Physical volcanology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and petrochemistry of the Berry Creek metavolcanics: an Archean calc-alkaline complex, Lake of the Woods, Ontario
AuthorDavison, James Gregory.
KeywordVolcanism--Ontario--Berry Creek Complex.
Sediments (Geology)--Ontario--Berry Creek Complex.
Geology--Ontario--Berry Creek Complex.
Geochemistry--Ontario--Berry Creek Complex.
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AbstractThe steeply dipping, isoclinally folded early Precambrian (Archean) Berry Creek Metavolcanic Complex comprises primary to resedimented pyroclastic, epiclastic and autoclastic deposits. Tephra erupted from central volcanic edifices was dumped by mass flow mechanisms into peripheral volcanosedimentary depressions. Sedimentation has been essentially contemporaneous with eruption and transport of tephra. The monolithic to heterolithic tuffaceous horizons are interpreted as subaerial to subaqueous pumice and ash flows, secondary debris flows, lahars, slump deposits and turbidites. Monolithic debris flows, derived from crumble breccia and dcme talus, formed during downslope collapse and subsequent gravity flowage. Heterolithic tuff, lahars and lava flow morphologies suggest at least temporary emergence of the edifice. Local collapse may have accompanied pyroclastic volcanism. The tephra, produced by hydromagmatic to magmatic eruptions, were rapidly transported, by primary and secondary mechanisms, to a shallow littoral to deep water subaqueous fan developed upon the subjacent mafic metavolcanic platform. Deposition resulted from traction, traction carpet, and suspension sedimentation from laminar to turbulent flows. Facies mapping revealed proximal (channel to overbank) to distal facies epiclastics (greywackes, argillite) intercalated with proximal vent to medial fan facies crystal rich ash flows, debris flows, bedded tuff and shallow water to deep water lava flows. Framework and matrix support debris flows exhibit a variety of subaqueous sedimentary structures, e.g., coarse tail grading, double grading, inverse to normal grading, graded stratified pebbly horizons, erosional channels. Pelitic to psammitic AE turbidites also contain primary stru~tures, e.g., flames, load casts, dewatering pipes. Despite low to intermediate pressure greenschist to amphibolite grade metamorphism and variably penetrative deformation, relicts of pumice fragments and shards were recognized as recrystallized quartzofeldspathic pseudomorphs. The mafic to felsic metavolcanics and metasediments contain blasts of hornblende, actinolite, garnet, pistacitic epidote, staurolite, albitic plagioclase, and rarely andalusite and cordierite. The mafic metavolcanics (Adams River Bay, Black River, Kenu Lake, Lobstick Bay, Snake Bay) display _holeiitic trends with komatiitic affinities. Chemical variations are consistent with high level fractionation of olivine, plagioclase, amphibole, and later magnetite from a parental komatiite. The intermediate to felsic (64-74% Si02) metavolcanics generally exhibit calc-alkaline trends. The compositional discontinuity, defined by major and trace element diversity, can be explained by a mechanism involving two different magma sources. Application of fractionation series models are inconsistent with the observed data. The tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites are probably derived by low pressure fractionation of a depleted (high degree of partial melting) mantle source. The depleted (low Y, Zr) calc-alkaline metavolcanics may be produced by partial melting of a geochemically evolved source, e.g., tonalitetrondhjemite, garnet amphibolite or hydrous basalt.
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Some ecological factors affecting the input and population level of total and faecal coliforms and salmonella in Twelve Mile Creek, Lake Ontario and sewage waters near St. Catharines, OntarioRoth, James Milton.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1975-10-02)Some Ecological Factors Affecting the Input and Population Levels of Total and Faecal Coliforms and Salmonella in Twelve Mile Creek, Lake Ontario and Sewage Waters Near St. Catharines, Ontario. Supervisor: Dr. M. Helder. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of some ecological factors on sewage-Dorne bacteria in waters near St. Catharines, Ontario. Total and faecal coliform levels and the presence of Salmonella were monitored for a period of a year along with determination of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nitrate N, total phosphate P and ammonium N. Bacteriological tests for coliform analysis were done according to APHA Standard Methods by the membrane filtration technique. The grab sampling technique was employed for all sampling. Four sample sites were chosen in the Port Dalhousie beach area to determine what bacteriological or physical relationship the sites had to each other. The sample sites chosen were the sewage inflow to and the effluent from the St. Catharines (Port Dalhousie) Pollution Control Plant, Twelve Mile Creek below the sewage outfall and Lake Ontario at the Lakeside Park beach. The sewage outfall was located in Twelve Mile Creek, approximately 80 meters from the creek junction with the beach and piers on Lake Ontario. Twelve Mile Creek normally carried a large volume of water from the WeIland Canal which was diverted through the DeCew Generating Station located on the Niagara Escarpment. An additional sample site, which was thought to be free of industrial wastes, was chosen at Twenty Mile Creek, also in the Niagara Region of Ontarioo 3 There were marked variations in bacterial numbers at each site and between each site, but trends to lower_numbers were noted from the sewage inflow to Lake Ontario. Better correlations were noted between total and faecal coliform population levels and total phosphate P and ammonium N in Twenty Mile Creek. Other correlations were observed for other sample stations, however, these results also appeared to be random in nature. Salmonella isolations occurred more frequently during the winter and spring months when water temperatures were minimal at all sample stations except the sewage inflow. The frequency of Salmonella isolations appeared to be related to increased levels of total and faecal coli forms in the sewage effluent. However, no clear relationships were established in the other sample stations. Due to the presence of Salmonella and high levels of total and faecal coliform indicator organisms, the sanitary quality of Lake Ontario and Twelve Mile Creek at the sample sites seemed to be impaired over the major portion of the study period.
