• Evaluation in Sport for Development: A Case Study of the Gansbaai Project, Football Foundation of South Africa, From A Critical Perspective

      Arnold, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of sport for development (SDP) evaluation within one program in Gansbaai, South Africa through critical, independent participant inclusive program evaluation. Qualitative research was conducted on the Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA), where semi-structured interview data were collected from administrators and participants, as were data from direct participant observations and organizational documents. Data analysis followed, according to Kvale and Brinkman’s (2008) methodology. FFSA goals were found, as were themes of social impact (i.e., regarding coach-player relationships, trust, and coaching impact on social integration). A further theme related to evaluation components and procedures. Further themes included life skill development, competition within programming, participants’ home life and social integration. Findings contribute to the SDP literature relating to program evaluation research and to FFSA administrators by providing an understanding of SDP program shortcomings, limitations, and suggested improvements.
    • Evaluation of a professional development curriculum in movement education and adapted physical activity for invisible disabilities : a critical cross-case analysis

      Hardman, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Movement education and adapted physical activity are content areas not addressed in pre-service education or in-service training for Ontario practitioners working with individuals with disabilities in physical environments. Consequently, physical activity is often overlooked by service providers in programming and intervention for exceptional young learners. A formative evaluation, multiple-case study design was employed in this research in which a purposeful sample of expert practitioners performed a guided, descriptive evaluation of a three-day professional development workshop curriculum designed to supplement these areas lacking in professional preparation within their respective cohorts. Case-by-case and comparative analyses illustrated the inherent assumptions and societal constraints which prioritize the structure of professional development within the education system and other government organizations providing services for school-aged persons with disabilities in Ontario. Findings, discussed from a critical postmodern perspective, illustrate the paradoxical nature of Western values and prevailing mind/body dichotomy that guide professional practice in these fields.
    • An Examination of Decision-Making Biases on Fourth Down in The National Football League

      Ross, Weller; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The recent developments in the field of sport analytics have given researchers the tools to examine an increasingly diverse set of topics within the world of sport in ways not previously possible (Alamar, 2013; Fry and Ohlmann, 2012). This study analyzes the decision-making processes of high level coaches under different contexts and then determines whether or not a specific subconscious psychological bias, known as the representativeness heuristic, caused the individual to make the choice they did. Past empirical research has examined people’s decisions in different contexts and, from those con- texts, made inferences about how those individuals made their decisions and what errors in their decision-making processes could have led to their suboptimal choices (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979; Kobberling and Wakker, 2005; Tom et al, 2007; Tversky and Kahneman, 1992). The representativeness heuristic explains that errors in people’s judgment occur because their mind places too much emphasis on the current situation (new information) and not enough on the original odds (prior information). Previous researchers have been unable to separate the new and prior components of people’s decision-making when studying real-world scenarios in a sport context (Carter and Machol, 1978; Carroll, Palmer, and Thorn, 1989; Carroll et al, 1989; Patel, 2012; Romer, 2006). This research is different than the previous related research in that we utilize statistical models to gauge how people weight different information when making high-pressure decisions in sport. We hypothesize that coaches are disproportionately weighting new information against prior information when making decisions, and thus, yielding to the representativeness heuristic. To test our hypothesis, we construct numerous Bayesian updating models to represent the impact of National Football League (NFL) coaches’ decision-making on the likelihood of winning games. Utilizing a Bayesian approach enables us to keep the new and prior odds of winning the game separate, and thus, keep the two components of the representativeness heuristic separate. Regression analysis is then used with both of the components to directly test for the representativeness heuristic in NFL coaches’ decision-making by estimating the effect each component has on the coaches’ decisions. These estimates form the basis of our hypothesis tests.
    • Examination of efficient roster design in the National Hockey League (NHL)

      Tselios, Stephanos; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The study estimates the values of NHL roster positions. The analysis was conducted in two phases. First, cluster analysis was used to evaluate and rank players for their overall performance across positions. Second, regression analysis based on aggregated player classifications across team-games estimated the value of roster position and measured diminishing returns to talent across positions. Players were evaluated based on their regular season performance. The clustering of all skaters was administered separately for each position and each year. Standardized regular season-long variables were applied in the analysis. The variables used to cluster all positions were: points per time on ice, goals per time on ice, assists per time on ice, plus/minus per time on ice, shots differential per time on ice, blocks per time on ice, hits per time on ice and penalties per time on ice. Forwards were distributed amongst four lines and defensemen were allocated to three pairings. The linear regression analysis used play-by-play data from the 2010-17 NHL regular seasons. Results indicated that an increase in the quality of centers increased the win probability of a team the most. Teams make player acquisitions decisions based on the talent available and their current composition of players. A team’s hockey operations department can use the findings to evaluate their roster composition and identify positions with the greatest marginal benefit from player acquisitions.
    • An examination of NHL fans' reactions to the cancelled 2004-2005 season

