Now showing items 1-20 of 275

    • What's out there? Kinesiology curriculum scan for physical activity and older adults in Ontario (Canada)

      Edlington, Cassidy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: To date, no studies have conducted a curricular scan to evaluate coursework targeting older adults and physical activity in university-based kinesiology departments. The research question guiding this study was: What percentage of courses taught in kinesiology programs at universities in Ontario (Canada) focus on older adults and physical activity? Methods: Using a list of universities (N = 29) from Ontario (Canada) as the sampling frame, this descriptive study used archival data published within undergraduate calendars by sixteen universities. Data were extracted then coded using a coding manual developed using best practice guidelines for knowledge synthesis research. Results: Human Biomechanics and Psychomotor Learning/Neuroscience were offered in 100.0% of the undergraduate programs while 81.3% offered a course devoted to older adults and physical activity. Variability in the number of courses targeting older adults and physical activity was evident (Range = 1.0 to 4.0 courses; M = 1.5 courses; SD = 1.2 courses; Md = 1.0 courses). Two universities contained one course that focused on physical activity for chronic diseases among older adults. Conclusions: Overall, this study provides evidence that most universities in Ontario (Canada) offer undergraduate kinesiology courses focused on older adults and physical activity. It is possible that availability of these courses is due to gerontology being an elective course listed within the admission requirements of the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario. Future research may wish to explore the number (i.e., how many?) and type (i.e., class-based vs. field-based, etc.) of courses targeting older adults and physical activity needed for training kinesiology students.
    • The Good Sport: Physical Literacy and a Moral Self

      Powers, Taliah L.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Physical literacy is a theoretical concept defined by Margaret Whitehead as an individual’s competence, knowledge and understanding, and motivation to participate in lifelong physical activity. This concept emerged out of concern for the seeming disregard of human embodiment, particularly in the education sector, and is firmly rooted in the philosophical concepts of monism, existentialism, and phenomenology. In accordance with existential philosophers such as Merleau-Ponty and Sartre, who argue human beings are fundamentally beings-in-the-world, physical literacy purports physically literate individuals should have a well-established embodied sense of self. They are to develop as proficient movers capable of exemplary self-expression, self-presentation, and interactions with others. But this conception of ‘self’ is incomplete absent the recognition that we are not only beings-in-the-world, but rather socially situated embodied beings whose interactions demand more than a sharp sense of kinesthetic awareness. Herein lies my motivation for this thesis. Specifically, the current philosophical foundations of physical literacy are inadequate to account for a conception of self which recognizes humans as both, embodied movers, and moral beings. As such, this thesis critiques the concept of sense of self foundational to physical literacy and its failure to account for a moral self. In response to this gap in the extant literature, the remainder of this thesis is dedicated to expanding the philosophical foundation of physical literacy to include the development of a moral sense of self by drawing upon the concepts of sport-as-play and sportsmanship.
    • (Re)presentations of Disability: Images of Persons with Down Syndrome

      Mooradian, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Disabled people have been misrepresented by mass media for decades. The result of disability misrepresentation is the perpetuation of negative disability stereotypes and models of disability. Disability representation has rarely been informed by authentic first-hand knowledge about what disability is and who disabled people are. As such, representations of disability have been formed from an outsider perspective most commonly based on ableism. This study seeks to explore the ways in which disabled people choose to represent themselves and if this representation is consistent with or resistant to dominant disability narratives. Borrowing from Critical Disability Studies and the concept of disability life writing, this study utilized qualitative content analysis to analyze the visual images, comments, and hashtags of randomly selected data posted to four publicly accessible Instagram accounts. Findings show disabled people choose to represent themselves in ways that resist dominant disability narratives, allowing for expanded ideas of what disability is and who disabled people are.
    • Problematic Parents: An Efficacy Analysis of Code of Conduct Policies in Ontario Minor Hockey Associations

