Language shifting among the Hodenosaunee of Southern Ontario : EdwaenagÃ©: tsgÃ³ -- Shogwaya> dihs> oh nidwawenÃ³ :de: shogwÃ¡:wi: tsÃ¡hohwejÃ¡da:t
AuthorStyres, Sandra D.
KeywordIroquois language--Ontario, Southern.
Language attrition--Ontario, Southern.
Language and culture--Ontario, Southern.
Linguistic change--Ontario, Southern.
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AbstractThrough aggressive legislative and educational policies Indigenous languages globally have been shifted to the language of the dominant society. Globalization has brought previously geo-politically and/or geo-linguistically isolated people and language . groups into close proximity that necessitated interaction and at times intense power struggles. There are currently approximately 6,000 spoken languages in the world, more than half are either endangered, dying or disappearing altogether. Canadian statistics reveal an overall 3 % decline in the intergenerational transmission of language. Of the original 60 Indigenous languages spoken in Canada, 8 are extinct, 13 are nearly extinct, and 23 are critical. The remaining languages have a slim chance of survival. Within the next 100 years only 4 Indigenous languages will remain. The Hodenosaunee languages of Southern Ontario are not incl~ded among the list of languages that will survive the next 100 years. There are, without a doubt, complex challenges in the maintenance of Indigenous languages within a dominant-culture influenced environment. Given the increasing awareness of the social impact of linguistic integrity and preservation of languages on Indigenous people as a whole, this study considers how language is currently being used; the social, economic, and political implications of language shifting; the need to shift our social consciousness in order to understand the urgency in privileging our Hodenosaunee languages; as well as ways in which we might achieve those goals as individuals, as families, and as a community.
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The sedimentology of the Bloomington fan complex: an element of the Oak Ridges Moraine, Southern OntarioPaterson, Jens Tore.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1995-07-09)The Oak Ridges Moraine is a major physiographic feature of south-central Ontario, extending from Rice Lake westward to the Niagara Escarpment. While much previous work has largely postulated a relatively simple the origin of the moraine, recent investigations have concentrated on delineating the discernible glacigenic deposits (or landform architectural elements) which comprise the complex mosaic of the Oak Ridges Moraine. This study investigates the sedimentology of the Bloomington fan complex, one of the oldest elements of the Oak Ridges Moraine. The main sediment body of the Bloomington fan complex was deposited during early stages of the formation of the Oak Ridges Moraine, when the ice subdivided, and formed a confined, interlobate lake basin between the northern and southern lobes. Deposition from several conduits produced a fan complex characterized by multiple, laterally overlapping, fan bodies. It appears that the fans were active sequentially in an eastward direction, until the formation of the Bloomington fan complex was dominated by the largest fan fed by a conduit near the northeastern margin of the deposit. Following deposition of the fan complex, the northern and southern ice margins continued to retreat, opening drainage outlets to the west and causing water levels to drop in the lake basin. Glaciofluvial sediment was deposited at this time, cutting into the underlying fan complex. Re-advancing northern ice then closed westerly outlets, and caused water levels to increase, initiating the re-advance of the southern ice. As the southern ice approached the Bloomington fan, it deposited an ice-marginal sediment complex consisting of glacigenic sediment gravity flows, and glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial sediments exhibiting north and northwesterly paleocurrents. Continued advance of the southern ice, overriding the fan complex, ii produced large-scale glaciotectonic deformation structures, and deposited the Halton Till. The subaqueous fan depositional model that is postulated for the Bloomington fan complex differs from published models due to the complex facies associations produced by the multiple conduit sources of sediment feeding the fans. The fluctuating northern and southern ice margins, which moved across the study area in opposite directions, controlled the water level in the interlobate basin and caused major changes in depositional environments. The influence of these two lobes also caused deposition from two distinct source directions. Finally, erosion, deposition, and deformation of the deposit with the readvance of the southern ice contributed further to the complexity of the Bloomington fan complex.
