• Towards automated derivation in the theory of allegories

      Glanfield, Joel.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2008-02-16)
      We provide an algorithm that automatically derives many provable theorems in the equational theory of allegories. This was accomplished by noticing properties of an existing decision algorithm that could be extended to provide a derivation in addition to a decision certificate. We also suggest improvements and corrections to previous research in order to motivate further work on a complete derivation mechanism. The results presented here are significant for those interested in relational theories, since we essentially have a subtheory where automatic proof-generation is possible. This is also relevant to program verification since relations are well-suited to describe the behaviour of computer programs. It is likely that extensions of the theory of allegories are also decidable and possibly suitable for further expansions of the algorithm presented here.
    • Evolutionary synthesis of stochastic gene network models using feature-based search spaces

      Imada, Janine.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      A feature-based fitness function is applied in a genetic programming system to synthesize stochastic gene regulatory network models whose behaviour is defined by a time course of protein expression levels. Typically, when targeting time series data, the fitness function is based on a sum-of-errors involving the values of the fluctuating signal. While this approach is successful in many instances, its performance can deteriorate in the presence of noise. This thesis explores a fitness measure determined from a set of statistical features characterizing the time series' sequence of values, rather than the actual values themselves. Through a series of experiments involving symbolic regression with added noise and gene regulatory network models based on the stochastic 'if-calculus, it is shown to successfully target oscillating and non-oscillating signals. This practical and versatile fitness function offers an alternate approach, worthy of consideration for use in algorithms that evaluate noisy or stochastic behaviour.
    • Particle swarm optimization for two-connected networks with bounded rings

      Foxwell, Earl Brendan.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The Two-Connected Network with Bounded Ring (2CNBR) problem is a network design problem addressing the connection of servers to create a survivable network with limited redirections in the event of failures. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a stochastic population-based optimization technique modeled on the social behaviour of flocking birds or schooling fish. This thesis applies PSO to the 2CNBR problem. As PSO is originally designed to handle a continuous solution space, modification of the algorithm was necessary in order to adapt it for such a highly constrained discrete combinatorial optimization problem. Presented are an indirect transcription scheme for applying PSO to such discrete optimization problems and an oscillating mechanism for averting stagnation.
    • Properties and algorithms of the (n, k)-star graphs

      He, Liang.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The (n, k)-star interconnection network was proposed in 1995 as an attractive alternative to the n-star topology in parallel computation. The (n, k )-star has significant advantages over the n-star which itself was proposed as an attractive alternative to the popular hypercube. The major advantage of the (n, k )-star network is its scalability, which makes it more flexible than the n-star as an interconnection network. In this thesis, we will focus on finding graph theoretical properties of the (n, k )-star as well as developing parallel algorithms that run on this network. The basic topological properties of the (n, k )-star are first studied. These are useful since they can be used to develop efficient algorithms on this network. We then study the (n, k )-star network from algorithmic point of view. Specifically, we will investigate both fundamental and application algorithms for basic communication, prefix computation, and sorting, etc. A literature review of the state-of-the-art in relation to the (n, k )-star network as well as some open problems in this area are also provided.
    • Winâ Foy : functional object-oriented programming language