      Asselstine, Chad.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      AN EXAMINATION OF NHL FANS' REACTIONS TO THE CANCELLED 2004- 2005 SEASON Chad Asselstine Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University Gary Bettman, the Commissioner of the National Hockey League (NHL) stepped in front of the worldwide media on February 16, 2005 to announce that there would be no NHL games played during the 2004-2005 season. Two sides were prominent during the labour dispute; the NHL owners and the NHLP A, however a third side that became the forgotten party was the fans (NHLF A, 2005). The fans are the consumers of the NHL and all the brands associated with its franchises, they are the people who provide the revenues that allow owners to pay the players' salaries. The present study is situated within the sport marketing framework, particularly within the fan loyalty literature to provide an understanding of the impact of the 2004- 2005 lockout on the forgotten party, NHL fans. This study examines 16 fans' experiences in four stages: becoming a fan of the NHL, being a fan prior to the lockout, being a fan during the lockout including their anticipated reaction to the return of the NHL, and their actual reaction to the return of the NHL. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with each ofthe participants, resulting in 16 fans' stories of how the lockout impacted them specifically. Through analysis of the data themes began to emerge including the fans' understanding that there was a need to restructure game play, the business operations of the NHL, a desire for service recovery strategies which would exceed fans' expectations, 4 and the desire for alternative forms of consumption including alternative hockey leagues as well as the growing popularity of poker playing. The study summarizes the effects that the NHL lockout had on the relationship between 16 individual fan~ and their favourite teams, and concludes with Suggestions for Future Research and Implications for Sport Marketers that emerged from this unique case in the history of North American professional sport.
    • Examination of students' ability to observe domains of client behaviour in therapeutic recreation

      Kerr, Amber (Alexis); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      When observing client behaviours, a therapeutic recreation specialist must have a base understanding of typical client behaviours to provide an informed analysis (burlingame & Blaschko, 2010). Providing students with the necessary tools for client observation is significant to the success of this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships amongst the TR student demographic characteristics on acquiring the observation competency necessary to conduct a TR assessment. One hundred seventy-two TR college and university students, enrolled in post-secondary undergraduate TR programs across Ontario, observed a client assessment via video, and recorded their observations using the Tracking Behavioural Assessment (TBA) (Passmore, 2002). Independent samples t-tests and analysis of variance were calculated for the different student characteristics on the domains of the TBA. Significant findings indicated that university students scored more accurately than college students, and advanced students more accurately than novice students, on the emotional and socialization domains.
    • An Examination of ‘Choice’ on Mental Health among Informal Caregivers to Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities

      Soucie-Vukmanich, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction: To examine the effects of ‘choice’ on the mental health outcomes of informal intellectual developmental disability (IDD) caregivers, which has been examined in previous literature in alternate caregiving contexts. Background: Stressors of the caregiving role have been shown to negatively affect the mental health of informal caregivers in multiple contexts, where stressors can include a specific task or number of tasks, time spent caregiving or perceived stress levels. However, research has also shown that whether the caregiver identifies as having a choice in taking on their role may also have an affect on their mental health status, where lack of choice may cause psychological impairments, and decreased life satisfaction. Methodology: Using the General Social Survey – Cycle 26 – Caregiving and Care Receiving, linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were analyzed to determine how choice in the caregiving role affects the caregivers mental health in relation to numerous caregiving stressors. Results: The results show that those who have higher levels of stress experience worse mental health outcomes, alongside those who have more tasks, and more time allotted to their duties. Choice approaches significance in relation to mental health, however, does not have a significant relationship with the development of mental health outcomes in these caregivers when the burdens of the caregiving role are considered. Conclusion: Overall, this research shows the complexities in which the informal caregiving role has on the development of mental health concerns within this population, where the burdens of the role play a more significant role on their mental health than their perception of choice.
    • Examining and describing professional development and continuing education in the personal training and fitness industry : sites and issues of disconnect

