• An Exploratory Study of the Design of Major Junior Hockey Regional Leagues, from the Perspective of Member Team Employees

      Moussa, Jordyn A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Major Junior Hockey (MJH) is a unique part of the Canadian hockey system. Beginning in the 1960s, regional leagues began to form across Canada, culminating with the creation of the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) in 1974. The CHL is currently the governing body of MJH in Canada which is the most elite level of junior hockey in Canada. MJH regional leagues have been regarded as the best possible route to the National Hockey League (NHL) for junior-aged male hockey players, despite alternative paths existing in the United States and Europe. While much of the hockey literature in the past decade includes a broad scope of scholarly research, Canadian MJH remains a sub-context of that conversation. To date, the operations of MJH regional leagues have yet to be explored. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is to examine how Canadian MJH regional league offices are currently designed. Drawing upon organizational design literature both in and out of sport contexts, the research seeks to understand the design of the MJH regional leagues through specific principles. To explore this study, nine semi-structured interviews with Canadian MJH regional league member team employees were conducted. The findings indicated there exists a hybrid of two interconnected focuses within the MJH regional leagues’ organizational design: player development and revenue generation. The member team employee perceptions of the MJH regional leagues’ design are further discussed relating to previous organizational design literature, and historical developments of Canadian MJH. Several contributions to research and practice, and opportunities for future research are outlined to continue exploring the MJH system in Canada.
    • Exploring authentic leadership : a narrative case study

      Mahoney, Tarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth, life history examination of the leadership qualities of the President of a for-profit sport organization and explore this individual's leadership development within the framework of the Authentic Leadership Development Model (ALDM). A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted, including interviews with the President, three employees within the organization, and three individuals as selected by the President who attested to her authenticity and lifehistory. As well, observations for a period of three months were used to create a lifehistory of the President and determine if she was aligned with the ALDM. Creating a lifehistory of the President allowed the researcher to outline the story of her life up until the conclusion of the study. The narrative case study of the female President of a for-profit sport organization provided a glimpse into the life of a person whose values, beliefs, and actions aligned. The major findings of this study suggested that the President displayed characteristics similar to those identified as outcomes of the ALDM model.
    • Exploring Body-Related Experiences among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

      Bailey, KA; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-25)
      Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore body-related experiences, specifically body image, in people with spinal cord injury. A total of nine participants (five women, four men) who had a broad range of body image experiences (from very negative to very positive) were interviewed. Most participants explained experiencing a fluctuating body image that varied from day-to-day. Negative body image experiences were represented by appearance, weight concerns, and function with all body image experiences encompassed by self-presentational concerns and tactics (an unanticipated finding). Positive body image was represented by acceptance, appreciation and gratitude of the body. Interestingly, negative body image experiences were not found to be represented by the opposite of positive body image experiences as they were each distinct. These findings have direct implications for medical professionals in hospital and rehabilitation settings to understand the importance of body image after spinal cord injury.
    • Exploring Chinese-Canadians' perspectives on health : a quantitative study

      Chen, Dengshu.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Chinese have unique perspectives on health and illness, which is mostly umecognized by western medicine. Immigration may contribute to problems with health consultations, inconvenience, and dissatisfaction. As the largest visible minority in Canada, Chinese- Canadians' perspectives on health should be studied in order to help Chinese immigrants adapt to a new health-care and health-promotion system, and keep them healthy. A quantitative questionnaire was designed based on the findings from a pilot study and previous literature. A hundred participants were recruited from Toronto, Vancouver, Halifax, and St. Catharines. Descriptive analysis and correlation analysis were used to investigate the structure of the variables. Findings indicated that most oftheir attitudes and corresponding practices to the different health aspects were positive. The relation between dietary practices and attitude was only found in small cities. Their attitudes were impacted by their length of stay in Canada. Their attitudes to regularly timed meals and psychological consultation were related to their acculturation level, as was the regularity of their practice of dental flossing. Their self-evaluated general health levels were also found to be affected by their medical history, education level, feeling to talk about • sexual health, and smoking, particularly in the male subjects of the study. In conclusion, they realized that each health aspect w~s important to their health. However, their practices did not bear a strong relation to their beliefs. Traditional thoughts about health reseeded with time. Acculturation level did not affect most of their attitudes or practices. Under pressure, the priority of the daily health practices decreased. Older persons, those with low incomes, lower education levels or families under stress need to pay more attention to their health level. In-depth future research was recommended.
    • Exploring Healthcare Experiences of Transgender Individuals