      Foy, Grant.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This thesis will introduce a new strongly typed programming language utilizing Self types, named Win--*Foy, along with a suitable user interface designed specifically to highlight language features. The need for such a programming language is based on deficiencies found in programming languages that support both Self types and subtyping. Subtyping is a concept that is taken for granted by most software engineers programming in object-oriented languages. Subtyping supports subsumption but it does not support the inheritance of binary methods. Binary methods contain an argument of type Self, the same type as the object itself, in a contravariant position, i.e. as a parameter. There are several arguments in favour of introducing Self types into a programming language (11. This rationale led to the development of a relation that has become known as matching [4, 5). The matching relation does not support subsumption, however, it does support the inheritance of binary methods. Two forms of matching have been proposed (lJ. Specifically, these relations are known as higher-order matching and I-bound matching. Previous research on these relations indicates that the higher-order matching relation is both reflexive and transitive whereas the f-bound matching is reflexive but not transitive (7]. The higher-order matching relation provides significant flexibility regarding inheritance of methods that utilize or return values of the same type. This flexibility, in certain situations, can restrict the programmer from defining specific classes and methods which are based on constant values [21J. For this reason, the type This is used as a second reference to the type of the object that cannot, contrary to Self, be specialized in subclasses. F-bound matching allows a programmer to define a function that will work for all types of A', a subtype of an upper bound function of type A, with the result type being dependent on A'. The use of parametric polymorphism in f-bound matching provides a connection to subtyping in object-oriented languages. This thesis will contain two main sections. Firstly, significant details concerning deficiencies of the subtype relation and the need to introduce higher-order and f-bound matching relations into programming languages will be explored. Secondly, a new programming language named Win--*Foy Functional Object-Oriented Programming Language has been created, along with a suitable user interface, in order to facilitate experimentation by programmers regarding the matching relation. The construction of the programming language and the user interface will be explained in detail.
    • Bounds on edit metric codes with combinatorial DNA constraints

      Sun, Jing.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      The design of a large and reliable DNA codeword library is a key problem in DNA based computing. DNA codes, namely sets of fixed length edit metric codewords over the alphabet {A, C, G, T}, satisfy certain combinatorial constraints with respect to biological and chemical restrictions of DNA strands. The primary constraints that we consider are the reverse--complement constraint and the fixed GC--content constraint, as well as the basic edit distance constraint between codewords. We focus on exploring the theory underlying DNA codes and discuss several approaches to searching for optimal DNA codes. We use Conway's lexicode algorithm and an exhaustive search algorithm to produce provably optimal DNA codes for codes with small parameter values. And a genetic algorithm is proposed to search for some sub--optimal DNA codes with relatively large parameter values, where we can consider their sizes as reasonable lower bounds of DNA codes. Furthermore, we provide tables of bounds on sizes of DNA codes with length from 1 to 9 and minimum distance from 1 to 9.
    • Decoding algorithms using side-effect machines

      Brown, Joseph Alexander; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      Bioinformatics applies computers to problems in molecular biology. Previous research has not addressed edit metric decoders. Decoders for quaternary edit metric codes are finding use in bioinformatics problems with applications to DNA. By using side effect machines we hope to be able to provide efficient decoding algorithms for this open problem. Two ideas for decoding algorithms are presented and examined. Both decoders use Side Effect Machines(SEMs) which are generalizations of finite state automata. Single Classifier Machines(SCMs) use a single side effect machine to classify all words within a code. Locking Side Effect Machines(LSEMs) use multiple side effect machines to create a tree structure of subclassification. The goal is to examine these techniques and provide new decoders for existing codes. Presented are ideas for best practices for the creation of these two types of new edit metric decoders.
    • Properties and algorithms of the (n, k)-arrangement graphs

      Li, Yifeng; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      The (n, k)-arrangement interconnection topology was first introduced in 1992. The (n, k )-arrangement graph is a class of generalized star graphs. Compared with the well known n-star, the (n, k )-arrangement graph is more flexible in degree and diameter. However, there are few algorithms designed for the (n, k)-arrangement graph up to present. In this thesis, we will focus on finding graph theoretical properties of the (n, k)- arrangement graph and developing parallel algorithms that run on this network. The topological properties of the arrangement graph are first studied. They include the cyclic properties. We then study the problems of communication: broadcasting and routing. Embedding problems are also studied later on. These are very useful to develop efficient algorithms on this network. We then study the (n, k )-arrangement network from the algorithmic point of view. Specifically, we will investigate both fundamental and application algorithms such as prefix sums computation, sorting, merging and basic geometry computation: finding convex hull on the (n, k )-arrangement graph. A literature review of the state-of-the-art in relation to the (n, k)-arrangement network is also provided, as well as some open problems in this area.
    • Properties and algorithms of the hyper-star graph and its related graphs