Environmental assessment and biomonitoring of the Twelve Mile Creek watershed, Niagara Peninsula, OntarioCampbell, Ian T.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1996-07-09)In light of the heavy reliance of the people of the Niagara Peninsula on the T\\'elve Mile Creek (TMC) watershed for recreational activities and for municipal and industrial uses ( e.g., drinking water, shipping and discharge of effluents), it was deemed prudent to assess the envirol1tnental health of the system by analysing the sediments total and exchangeable metal, and TPH contents. The MOEE has set guidelines with limits for the protection and management of aquatic sediments, and the sediments from the headwaters of the TMC have total metal and TPH (subset of O&G) contents well below the lower provincial limits. Areas of environmental concern where total metal contents in sediments, either individually or collectively, exceed the guideline, are the south side of Lake Gibson, the Old WeIland Canal, a segment of TMC just south of the QEW and Martindale Pond. The total metal content of sediments does not in all instances identify areas of biological concern. Instead, it has been found that the exchangeable metal fraction of sediments is a better indicator of metal availability and thus potential accumulation in organisms. In some instances, the exchangeable metal fraction agrees with the total metal fraction defining areas of environmental concern, but it does vary from site to site reflecting the natural variability of the ambient environment. Overall, the exchangeable metal fraction of sediments appears to be a better indicator of anthropogenic pollution and ecosystem impact. A histochemical study of Anodon.ta sp., Elliptio sp. and zebra mussels (Dreissena polyn'101pha) was done in conjunction with passive biomonitoring of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) from the Twelve Mile Creek watershed and Lake 51. Clair (Jeanette's Creek, Chatham, Ontario). The highest concentrations of divalent metals such as Cu, Ni, Cd, and Zn, and trivalent Al appear to accumulate in gill and kidney tissues. Metal contents of organ tissues in Anodonta sp. vary with size class. Organ metal content varies among size classes, thus requiring consideration of size in biomonitoring studies. Shucked zebra and quagga mussel tissues, exhibited similar size class to Al content trends. In addition they reflected the Al content trends of top (approximately 10 cm) most sediments in the Twelve Mile Creek watershed. Quagga mussels appear to have higher Al concentrations than zebra mussels, thus suggesting that quagga mussels may be better passive biomonitors of AI. Cd content in zebra mussel tissues, seemed to increase with size class trends. This was not demonstrated in the quagga mussel tissues. This suggests that Cd may be regulated by quagga mussels and not by zebra mussels, and that zebra mussels may be better passivebiomonitors of Cd than are quagga mussels. Zebra mussel, quagga mussel, Anodonta sp., and Elliptio sp. were used in a two part, active (translocated) biomonitoring study of the Twelve Mile Creek watershed. There was no statistical difference in death rates between zebra and quagga mussels after 65 days of biomonitoring. However there does appear to be a difference of death rates between sites. Unfortunately the data base did not permit us to differentiate between sites. Relative to Port Colborne Harbour (Port Colborne, Ontario), the Twelve Mile Creek watershed appears to be elevated in bioavailable AI. An area near the terminus of the Twelve Mile Creek appears to be an area of environmental concern since mussels seemed to have accumulated relatively large concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb. In addition to possible metal loading from a nearby outfalls, or possible upstream outfalls, road salt runoff from storm sewers may have contributed to metal accumulation through cation exchanges processes. Similar trends in cumulative quagga mussel metal concentrations during the two time periods (65 and 159 days), suggest that quagga mussels may reach equilibrium within 65 days of translocation. Differences in bioaccumulated metal concentrations of the two dreissenid species demonstrate that active biomonitoring studies must use a variety of organisms to adequately assess the environmental situation of specific waterways and/or bodies.
Plan of part of the Niagara Frontier, shewing the communications from thence to the 15 mile Creek, July 1814.Phillip Hughes; G. A. Eliott (Montreal, Que., 1814)Historical map showing the Niagara Frontier from Fifteen Mile Creek to Chippawa Creek at the Niagara River. The map covers the northeast area of the Niagara Frontier between Niagara-on-the-Lake through to 15 Mile Creek with Lake Ontario to the north. The map shows roads and some houses which are labelled with the settler’s names. Also shown are military forts and locations of battles indicated with drawings of crossed swords and the date of the battle. Creeks are labelled and the escarpment is indicated with shading.