      Ross, Katie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-06)
      The purpose of this study was to explore how transgender individuals were supported to navigate the healthcare system to achieve positive healthcare experiences. A single case study was conducted in Southern Ontario, which included ten individual interviews. Data was analyzed through thematic analysis, allowing for seven themes to emerge within macro (large-scale system), meso (local/interpersonal), and micro (individual/internal) levels of healthcare system support. Themes that emerged within the levels of system support included: 1) existing deficits with hope for change; 2) significant external supports; 3) importance of informal networking; 4) support from local area family physicians and walk-in clinics; 5) navigating the healthcare system alone; 6) personality traits for successful healthcare experiences; and 7) the development of strategies to achieve positive healthcare experiences. This study outlined factors that contributed to positive healthcare experiences for transgender individuals, showing that meso and micro level support are compensating for large-scale healthcare system deficits.
    • Exploring leadership efficacy and locus of control of sport management undergraduate students: A qualitative case study

      King, Adam; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Leadership efficacy is “a specific form of efficacy associated with the level of confidence in the knowledge, skills, and abilities associated with leading others” (p. 669). Researchers suggest that a student’s level of leadership efficacy (LE) may impact one’s decision-making, willingness to undertake leadership roles, and one’s subsequent affinity to seek out and obtain a managerial/leadership position upon graduation. One’s lower levels of LE may result in prematurely eliminating certain career options and/or developing self-limiting behaviours— and for female students in particular. Drawing on Bandura’s (1977) sources of efficacy information and Rotter’s (1966) Internal-External scale, the two purposes of this study were first, to explore sport management undergraduate students’ perceived leadership efficacy (LE) and locus of control (LOC); and second, to explore the relationship between these students’ LE and LOC. An instrumental case study research design was employed where the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with sport management students. By exploring the perceived LE and LOC of these students, insight was gleaned into how students manifest such beliefs and how they may impact students’ academic journey and subsequent entrance into the competitive sport industry.
    • Exploring Parental Experiences and Meaning of Involvement within Youth Sport: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Maxwell, Keetyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      By applying an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, the purpose of the study was to explore the lived experience of parental involvement in youth sport and the meaning the involvement holds. Specifically, I wanted to examine how role identity theory can provide deeper understanding to how parents experience and provide meaning to their involvement in their children’s sport. A key aspect to the study is that as the researcher, I was attempting to understand the experiences of the participant’s meaning-making. Master themes that capture the overall phenomenon were constructed that were present across the majority of participants while still allowing for each participant’s unique experience to be understood. The overarching themes interpreted from the data include: Desiring Involvement, Onus on Parental Roles within Involvement, Commitment, and Constructing Meaning-making of the Experience. These findings highlight the ways in which role identity salience defines the experience and the meaning involvement holds to a parent. This study provided deeper theoretical understanding of the experience of being a parent involved in youth sport, as well as highlighted the usefulness of conducting research in this field with an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach to explore a complex and diverse topic.
    • Exploring Perceptions of Accessibility, Necessity and Use of Social Support for Wilderness Therapy Field Instructors

      Kirk, Liz; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-02-22)
      Organizations offering therapeutic wilderness programming have a responsibility to ensure the well-being of their front line employees. A system of social support that is formed through communication with others, either personally or professionally, can assist field instructors in effectively managing the demands arising from their work. Phenomenological analysis of semi-structured interview transcripts from seven participants provided insight on perceptions of necessity, accessibility and use of social support. Fourteen main themes and thirteen subthemes emerged from the data. Findings are presented using the six components of Parsons’ (1980) staff development model and strongly suggest program managers consider and apply specific measures aimed at increasing the social support for front line field instructors in a wilderness therapy work context.
    • Exploring Professional Quality of Life among TR practitioners working in Long- Term- Care Homes.