      Zhang, Fan.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      The hyper-star interconnection network was proposed in 2002 to overcome the drawbacks of the hypercube and its variations concerning the network cost, which is defined by the product of the degree and the diameter. Some properties of the graph such as connectivity, symmetry properties, embedding properties have been studied by other researchers, routing and broadcasting algorithms have also been designed. This thesis studies the hyper-star graph from both the topological and algorithmic point of view. For the topological properties, we try to establish relationships between hyper-star graphs with other known graphs. We also give a formal equation for the surface area of the graph. Another topological property we are interested in is the Hamiltonicity problem of this graph. For the algorithms, we design an all-port broadcasting algorithm and a single-port neighbourhood broadcasting algorithm for the regular form of the hyper-star graphs. These algorithms are both optimal time-wise. Furthermore, we prove that the folded hyper-star, a variation of the hyper-star, to be maixmally fault-tolerant.
    • Quadtree representation and compression of spatial data

      Yin, Xiang; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      Spatial data representation and compression has become a focus issue in computer graphics and image processing applications. Quadtrees, as one of hierarchical data structures, basing on the principle of recursive decomposition of space, always offer a compact and efficient representation of an image. For a given image, the choice of quadtree root node plays an important role in its quadtree representation and final data compression. The goal of this thesis is to present a heuristic algorithm for finding a root node of a region quadtree, which is able to reduce the number of leaf nodes when compared with the standard quadtree decomposition. The empirical results indicate that, this proposed algorithm has quadtree representation and data compression improvement when in comparison with the traditional method.
    • Using genetic algorithms for the single allocation hub location problem

      Naeem, Mohammad; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Hub location problem is an NP-hard problem that frequently arises in the design of transportation and distribution systems, postal delivery networks, and airline passenger flow. This work focuses on the Single Allocation Hub Location Problem (SAHLP). Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for the capacitated and uncapacitated variants of the SAHLP based on new chromosome representations and crossover operators are explored. The GAs is tested on two well-known sets of real-world problems with up to 200 nodes. The obtained results are very promising. For most of the test problems the GA obtains improved or best-known solutions and the computational time remains low. The proposed GAs can easily be extended to other variants of location problems arising in network design planning in transportation systems.
    • ReAlM - a system to manipulate relations

      Ahmed, Zafor; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Given a heterogeneous relation algebra R, it is well known that the algebra of matrices with coefficient from R is relation algebra with relational sums that is not necessarily finite. When a relational product exists or the point axiom is given, we can represent the relation algebra by concrete binary relations between sets, which means the algebra may be seen as an algebra of Boolean matrices. However, it is not possible to represent every relation algebra. It is well known that the smallest relation algebra that is not representable has only 16 elements. Such an algebra can not be put in a Boolean matrix form.[15] In [15, 16] it was shown that every relation algebra R with relational sums and sub-objects is equivalent to an algebra of matrices over a suitable basis. This basis is given by the integral objects of R, and is, compared to R, much smaller. Aim of my thesis is to develop a system called ReAlM - Relation Algebra Manipulator - that is capable of visualizing computations in arbitrary relation algebras using the matrix approach.
    • Bio-inspired optimization & sampling technique for side-chain packing in MCCE

      Comte, Pascal; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      The prediction of proteins' conformation helps to understand their exhibited functions, allows for modeling and allows for the possible synthesis of the studied protein. Our research is focused on a sub-problem of protein folding known as side-chain packing. Its computational complexity has been proven to be NP-Hard. The motivation behind our study is to offer the scientific community a means to obtain faster conformation approximations for small to large proteins over currently available methods. As the size of proteins increases, current techniques become unusable due to the exponential nature of the problem. We investigated the capabilities of a hybrid genetic algorithm / simulated annealing technique to predict the low-energy conformational states of various sized proteins and to generate statistical distributions of the studied proteins' molecular ensemble for pKa predictions. Our algorithm produced errors to experimental results within .acceptable margins and offered considerable speed up depending on the protein and on the rotameric states' resolution used.
    • Extending relAPS to first order logic