      Heipel, Zach; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Minor hockey in Canada holds significant historical and cultural importance. Many children in Canada aspire to become professional hockey players and many parents dream of their child succeeding in the sport at the highest levels. This perceived importance runs the risk of creating a hypercompetitive environment with overinvolved parents that can adversely affect multiple minor hockey stakeholders, such as young athletes, coaches, referees, administrators, and other parents. Existing research has examined violations from parents in various youth sport settings and a lack of institutional policies to inform, monitor, and discipline parents who violate behavioural expectations. Many studies have recommended the inclusion of parental education tools and association disciplinary procedures, but current literature lacks a fundamental understanding of current behaviour policies and their effectiveness. This study examines the contents of code of conduct policies in Ontario minor hockey associations, the behaviour expectations of parents, the effectiveness of code of conduct policies, the various violations that parents commit, and potential recommendations to improve parental behaviour. Employing constructivist epistemology and qualitative research design, this study used interpretive phenomenology and thematic analysis to analyze two types of data: 58 existing code of conduct documents, and 21 semi-structured interviews with minor hockey rep coaches and administrators. This analysis revealed that while many Ontario minor hockey associations have some form of conduct policy in place, content and implementation varies significantly between associations. Furthermore, while participants perceived that parental behaviour appears to be improving in recent years, misconduct incidents still commonly occur with significant negative consequences to various minor hockey stakeholders. Participants identified many strategies to better prevent and respond to parental misconduct in minor hockey are identified and examined, making this study useful to minor hockey associations in developing better policies and procedures to effectively deal with parental misconduct incidents.
    • The Role of Knowledge and Perceived Level of Self-Efficacy on Junior Division Teachers’ Implementation of Physical Literacy in Ontario

      Steven, Soroko; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The Ontario, Health and Physical Education, Grades 1-8 (HPE) curriculum policy document identifies physical literacy as a key component of the overall vision and goal of the subject. Teachers play a primary role with the implementation of the HPE curriculum policy document and as a result can significantly influence a student’s overall physical literacy journey. The release of the HPE curriculum policy document in 2010 provided a definition of physical literacy for elementary teachers in Ontario, which has remained consistent since that time. However, there is limited data on how school boards, schools, and teachers have implemented physical literacy within the context of the Ontario HPE curriculum. This research explored the role that junior division (Grades 4-6) teachers’ knowledge of physical literacy and perceived levels of self-efficacy for teaching HPE has on their implementation of physical literacy within their classroom. Using a mixed methods design, this study examined how junior division teachers’ (n = 35) perceived levels of self-efficacy and knowledge of physical literacy influenced their ability to implement physical literacy within the classroom program. Participants completed an online survey and eight individuals participated in individual interviews for this study. Two main findings related to implementation of physical literacy were that: (a) teachers indicated a need for resources/supports and accessed them from several sources; and, (b) teachers reported several barriers for both implementation of HPE along with others that were more specifically related to COVID-19 protocols. These results have implications for how teachers in schools can be supported with the implementation of physical literacy in order to provide quality learning opportunities that contribute to a student’s physical literacy journey.
    • An Exploration of the Current Orientation Practices for Clinical Instructors at Ontario University Nursing Programs

      Van Roon, Breann; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The Joint Provincial Nursing Committee in Ontario in 2015 set forth recommendations to improve clinical nursing education. This thesis was conducted to explore the current orientation processes for new clinical instructors within nursing programs at Ontario universities. Qualitative methodology, more specifically case study design, was chosen to guide the research process. Eight participants from six universities in Ontario were recruited, using purposeful sampling, and participated in semi-structured interviews. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) the process of orientation starts with the hiring process; (b) training methods and content of orientation programs; (c) completion of the orientation process; (d) clinical instructors as part-time employees. Findings indicated that there is a lack of a standardized orientation process across Ontario, resulting in inconsistencies in how clinical instructors teach across the province. It is recommended that an evidence-informed, standardized orientation model be developed to provide consistency in clinical education across Ontario.
    • Living Well with Chronic Pain: A Heuristic Examination of Strategies used by Young Adults to Achieve Well-Being