      Johnstone, Jenna; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Professional Quality of life (PQoL) is described as the quality one feels in relation to being a helping professional and incorporates both positive and negative aspects (e.g., compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction) (Stamm, 2010). To date, concepts within the PQoL framework have not been fully explored within LTC, nor have they been explored from the perspective of therapeutic recreation professionals. To fill this gap, this narrative inquiry explored the stories of Professional Quality of Life among four TR practitioners working in LTC homes within the Greater Toronto Area. Narrative accounts describe the complexities, tensions, and variations in describing experiences of PQoL among TR practitioners working in LTC homes. Key patterns and plotlines emerged revealing six narrative threads: experiences that fuel the soul and ignite TR spirit; experiences of seeking out opportunities for challenge and change; experiences in encountering professional tensions in TR practice; experiences in developing professional valour as a TR advocate; experiences of the workplace that shape PQoL; and re-imagining practice to foster PQoL. This study provided space for TR practitioners to share their stories surrounding phenomena within the PQoL framework. I offer personal, practical and social justifications of this narrative inquiry to facilitate future conversations in understanding PQoL to assist helping professionals along their professional journey.
    • Exploring Reciprocity in International Service Learning Programs

      Dear, Samantha; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-14)
      Using aspects of grounded theory methodology, this study explored the perceptions and practical implementation of reciprocity in International Service Learning (ISL) Programs. Data were collected through interviews with nine ISL practitioners representing a variety of organizations offering international service learning programs. Findings suggest that multiple conceptualizations of ISL programs exist. ISL programs are interdisciplinary in nature and that using reciprocity as a guiding framework is problematic. Further attention is needed in relation to shifting the guiding framework of ISL programs from reciprocity to interdependence.
    • Exploring Recreation and Sense of Community in the Canadian Military

      Pollock, Hilary; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Communities across North America are seeing a decline in participation in community services such as recreation. In relation to this decline, a decrease in feelings of community may be occurring as a result. The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship between recreation and sense of community at a single Canadian Armed Forces base. A total of 148 participants from a single Canadian Army Base completed a questionnaire on recreation participation and sense of community as it relates to military recreation programs and services. T-test and regression analyses were conducted. The sense of community factors, voluntary action, common interest and administrative consideration were significant within the Canadian Armed Forces. Future research should explore sense of community across all Canadian Armed Forces bases to further understand the role of recreation and sense of community across the Canadian Armed Forces and also include other variables (e.g. civilian organizations, leadership) that may contribute to military sense of community.
    • Exploring Self-Compassion and Perceptions of Recreation Therapists' Professional Quality of Life

      Stevens, Ashlyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study explores the professional quality of life (PQoL) of therapeutic recreation specialists (TRS) and the influence of self-compassion on PQoL. Through exploring this phenomenon with TRSs’ that identified as having a high PQoL it was found that PQoL was created and influenced by: (1) the professional’s authentic sense of self, (2) their meaningful relational competence, and (3) balancing many roles. It was found that the TRSs’ interviewed focused on building and developing their positive emotion through: (1) utilizing strengths, (2) mindfulness and emotion regulation, (3) engaging and sharing passions, and (4) building a sense of community at work. Engaging in strategies that build and develop positive emotion allowed the participants to lessen their need to use coping strategies like self-compassion in order to have a high PQoL. This research allows for a deeper understanding of what creates and enhances the PQoL for TRSs’.
    • Exploring the experience of parent caregiving: How parent caregivers of children with a disabilities create well-being in their lives

      O'Neill, Jaymieson; Applied Health Sciences Program
      A phenomenological study was used to explore the unique experience of parent caregiving in dual-parent families. Specifically, this study examines the similarities and differences in relation to the construction and maintenance of healthy caregiving and leisure lifestyles. The participants of the research study were deemed, by the study gatekeeper, to be living well in their caregiving role. The data collected through a focus group and individual interviews with each family gained insight in relation to the lived experiences, values and motivations of the parents and families to create a life of well-being. The results of the research study addressed the “ingredients to living well” that illustrate the individual approach each family took to create a caregiving and leisure lifestyle influenced by the follow four components, 1) values-based parenting and family life, 2) the acceptance of disability in family life, 3) leisure a source of positivity and connection and 4) leisure as self-care in a caregiving lifestyle. The “ingredients to living well” concluding that the ability of a caregiving family to look beyond the limitations of the child with a disability, acceptance of the child as a contributing family member, using leisure to connect as a family with the child with a disability and establishing self-care practices for parents to maintain balance are foundational aspects of creating well-being in the highly demanding lives of parent caregivers.
    • Exploring the Impact of Stimulus Events on Intern Career Intentions and Well-Being