      Aameri, Bahar; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      RelAPS is an interactive system assisting in proving relation-algebraic theorems. The aim of the system is to provide an environment where a user can perform a relation-algebraic proof similar to doing it using pencil and paper. The previous version of RelAPS accepts only Horn-formulas. To extend the system to first order logic, we have defined and implemented a new language based on theory of allegories as well as a new calculus. The language has two different kinds of terms; object terms and relational terms, where object terms are built from object constant symbols and object variables, and relational terms from typed relational constant symbols, typed relational variables, typed operation symbols and the regular operations available in any allegory. The calculus is a mixture of natural deduction and the sequent calculus. It is formulated in a sequent style but with exactly one formula on the right-hand side. We have shown soundness and completeness of this new logic which verifies that the underlying proof system of RelAPS is working correctly.
    • Genetic programming for the RoboCup Rescue Simulation System

      Runka, Andrew; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The Robocup Rescue Simulation System (RCRSS) is a dynamic system of multi-agent interaction, simulating a large-scale urban disaster scenario. Teams of rescue agents are charged with the tasks of minimizing civilian casualties and infrastructure damage while competing against limitations on time, communication, and awareness. This thesis provides the first known attempt of applying Genetic Programming (GP) to the development of behaviours necessary to perform well in the RCRSS. Specifically, this thesis studies the suitability of GP to evolve the operational behaviours required of each type of rescue agent in the RCRSS. The system developed is evaluated in terms of the consistency with which expected solutions are the target of convergence as well as by comparison to previous competition results. The results indicate that GP is capable of converging to some forms of expected behaviour, but that additional evolution in strategizing behaviours must be performed in order to become competitive. An enhancement to the standard GP algorithm is proposed which is shown to simplify the initial search space allowing evolution to occur much quicker. In addition, two forms of population are employed and compared in terms of their apparent effects on the evolution of control structures for intelligent rescue agents. The first is a single population in which each individual is comprised of three distinct trees for the respective control of three types of agents, the second is a set of three co-evolving subpopulations one for each type of agent. Multiple populations of cooperating individuals appear to achieve higher proficiencies in training, but testing on unseen instances raises the issue of overfitting.
    • Generating finite integral relation algebras

      Zhang, Si; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Relation algebras and categories of relations in particular have proven to be extremely useful as a fundamental tool in mathematics and computer science. Since relation algebras are Boolean algebras with some well-behaved operations, every such algebra provides an atom structure, i.e., a relational structure on its set of atoms. In the case of complete and atomic structure (e.g. finite algebras), the original algebra can be recovered from its atom structure by using the complex algebra construction. This gives a representation of relation algebras as the complex algebra of a certain relational structure. This property is of particular interest because storing the atom structure requires less space than the entire algebra. In this thesis I want to introduce and implement three structures representing atom structures of integral heterogeneous relation algebras, i.e., categorical versions of relation algebras. The first structure will simply embed a homogeneous atom structure of a relation algebra into the heterogeneous context. The second structure is obtained by splitting all symmetric idempotent relations. This new algebra is in almost all cases an heterogeneous structure having more objects than the original one. Finally, I will define two different union operations to combine two algebras into a single one.
    • Evolution of architectural floor plans