      Bolger, Monica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this research was to examine how young adults with chronic pain are living well. The scholarly literature supports the notion that chronic pain is debilitating. It is important, however, to explore what factors affect the lived experience of chronic pain for young adults, and what contributes to their ability to live well. Study findings are organized around three major steps that allowed young adults living with chronic pain to attain a state of living well: managing the crisis of chronic pain, achieving stability, and creating a baseline and exceeding the baseline towards living well. These steps facilitated growth, opportunity, and awareness to the ways in which living with chronic pain as a young adult while overcoming adversity. Utilizing a heuristic phenomenological approach, the co-researchers were able to share their lived experience followed by an intense qualitative data analysis. Upon completion of data analysis, the information revealed a moving model demonstrating living well with chronic pain. Study findings also identified key strategies for living well with chronic pain: increasing positive emotion, prioritizing personal health, hope and optimism, and increasing social connection. Each strategy facilitates movement from living with chronic pain to living a meaningful life within the parameters of their chronic pain experience. This study found that young adults living with chronic pain can engage in purposeful actions to increase their capacity to live well and achieve satisfaction with life. These findings have implications for professionals who work with individuals who live with chronic pain, particularly for the young adult demographic.
    • Effects of a Tailored Social Marketing Campaign Targeting Smoking Policy Compliance on Smoking-Related Behaviour on Campus

      Turnbull, Haley A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction. Smoking represents a significant risk to Canadians. Young people in Canada have historically had the highest smoking prevalence of any other age group. Implementing smoking policies can be an effective strategy for post-secondary campuses to interrupt smoking trajectories and reduce the risk of campus citizens being exposed to second- hand smoke, however compliance can be a barrier to achieving these outcomes. This study examined the effects of a social marketing campaign on policy-non-compliance on a post- secondary campus in Ontario, Canada. Methods. The 3-week campaign was implemented by students and focused on policy- compliance-related objectives. Six smoking sites were observed twice a day for one week before the campaign, and one week after the campaign was completed. 4 sites were designated smoking areas, as defined by the smoking policy at the institution. 2 sites were undesignated “hot-spots” where smoking was frequently observed to occur. A butt litter audit was completed before and after the campaign to determine if butt litter decreased after the campaign. Results. At designated smoking sites, using the strict policy definition of the designated smoking sites, the proportion of observed behaviour that was non-compliant decreased in designated smoking areas (-0.079, 95% CI = 0.143, -0.0151, p < .05). Noncompliant behaviours also significantly decreased after the campaign using a more lenient measure of compliance (-0.102, 95% CI = -0.203, -0.001, p < .05). At undesignated hot spots, the average number of people using the areas to smoke decreased at both sites after the campaign. The proportion of all cigarettes which were disposed of correctly in receptacles was 75.5% before the campaign and 77.4% after the campaign. It is unclear if second-hand smoke exposure was reduced for non- smoking pedestrians despite the overall reduction in non-compliant behaviours. Conclusions. Implementing a student-led, social marketing campaign focussed on improving compliance was an effective strategy to improve compliance with smoking policy.
    • Exploring Parental Experiences and Meaning of Involvement within Youth Sport: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Maxwell, Keetyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      By applying an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, the purpose of the study was to explore the lived experience of parental involvement in youth sport and the meaning the involvement holds. Specifically, I wanted to examine how role identity theory can provide deeper understanding to how parents experience and provide meaning to their involvement in their children’s sport. A key aspect to the study is that as the researcher, I was attempting to understand the experiences of the participant’s meaning-making. Master themes that capture the overall phenomenon were constructed that were present across the majority of participants while still allowing for each participant’s unique experience to be understood. The overarching themes interpreted from the data include: Desiring Involvement, Onus on Parental Roles within Involvement, Commitment, and Constructing Meaning-making of the Experience. These findings highlight the ways in which role identity salience defines the experience and the meaning involvement holds to a parent. This study provided deeper theoretical understanding of the experience of being a parent involved in youth sport, as well as highlighted the usefulness of conducting research in this field with an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach to explore a complex and diverse topic.
    • The Effects of the Mad Dog Diet on Bowel Function, Body Composition, Neuropathic Pain, and Depression in a Spinal Cord Injury and Multiple Sclerosis Population