      Fielder, Lee E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The following phenomenologically oriented study examines and describes the relevance and effectiveness of professional development and continuing education programs for real-world situations of personal trainers. The participants were personal trainers, facility managers, and persons involved in the accreditation process. Data collection took place in 3 phases. The first phase consisted of the participants completing the PUMP Questionnaire, followed by focus groups with personal trainers and interviews with managers. The study's 3 data sets required reduction via a content analysis by question, content analysis by existential categories, and further thematic analysis using the lived relation existential dimension. The discussion contains the salient sites and issues of disconnect between clients, personal trainers, and facility managers and how they might affect the personal training experience. The intergenerational disconnect emphasized between Boomers as clients and Millennials as personal trainers requires further exploration and dialogue and underscores the need for different approaches to content and delivery of professional development and continuing education experiences for personal trainers and managers of fitness facilities.
    • Examining Bullying Intervention Motivations Through a Cost/Benefit Analysis

      Spadafora, Natalie; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the bystander in bullying situations. A cost/benefit model was explored in researching factors adolescents consider in deciding whether to intervene when witnessing bullying. Adolescents in the present study (N = 101 (50.5% female), between the ages of 12 to 18, M = 15.37 years; SD = 1.71 years) completed self-report questionnaires, and also responded to bullying scenarios, stating how the bystander would react, while explaining potential personal costs and benefits. Adolescents were able to articulate various personal costs and benefits when making the decision to intervene. Conclusions of the present study include: 1) the evolutionary approach is quite informative in illuminating the decision process of the bystander, 2) adolescents’ beliefs about bullying and the role of bystanders are different from their teachers’, and 3) the rather explicit cost/benefit model could be used to develop more targeted anti-bullying programs.
    • Examining Physical Activity in Natural Outdoor Environments on Markers of Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis

      Kelley, Caitlin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published scientific literature pertaining to the relationship between physical activity (PA) in the natural outdoor environment (NOE) and well-being (WB). Of studies included in the primary analysis (N = 19), several studies (n = 5) were retained for secondary analysis to determine whether differences on WB exist between PA in the NOE with an indoor comparator group. The overall effect size for the primary analysis was moderate (d = .49). The largest effect of PA in the NOE was observed for positive affect (d = .56). Results from the secondary analysis indicated PA in the NOE was greater in the NOE (d = .53, 95% CI = .28, .78; p < 0.001) compared to indoors (d = .28, 95% CI = .04, .51, p = 0.02) however this finding was not statistically significant between environment types (p = 0.15). There was significant heterogeneity in the primary analysis of PA in the NOE only (Q = 68.72, p < 0.001). Results of the moderator analyses of PA (p = 0.06), sample (p = 0.34) and study (p = 0.13) characteristics did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Results of the subgroup analyses indicated that there were significant findings within but not between subgroups for NOE type (p = 0.37), PA type (p = 0.47) and PA intensity (p = 0.55). In conclusion, while PA in the NOE was associated with higher WB, there was limited evidence to support that PA in the NOE allots superior benefits to PA engaged in an indoor environment. Future investigations are encouraged to include study designs that measure markers of WB at multiple time points, consider the eudaimonic tradition of WB, include diverse NOE types such as blue space and include an indoor comparison. Practical implications of the findings of this research include the potential for stakeholders to incorporate findings into future nature-based solutions that address societal challenges like increasing WB.
    • Examining sport commitment and intentions to participate in intramural sports : application of the Sport Commitment Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour in a campus recreational sport setting