      Flack, Robert W. J.; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2011-10-13)
      Layout planning is a process of sizing and placing rooms (e.g. in a house) while a t t empt ing to optimize various criteria. Often the r e are conflicting c r i t e r i a such as construction cost, minimizing the distance between r e l a t ed activities, and meeting the area requirements for these activities. The process of layout planning ha s mostly been done by hand, wi th a handful of a t t empt s to automa t e the process. Thi s thesis explores some of these pa s t a t t empt s and describes several new techniques for automa t ing the layout planning process using evolutionary computation. These techniques a r e inspired by the existing methods, while adding some of the i r own innovations. Additional experimenLs are done to t e s t the possibility of allowing polygonal exteriors wi th rectilinear interior walls. Several multi-objective approaches are used to evaluate and compare fitness. The evolutionary r epr e s ent a t ion and requirements specification used provide great flexibility in problem scope and depth and is worthy of considering in future layout and design a t t empt s . The system outlined in thi s thesis is capable of evolving a variety of floor plans conforming to functional and geometric specifications. Many of the resulting plans look reasonable even when compared to a professional floor plan. Additionally polygonal and multi-floor buildings were also generated.
    • Automatic Structure Generation using Genetic Programming and Fractal Geometry

      Bergen, Steve; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2012-02-09)
      Three dimensional model design is a well-known and studied field, with numerous real-world applications. However, the manual construction of these models can often be time-consuming to the average user, despite the advantages o ffered through computational advances. This thesis presents an approach to the design of 3D structures using evolutionary computation and L-systems, which involves the automated production of such designs using a strict set of fitness functions. These functions focus on the geometric properties of the models produced, as well as their quantifiable aesthetic value - a topic which has not been widely investigated with respect to 3D models. New extensions to existing aesthetic measures are discussed and implemented in the presented system in order to produce designs which are visually pleasing. The system itself facilitates the construction of models requiring minimal user initialization and no user-based feedback throughout the evolutionary cycle. The genetic programming evolved models are shown to satisfy multiple criteria, conveying a relationship between their assigned aesthetic value and their perceived aesthetic value. Exploration into the applicability and e ffectiveness of a multi-objective approach to the problem is also presented, with a focus on both performance and visual results. Although subjective, these results o er insight into future applications and study in the fi eld of computational aesthetics and automated structure design.
    • The Salmon Algorithm - A New Population Based Search Metaheuristic

      Orth, John; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2012-03-02)
      This thesis introduces the Salmon Algorithm, a search meta-heuristic which can be used for a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. This algorithm is loosely based on the path finding behaviour of salmon swimming upstream to spawn. There are a number of tunable parameters in the algorithm, so experiments were conducted to find the optimum parameter settings for different search spaces. The algorithm was tested on one instance of the Traveling Salesman Problem and found to have superior performance to an Ant Colony Algorithm and a Genetic Algorithm. It was then tested on three coding theory problems - optimal edit codes, optimal Hamming distance codes, and optimal covering codes. The algorithm produced improvements on the best known values for five of six of the test cases using edit codes. It matched the best known results on four out of seven of the Hamming codes as well as three out of three of the covering codes. The results suggest the Salmon Algorithm is competitive with established guided random search techniques, and may be superior in some search spaces.
    • Comparison of classification ability of hyperball algorithms to neural network and k-nearest neighbour algorithms

      Zibamanzar-Mofrad, Tanaby; Department of Computer Science (Brock University, 2012-04-03)
      The main focus of this thesis is to evaluate and compare Hyperbalilearning algorithm (HBL) to other learning algorithms. In this work HBL is compared to feed forward artificial neural networks using back propagation learning, K-nearest neighbor and 103 algorithms. In order to evaluate the similarity of these algorithms, we carried out three experiments using nine benchmark data sets from UCI machine learning repository. The first experiment compares HBL to other algorithms when sample size of dataset is changing. The second experiment compares HBL to other algorithms when dimensionality of data changes. The last experiment compares HBL to other algorithms according to the level of agreement to data target values. Our observations in general showed, considering classification accuracy as a measure, HBL is performing as good as most ANn variants. Additionally, we also deduced that HBL.:s classification accuracy outperforms 103's and K-nearest neighbour's for the selected data sets.