      Sullivan, Timothy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Inflammation has been shown to negatively influence bowel function, body composition, neuropathic pain, and depression within the spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) populations. Four individuals with varying levels of SCI’s (C5-T1/AIS A-D/3 male 1 female) and two individuals with varying diagnoses of MS (SPMS & RRMS, female) were recruited for the study. Bowel function was assessed via The Bowel Management subset of the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) and Neurological Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) questionnaires, body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, neuropathic pain was assessed via the neuropathic pain questionnaire, and depression was measured via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire. This study investigated the effects of 6-weeks of the Mad Dog diet, which aimed to reduce inflammation, and improve the aforementioned ailments. The 6-week Mad Dog diet was associated with a significant reduction in total body mass (p=0.006), lean mass (p=0.046) and fat mass (p=0.038). Despite the significant reduction in fat mass, there were no significant changes in subcutaneous fat mass (p=0.091), or visceral mass (p=0.33), which suggests that the study was underpowered and could not distinguish the relative contribution of either fat source to the losses in total fat mass. Likewise, there were no significant changes in bowel function as determined by SCI-QOL scores (p=0.33), or NBD scores (p=0.29), and no significant changes in any domain of neuropathic pain (sensory, p=0.55; affective, p=0.15; sensitivity, p=0.12), or depression (CES-D scores, p=0.34). These findings demonstrate that 6 weeks of the Mad Dog diet may be beneficial for body composition in the SCI and MS populations. Findings from this research provide the basis for a larger study that can more fully assess the outcomes from this study along with changes in biological measures of inflammation.
    • From their eyes: Nursing student experiences using repeated reflection from the pediatric patient's perspective

      Van der Wal, Melissa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Simulation-based learning (SBL) has been a core course component in nursing curricula for decades. The growing use of SBL has led to increasingly lifelike simulations and continued development to maximize learning opportunities. Reflection and debriefing are key components of SBL to improve learning outcomes and clinical skills. Reflection is often described as a process; however, nursing students rarely have the opportunity to participate in the same simulation or clinical experience twice to completely engage in the reflective process. Reflection from the patient’s perspective is a new concept to simulation, first done by Taplay (2020) using the Reflective Practice from the Patient’s Perspective (RPPP) tool. In this study, we applied the RPPP 3.0 tool to a pediatric nursing simulation, where the simulated child wore spyglasses to record visual and audio data of the simulation (Taplay, 2020). Participants watched their simulations from the patient’s perspective and partook in an interview guided by the RPPP 3.0 tool (Taplay, 2020). Then, participants returned within 2-9 days to repeat the same simulation and reflection. Participants found value and meaning in the repeated reflection. Themes of reactions, communication, appraisal of performance, and the difference were found. Reflecting from the pediatric patient’s perspective allowed participants to gain insight into how their actions and communication were perceived. Repeating reflection encouraged participants to partake in self-directed preparation and allowed them to gain confidence, implement change, and improve their practice.
    • Fan Responses to Virtual Reality Sport Sponsorship Activations: The Influence of Presence on Emotion and Attitude Formation

      Schlieman, Troy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Considering the massive financial investment into sport sponsorship and the growth of the industry, it is important for managers to understand the strategic implications of their partnership decisions. This is even more essential in the current marketing landscape where advertising clutter and limited attention spans are rampant. Consequentially, experiential marketing has emerged to combat these challenges and provide consumers with unique and memorable experiences. Further, virtual reality (VR) has surfaced as a possible experiential marketing tool in that it has the capabilities of simulating one’s presence in a virtual environment: potentially creating those unique and memorable experiences. With sponsorship activation transitioning into an online environment further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the capabilities of virtual reality make it an attractive option to sport marketers. Presently, this technology is being applied without a clear purpose due to the newness of the platform and the lack of research and understanding regarding its true value. Thus, it is critical to examine how media modes, such as VR, may affect the impact of sponsorship messaging. In exploring sponsorship activation specifically, this study aimed to examine the use of 360-degree video and virtual reality as activation components, and if traditional non-immersive (phone, tablet, laptop, or desktop) and immersive (virtual reality) technologies differ in terms of their influence on important sponsor outcomes such as eliciting emotions and influencing attitudes. This study employed a survey design to compare responses between two groups. The first group experienced a 360-degree sport sponsorship activation video using non-immersive media while the second group experienced the same video in VR. A total of 114 responses were collected (57 in each group). Responses were then analyzed using two-way independent sample t-tests to find any statistically significant differences. Results showed that non-immersive respondents reported higher ratings of arousal compared to immersive respondents. Notably, there was a clear desire for 360-degree activation content from all users regardless of media mode. This study serves as a preliminary basis of valuation for virtual reality technology as it applies to sponsorship activation.
    • Understanding Interorganizational Relationships and Organizational Capacity in a Youth Baseball Network