An investigation of geological and geochemical characteristics of late-Quaternay sediments in the Georgian Bay Region, Southern OntarioChen, Chang-Sen.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)Core samples of postglacial sediments and sediment surface samples from Shepherd Lake on the Bruce Peninsula, Harts Lake on the Canadian Shield, and two cores from Georgian Bay (core P-l in the western deep part and core P-7 in the eastern shallow part) have been analyzed for pH, grain size distribution, water content, bulk density, loss on ignition at 4500C and 11000 C, major oxides (Si02 ,A1203,!FeO,MgO,CaO, Na20,K20,Ti02 ,MnO and P205) and trace elements (Ba,Zr,Sr,y,S, Zn,Cu,Ni,Ce and Rb). The sediment in Georgian Bay are generally fine grained (fine silt to very fine silty clay) and the grain size decreases from the Canadian Shield (core p-7) towards the Bruce Peninsula (core P-l) along the assumed direction of sediment transport. This trend coincides with a decrease in sorting coefficient and an increase in roundness. Other physical characteristics, such as water content, bulk density and loss on ignition are positively correlated with the composition of sediments and their compaction, as well as with the energy of the depositional environment. Analyses of sediment surface samples from Shepherd Lake and Harts Lake indicate the influence of bedrock and surficial deposits in the watershed on pH condition that is also influenced by the organic matter content and probably I ! I man's activities. Organic matter content increases significantly in the surface sediment in these small lakes as a result of either natural eutrophication or anthropogenic organic loading. The extremely high organic matter content in Shepherd Lake sediment indicates rapid natural eutrophication in this closed basin and high biological productivity during postglacial time, probably due to high nutrient levels and shallow depth. The chemical composition of the Canadian Shield bedrock is positively correlated with the chemical characteristics of predominantly inorganic lake sediments that were derived from the Shield rocks by glacial abrasion and by postglacial weathering and erosion of both bedrock and surficial deposits. High correlation coefficients were found between organic matter in lake sediments and major oxides (Si02,AI203,.~FeO, MgO,CaO,K20 and MnO) , as well as some trace elements (Ba,Y, S,Zn,Cu,Ni and Rb). The chemical composition of sediments in Harts Lake and core P-7 in Georgian Bay on the Canadian Shield differs from the chemistry of sediments in Shepherd Lake and core P-l in Georgian Bay on the Bruce Peninsula. The difference between cores P-l and P-7 is indicated by values of Si02 , AI203 ,:LFeo,Mgo,CaO,Ba,Zr,Sr,y and S, and also by the organic matter content. This study indicates that the processes of sediment transport, depositional environment, weathering of the rocks and surficial deposits in the watershed, as well as chemical composition of source rocks all affect the chemical characteristics of lake sediments. The stratigraphic changes and variations in lake sediment chemistry with regard to major oxides, trace elements, and organic matter content are probably related to the history of glacial and postglacial lake stages of the Georgian Bay Region and, therefore, the geochemical data can make a useful contribution to a better understanding of the Late-Quaternary history of the Great Lakes.
Bioindication of ozone using milkweed plants in Southern OntarioDepartment of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 2010-03-09)Ambient (03) ozone concentrations were compared to ozone damage on milkweed plants to determine if there was a correlation. Eight survey sites of at least 100 plants each were located within 5 kilometers of Air Quality Index (AQI) stations in southern Ontario. Sites were visited nine times from June-September (2007) and milkweed leaves from 75 plants were assessed using methods pioneered in the United States. Ambient 0 3 results were calculated into SUM65, seasonal cumulative 0 3, and total 03. The 0 3 exposure indices SUM65 and cumulative 0 3 were tested statistically to determine which index is biologically relevant to milkweed as an 0 3 damage indicator species. The milkweed damage indices were incidence of leaves damaged per plant, incidence of plants damaged per site, and total 0 3• The incidence of plants injured per site was the best damage parameter with an F(1,28)=17.37, p=0.0003 for SUM65 and F(1,28)=7.5, p=O.0106 for cumulative 03 .. Milkweed plants showed quantifiable ozone damage with minimal spatial differences in damage and thus have potential use as a biomonitor species in southern Ontario.