• Decoding algorithms using side-effect machines

      Brown, Joseph Alexander; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      Bioinformatics applies computers to problems in molecular biology. Previous research has not addressed edit metric decoders. Decoders for quaternary edit metric codes are finding use in bioinformatics problems with applications to DNA. By using side effect machines we hope to be able to provide efficient decoding algorithms for this open problem. Two ideas for decoding algorithms are presented and examined. Both decoders use Side Effect Machines(SEMs) which are generalizations of finite state automata. Single Classifier Machines(SCMs) use a single side effect machine to classify all words within a code. Locking Side Effect Machines(LSEMs) use multiple side effect machines to create a tree structure of subclassification. The goal is to examine these techniques and provide new decoders for existing codes. Presented are ideas for best practices for the creation of these two types of new edit metric decoders.
    • A Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm with Side Effect Machines for Motif Discovery

      Alizadeh Noori, Farhad; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2012-09-18)
      Understanding the machinery of gene regulation to control gene expression has been one of the main focuses of bioinformaticians for years. We use a multi-objective genetic algorithm to evolve a specialized version of side effect machines for degenerate motif discovery. We compare some suggested objectives for the motifs they find, test different multi-objective scoring schemes and probabilistic models for the background sequence models and report our results on a synthetic dataset and some biological benchmarking suites. We conclude with a comparison of our algorithm with some widely used motif discovery algorithms in the literature and suggest future directions for research in this area.
    • New Contig Creation Algorithm for the de novo DNA Assembly Problem

      Goodarzi, Mohammad; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2014-02-25)
      DNA assembly is among the most fundamental and difficult problems in bioinformatics. Near optimal assembly solutions are available for bacterial and small genomes, however assembling large and complex genomes especially the human genome using Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) technologies is shown to be very difficult because of the highly repetitive and complex nature of the human genome, short read lengths, uneven data coverage and tools that are not specifically built for human genomes. Moreover, many algorithms are not even scalable to human genome datasets containing hundreds of millions of short reads. The DNA assembly problem is usually divided into several subproblems including DNA data error detection and correction, contig creation, scaffolding and contigs orientation; each can be seen as a distinct research area. This thesis specifically focuses on creating contigs from the short reads and combining them with outputs from other tools in order to obtain better results. Three different assemblers including SOAPdenovo [Li09], Velvet [ZB08] and Meraculous [CHS+11] are selected for comparative purposes in this thesis. Obtained results show that this thesis’ work produces comparable results to other assemblers and combining our contigs to outputs from other tools, produces the best results outperforming all other investigated assemblers.