      Willis, Jackson; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Within the Canadian sport system there has been a noted decline in team sport participation among youth athletes. Factors that have contributed to this decline include increased competition amongst organizations, a larger number of sport options and sport specialization. Baseball in particular is a sport that has seen declining participation rates in recent years. Within the sport management literature two key concepts have emerged as key areas of interest for youth sport organizations in their operations; interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity. Interorganizational relationship (IOR) development has been identified as an effective strategy for strengthening the capacity of youth sport organizations (Misener & Doherty, 2013). Organizational capacity has been related to the ability of organizations to draw on a variety of resources to help achieve desired outcomes (Hall et al., 2003), while there is also evidence to support the connection between greater organizational capacity and increased success in achieving these outcomes (Jones et al., 2017). Thus, the purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity within a youth baseball network in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada. Data were collected from representatives of ten youth baseball organizations through a survey instrument via telephone interview format. Data were analyzed using a social network analysis methodology including the use of the UCINET 6.0 software program and NetDraw function that allowed for the calculation of density and centrality measures along with visual representations of the network. QAP Multiple Regression analysis was also conducted and showed that IORs and sector were both found to be statistically significant in their ability to predict organizational capacity ties within this network. Overall, the results of this study allowed for conclusions to be drawn related to network structure, state of organizational capacity, and the relationship between IORs and organizational capacity in this youth baseball network.
    • An Exploratory Study of the Design of Major Junior Hockey Regional Leagues, from the Perspective of Member Team Employees

      Moussa, Jordyn A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Major Junior Hockey (MJH) is a unique part of the Canadian hockey system. Beginning in the 1960s, regional leagues began to form across Canada, culminating with the creation of the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) in 1974. The CHL is currently the governing body of MJH in Canada which is the most elite level of junior hockey in Canada. MJH regional leagues have been regarded as the best possible route to the National Hockey League (NHL) for junior-aged male hockey players, despite alternative paths existing in the United States and Europe. While much of the hockey literature in the past decade includes a broad scope of scholarly research, Canadian MJH remains a sub-context of that conversation. To date, the operations of MJH regional leagues have yet to be explored. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is to examine how Canadian MJH regional league offices are currently designed. Drawing upon organizational design literature both in and out of sport contexts, the research seeks to understand the design of the MJH regional leagues through specific principles. To explore this study, nine semi-structured interviews with Canadian MJH regional league member team employees were conducted. The findings indicated there exists a hybrid of two interconnected focuses within the MJH regional leagues’ organizational design: player development and revenue generation. The member team employee perceptions of the MJH regional leagues’ design are further discussed relating to previous organizational design literature, and historical developments of Canadian MJH. Several contributions to research and practice, and opportunities for future research are outlined to continue exploring the MJH system in Canada.
    • Requisite Characteristics of a Mentor to Establish Positive Relationships in a Type One Diabetes Intervention from the Mentee’s Perspective