      McClean, Cole; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Internships are crucial in many sport management students’ path to the sport industry. The purpose of this sequential mixed-methods study was to understand the nature of stimulus events occurring within sport management internships, and the impact of stimulus events on two main outcomes: student career decision making and well-being. Pre-post internship surveys (n=23) and follow-up interviews (n=21) were used to identify stimulus events, if intern expectations were met, and if career intentions or well-being changed (i.e., increased or decreased). Stimulus events occurred related to many areas of the internship (e.g., tasks, supervisor, social interactions, inclusivity, and the environment) and had a range of impacts on the outcomes of study. Importantly, contributing to the Unfolding Model of Employee Turnover, participants outlined that these events influenced well-being not only as a result of the influence on career intentions, but also on its own. At other times, the impact on well-being was discussed in isolation or in the opposite direction of the impact on career intentions. The findings here have important theoretical and practical implications for both sport management educators and organizational internship supervisors in sport.
    • Exploring the Influence of Female Friendships on Decisions to Discuss the Breast Self-Exam in Young Adult Women

      Davis, Sondra; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-11)
      The breast self-exam (BSE) has been an important method for detection of breast cancer, especially in women under the age of 40. This study used grounded theory to explore the possible influence of female friendships on young women’s decisions regarding BSE. Conversations with six women in their 20s and 30s revealed that discussion of BSE is an exceptional conversation facilitated by the female friendship “safe zone” and a germinal event. Without being prompted by a germinal event, such as a health scare, it is generally considered to be an unnecessary conversation about private matters and viewed as out of the ordinary, especially for low-risk women. This conversation most easily occurs within the female friendship “safe zone” that develops through the body in common, a sense of trust, and private information sharing. Implications include peer mentoring for sharing and educating women and healthcare professionals on conditions that facilitate the exceptional conversation.
    • Exploring the Relationship between Discourses of Gender, Drug Use, and Rurality among Rural Young Women

      Patton, Brittney; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research investigates recreational drug use, a leisure practice that has been at the centre of debate in regard to what constitutes ‘respectable’ and ‘deviant’ leisure. Using a feminist poststructural perspective and positioning theory, this study investigates how rural young women make sense of recreational drug use practices in the context of constantly shifting ideas about what it means to be a ‘respectable’ drug user as well as a ‘successful’ young rural woman. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with four young women (aged 18-30 years) living in the County of ‘Wildlark’, Ontario (population approximately 50,000). Findings showed that the young rural women drew on multiple and at times contradictory discourses of age, class, and gender when negotiating their subjectivity. Further, their identities as ‘successful’ young rural women were interwoven with neoliberal discourses of a normative life trajectory and mobility imperative. This research demonstrates that recreational drug use and the young rural women who use drugs can not be easily classified as ‘respectable’ or ‘deviant’ since our understanding of what constitutes recreational drug use is constantly shifting and impacted by who, what, when, where and how the drug use occurs.
    • Exploring the Use of a Gender Equity Lens in Local Government Recreation Policies

      McGinnis, Megan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This single instrumental case study sought to explore how a local government recreation department applies gender equity in its policies. Relying on Merriam’s (2009) case study approach and the Advocacy Coalition Framework developed by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1988) and adapted by Jenkins-Smith, Nohrstedt, Weible, and Sabatier (2014), the perspectives of ten recreation professionals within an Ontario local government recreation department were examined through document analysis and semi-structured interviews. This study uncovered the complexities surrounding meanings associated with gender equity and strategies and related challenges when trying to operationalize gender equity into new and existing policies. Findings contributed to existing research gaps by uncovering four key themes: (1) foundations of gender equity policy in parks, recreation and culture, (2) information and guiding principles that direct practice, (3) fostering gender equity and inclusivity, and (4) challenges associated with gender equity. This study contributed to existing policy studies by identifying subsystem actors including city staff from other departments, library services, emergency services, and elected officials, Inclusivity Advisory Committee, users’ groups, and private organizations (i.e., Girl’s Hockey League, Minor Hockey Association, Skating Club, Ringette League), and individual residents who presented short-term constraints and resources for recreation professionals who sought to advance inclusion and gender equity goals. The findings of this study highlighted a need to increase gender equity policy awareness, policy support for transgender community members, dialogue between subsystem actors to establish concrete understandings of gender equity and gain support from the public to advance gender equity goals.
    • Exploring Youth Athletes Preferred Leadership Styles and Behaviours of Sport Coaches

