which can incorporate incomplete expert knowledge that assists in the evolution of a graph model. Inspired by existing graph models, an abstract graph model was developed to serve as an embryo for inferring graph models of some complex networks. The GP system and abstract model were used to reproduce well-known graph models. The results indicated that the system was able to evolve models that produced networks that had structural similarities to the networks generated by the respective target models.