      Sjaarda, Vanessa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Diabetes has reached global epidemic proportions. Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) typically strikes in childhood and is now becoming more prevalent in young adults. Evidence suggests that proactive harnessing of the positive attributes of a peer-to-peer mentor-mentee relationship could help mediate and decrease prevalence, assist with better glycemic control, reverse nonadherence and provide psychosocial support and education to people with diabetes. Research Question: What are the requisite components of a mentor needed to establish an effective mentorship relationship in a peer-to-peer coaching intervention for young adults with type one diabetes from the mentee’s perspective? Methods: A qualitative research design was used with Sandelowski’s (2010) qualitative descriptive approach. The Right Who, Respect, Information gathering, Consistency, and Support (TRICS) model was used as a theoretical framework (Donlan et al., 2017). Sample: 20 young adults aged 18-30 with T1D were recruited through snowball sampling. One semi-structured interview was completed with each participant. Data Analysis: All interview data were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and managed through NVIVO. Findings/Discussion: Three themes were revealed in the data; 1) T1D is a personal journey through self-realization and acceptance; 2) inconsistencies in social support systems and 3) a mentor- is a companion on the journey. One supplemental theme highlights the perceived impact of COVID-19 on participants T1D. Conclusion: Individuals with T1D perceived there is value in cultivating a mentored form of peer support. Developing and evaluating a mentor/mentee dyad as a supportive intervention for T1D adults transitioning to adult care is the next step for future research.
    • The Relationship Between Sport Participation, Perceived Athletic Competence and Performance in University Sprinters

      Moore, Trevor; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Purpose: There is a need for research that investigates confidence, performance, and previous sports involvement among particular sports such as in track and field sprinters. The objective of this study was to investigate relations between previous sport participation, perceived athletic competence, and performance results in university track and field sprinters. Methods: The perceived athletic competence scale and previous sport participation questionnaire were implemented in the form of an online survey. The best performance times were collected from an online results database. All of the participants were enrolled in university and were members of their respective school’s track and field team. Measures of variability and descriptive statistics were calculated, and Analysis of Variance and t-tests were implemented to analyze potential differences amongst the variables of this study. Results: There were a total of 42 university track and field sprinters between the age of 18 and 23. The highest participated sports (sum) were track and field sprints (624), soccer (234), hockey (189), and basketball (164). A repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in sports participation across all and between each of the three age groups (ages 8 to 13, 14 to 17, and 18+). Sports participation was the highest in the 8 to 13 age group. A bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses showed statistical insignificance between sport participation and perceived athletic competence. There was a low positive, but not statistically significant relationship from the 8 to 13 age group. Lastly, there was a statistically non-significant positive correlation for the first age (8 to 13) group and sprint performance times. Conclusion: The findings of the study contribute to the areas of sport participation, sport specialization, and athlete development by confirming what is already presently known while adding new support for track and field sprinting as a late specialization sport and the need for further analysis and investigation in the future with a more diverse sample and a larger sample size.
    • An Exploratory Study of a Coach's Response to Mandated Regulation Change

      Wilson, Jenna; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 the University Interscholastic League mandated a regulation change that all Texas high school football coaches required certification through Atavus Tackling Training. The mandate represented a significant modification to the way tackling is taught, aimed at addressing risk of concussion and serious trauma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore how coaches’ respond to mandated regulation change. This qualitative study utilized an individual level of analysis contributing to academic works concerning the understanding of organizational change, including the use of Bridges’ (1991) Transition Model within a sporting context, and the call for agent focused perspective work in neo-institutional theory. Through an abductive analysis blend consisting of inductive coding, and deductive a priori concept of the Bridges Transition Model, this study aimed to discern the role transition played in actualizing institutional change by addressing the research questions: RQ1: How do coaches respond when faced with mandated regulation change? RQ2: How does their response reflect transition? To account for the complex nature of the 15 interviewed head football coaches’ responses, the qualitative methodology of this study utilized various triangulation methods such as data, analysis, and theory triangulation, to capture rigor and trustworthiness. Rich findings were mined from the data including 15 propositional statements that represented the a priori model and 10 inductive themes that contributed to defining the identity of a coach, and the sport. The overlap between inductive and deductive findings explored factors earmarking why coaches progress or regress through transition. This study found a relationship between responses and the Bridges Transition Model phases (addressing RQ2), in addition to multiple transition cycles, and triggers for movement through the phases based on coaches' individual needs. This research not only provided examples of what those responses were (addressing RQ1), but also discussed why coaches responded in various ways. Discussion included use of organizational change literature, Bridges’ (1991) Transition Model, and institutional theory, accounting for what coaches experienced and the beliefs and values impacting their decisions and thus, responses to mandated regulation change.
    • Dancing Beyond Diversity: The Experiences of Black Female Ballerinas