      Ragogna, Matthew; Applied Health Sciences Program
      A coach holds responsibility as a parent does at home, or a teacher in the classroom. The consideration of young athletes’ preferences of their coach can aid in the development of life skills, positive development, and retention of youth in sport; which are only some of the outcomes and benefits from experiences gained throughout sport programs (Carson & Gould, 2010). Previous research has mainly focused on high school aged athletes (14+). However, the highest rates of sport participation, variety, and dropout are found at younger ages (Canadian Heritage, 2013). This research was designed to address this gap. One hundred and sixteen (86 female, 49 male) youth sport athletes (age range 10-14 years) across 19 different sports completed a modified Leadership for Sports Scale (LSS) questionnaire. The LSS assesses five factors of preferred coach behaviour - Positive Feedback, Teaching and Instruction, Autocratic Behaviour, Democratic Behaviour, and Social Support. Furthermore, seventeen athletes (11 Boys, 6 Girls, M(age)= 11.65) participated in semi-structured interviews using the Coaching Behaviour Assessment Scale (CBAS). Results showed that there was no significant difference between genders on preferences, and no relationship between preferences and age. There was a significant difference between sport type where individual sport had a significantly higher preference for Democratic Behaviour than team sport athletes (t (114) = 2.72, p < .01). Themes from interviews were categorized and suggest numerous behaviours regarding responses to performance, mistakes, misbehaviour, social support, and coaching gender that coaches can additionally implement in their practices; while findings from data add new content to pre-existing literature.
    • Fan Responses to Virtual Reality Sport Sponsorship Activations: The Influence of Presence on Emotion and Attitude Formation

      Schlieman, Troy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Considering the massive financial investment into sport sponsorship and the growth of the industry, it is important for managers to understand the strategic implications of their partnership decisions. This is even more essential in the current marketing landscape where advertising clutter and limited attention spans are rampant. Consequentially, experiential marketing has emerged to combat these challenges and provide consumers with unique and memorable experiences. Further, virtual reality (VR) has surfaced as a possible experiential marketing tool in that it has the capabilities of simulating one’s presence in a virtual environment: potentially creating those unique and memorable experiences. With sponsorship activation transitioning into an online environment further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the capabilities of virtual reality make it an attractive option to sport marketers. Presently, this technology is being applied without a clear purpose due to the newness of the platform and the lack of research and understanding regarding its true value. Thus, it is critical to examine how media modes, such as VR, may affect the impact of sponsorship messaging. In exploring sponsorship activation specifically, this study aimed to examine the use of 360-degree video and virtual reality as activation components, and if traditional non-immersive (phone, tablet, laptop, or desktop) and immersive (virtual reality) technologies differ in terms of their influence on important sponsor outcomes such as eliciting emotions and influencing attitudes. This study employed a survey design to compare responses between two groups. The first group experienced a 360-degree sport sponsorship activation video using non-immersive media while the second group experienced the same video in VR. A total of 114 responses were collected (57 in each group). Responses were then analyzed using two-way independent sample t-tests to find any statistically significant differences. Results showed that non-immersive respondents reported higher ratings of arousal compared to immersive respondents. Notably, there was a clear desire for 360-degree activation content from all users regardless of media mode. This study serves as a preliminary basis of valuation for virtual reality technology as it applies to sponsorship activation.
    • Father involvement in the breastfeeding process : determining contributing aspects

      Moore, Katrina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The importance of father involvement in the young family is increasingly evident. This research was conducted using the theory of planned behaviour to understand important aspects contributing to father invo lvement in the breastfeeding process. Eighty mothers and 65 fathers of one-year-old children completed a questionnaire regarding father involvement (FI) in breastfeeding. Measures included attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behaviour control regarding FI and the extent to which fathers demonstrated involvement by advocating for and affIrming breastfeeding, being present during breastfeeding, providing household help, and being responsive to their partners' needs. Results suggest that mothers and fathers experience FI differently. Mothers' perceptions are motivated by intrinsic attitudinal considerations, whereas fathers' involvement is primarily motivated by the opinions of others. Interventions should focus on increasing fathers' perception of societal approval through approaches such as peer-led groups, and increasing mothers' approval through information of the value of fathers' involvement in the breastfeeding process.