      Lyn, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Ballet tends to reflect the intersection of femininity and whiteness, which conjure images of grace, beauty, innocence and fragility. This is the same discourse that is typically used to describe white womanhood (Fisher, 2016; McCarthy-Brown, 2011). This begs the question, “What are Black female dancer’s experiences of belonging?” Accordingly, this research seeks to understand the relationship between race and gender in the production, maintenance, and destruction of power within dance spaces. Using critical race methodologies of counter-storytelling, this research draws on Lefebvre’s (1991) understanding of social space (perceived space, conceived space, and lived space) and Black geographies to highlight and amplify the lived experiences of Black female ballet dancers. Qualitative data collection methods are utilized to explore these elements and to understand the everyday experiences within dance spaces. I will be conducting interviews, engaging in photo-elicitation, and collecting blog/social media data. This research will analyze how Black female bodies navigate dance spaces and how the interaction with these spaces influences a dancer’s perception of belonging. Accordingly, the objectives of this research are (1) to examine the ways in which experiences of space and belonging are racialized, (2) to deconstruct the historic and contemporary ideals of femininity and its interaction with Blackness, and (3) to explore how racialized ideals surrounding women’s bodies are perpetuated and/or challenged within dance spaces.
    • An Ethnographic Case Study of Developing and Maintaining the Coach-Athlete Relationship in Elite University Sport

      Corkery, Erin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Relationships and social interactions are crucial components in sport participation from adolescence through to elite and professional levels of competition. Recently, there has been growing interest in the study of the coach-athlete relationship as a result of an increase in the awareness of its implications and potential impact on performance success. The purposes of this research were to: (a) describe and interpret how one university sport coach develops and maintains relationships with athletes within one competitive season, and (b) describe and interpret the practices (including intentions and actions) used to facilitate social interactions that nurture the coach-athlete relationship. One male coach and twelve female elite university athletes from one sport team participated in the research. Data were generated from two main sources: observations of team practices and games, and two individual interviews with the coach and three athletes (one interview during the competitive season and one interview after the season had ended). Through a constructivist lens, I investigated the participants’ unique perspectives of the ongoing processes within the coach-athlete relationship. I used Jowett’s (2001) adaptation of interdependence theory, the 3+1Cs model (closeness, commitment, complementarity, and co-orientation), to examine the perspectives of both coach and athletes and subsequently create an interpretive representation of my findings. Findings highlighted the variety of ways participants understood and interpreted their coach-athlete relationship. Several potential influences of these relationships were uncovered during data analysis such as: vulnerability, gender, communication, and self-reflection. Implications for coaches, athletes, and coach educators are discussed.
    • Staff Perceptions on the Qualities of Meaningful Relationships with Residents at End of Life in Long Term Care

      Attis, Leyla; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Long Term Care is a place where many people die, and it is the job of the staff members to assist the resident with their dying and death experience. A peaceful transition to death is largely dependent on the relationship between resident and staff members. In order to provide the best dying and death experience for the resident, I sought to explore staff perceptions on the qualities of a meaningful relationship with resident at the end of life. Using interpretive phenomenology as a qualitative research design and Heidegger’s (1962) concept of the lifeworld as a tool of analysis, I uncovered aspects of good ethical care by listening to the people who provide it. I completed a series of nine interviews and depicted staff perceptions of the qualities of their relationships with residents at the end of life. My data analysis uncovered three qualities of staff and resident relationship that positively influenced the dying and death experience for resident. These qualities are fearlessness, meaningful time and vulnerability. Furthermore, these findings reflect the mutual giving and receiving of care for both staff and resident throughout this relationship. Often this complex dynamic can be misunderstood or masked by what ministry standards tell us in how this relationship should look in LTC. My research exposes a different side of care at the end of life. With all the unknowns a resident is faced with at the end of life, the emotional relationship between resident and staff member can be the most comforting.