      Jess, Sarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Fifty-six percent of Canadians, 20 years of age and older, are inactive (Canadian Community Health Survey, 200012001). Research has indicated that one of the most dramatic declines in population physical activity occurs between adolescence and young adulthood (Melina, 2001; Stephens, Jacobs, & White, 1985), a time when individuals this age are entering or attending college or university. Colleges and universities have generally been seen as environments where physical activity and sport can be promoted and accommodated as a result of the available resources and facilities (Archer, Probert, & Gagne, 1987; Suminski, Petosa, Utter, & Zhang, 2002). Intramural sports, one of the most common campus recreational sports options available for post-secondary students, enable students to participate in activities that are suited for different levels of ability and interest (Lewis, Jones, Lamke, & Dunn, 1998). While intramural sports can positively affect the physical activity levels and sport participation rates of post-secondary students, their true value lies in their ability to encourage sport participation after school ends and during the post-school lives of graduates (Forrester, Ross, Geary, & Hall, 2007). This study used the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan et aI., 1993a) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) with post secondary intramural volleyball participants in an effort to examine students' commitment to intramural sport and 1 intentions to participate in intramural sports. More specifically, the research objectives of this study were to: (1.) test the Sport Commitment Model with a sample of postsecondary intramural sport participants(2.) determine the utility of the sixth construct, social support, in explaining the sport commitment of post-secondary intramural sport participants; (3.) determine if there are any significant differences in the six constructs of IV the SCM and sport commitment between: gender, level of competition (competitive A vs. B), and number of different intramural sports played; (4.) determine if there are any significant differences between sport commitment levels and constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions); (5.) determine the relationship between sport commitment and intention to continue participation in intramural volleyball, continue participating in intramurals and continuing participating in sport and physical activity after graduation; and (6.) determine if the level of sport commitment changes the relationship between the constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Of the 318 surveys distributed, there were 302 partiCipants who completed a usable survey from the sample of post-secondary intramural sport participants. There was a fairly even split of males and females; the average age of the students was twenty-one; 90% were undergraduate students; for approximately 25% of the students, volleyball was the only intramural sport they participated in at Brock and most were part of the volleyball competitive B division. Based on the post-secondary students responses, there are indications of intent to continue participation in sport and physical activity. The participation of the students is predominantly influenced by subjective norms, high sport commitment, and high sport enjoyment. This implies students expect, intend and want to 1 participate in intramurals in the future, they are very dedicated to playing on an intramural team and would be willing to do a lot to keep playing and students want to participate when they perceive their pursuits as enjoyable and fun, and it makes them happy. These are key areas that should be targeted and pursued by sport practitioners.
    • Examining The Impact of Campus Intramural Sports Participation on Students’ Sense of Community Using A Pre-Test Post-Test Design

      Arkell, Stephen; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Participation in out-of-class activities and campus recreation/intramural sports are some of the most popular activities for students on college campuses and one of the most beneficial social outlets for students. However only recently has this connection been examined more deeply. Due to the overwhelming number of students participating in these programs and services it is important to examine the impact of participation in an attempt to better understand the degree to which involvement in campus recreational sports contributes to students’ sense of community. The purpose of this quantitative pre-test post-test study was to examine changes in students’ perceived sense of community over the duration of an intramural season. One hundred and forty-seven intramural participants (N=147) completed a pre-test questionnaire on their first week of their intramural sport season and a post-test on their last week of their intramural sport season. The initial plan of analysis to complete a Repeated Measures Multiple Analysis of Co-Variance (MANCOVA) was stopped promptly due to high mean scores from participants. For each question and factor the data was so consistently skewed and high it was simply not normally distributed leading to assumptions to be broken immediately. A Non-parametric design model Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the data instead which indicates that there was not a significant change testing factors mean score ranks between the pre and post-test. This finding demonstrates that there was not a significant difference in participants perception of sense of community but rather participants had high perceived feelings of sense of community both times they were tested. This study supports the findings of previous research which has found that those students who are involved in recreational sports in a post-secondary environment receive both perceived feelings of sense of community but also relationship building opportunities and experiences. Future research should focus on studying perceptions of sense of community and to explore other areas of a campus community, such as; clubs, varsity sports teams, events, etc. Through studying other areas of a campus community there would be the ability to indicate if there are differences or similarities between feelings of sense of community by specific programs.
    • Examining the influence of the coach athlete relationship on motivation and performance in female rugby players

      Gregson, J. Paige; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The purpose of the study was two-fold; first, the association between interpersonal coaching styles and self-determined motivation was examined, followed by the investigation of the motivation-performance relationship. Participants included 221 female Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) rugby players, aged sixteen to thirty-three (M= 20.1: SD = 2.26), who reported the number of years they played CIS rugby (M= 2.3: SD = 1.37) and organized rugby (M= 5.9: SD = 2.31). Multiple and bivariate regressions were employed with autonomy-support, structure, and involvement accounting for 17%, 41 % and 22% of the variance of competence, autonomy and relatedness. The three basic needs accounted for 40% of the variance of motivation, and motivation accounted for 2% of the variance of athletes' perceptions of performance. Findings indicated that autonomy-support emerged as a predictor of all three basic needs, involvement predicted relatedness and competence, autonomy predicted motivation, and motivation predicted athletes' perception of performance.
    • Examining the Influence of the Patient Declaration of Values on Hospital Policies and Practices

      Bridge, Erica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to explore how a leading Ontario hospital operationalizes their Patient Declaration of Values (PDoV) in policy and in practice. This was a single case study, which took place in a leading patient-centred Ontario hospital. The study included 18 individual interviews with employees and patient experience advisors, as well as, document analysis of strategic planning reports (n=10). Five themes emerged: (1) setting the stage, (2) inspiring change, (3) organizational structures, (4) organizational and environmental barriers, and (5) reflection and improvement. This study has highlighted the role of the PDoV within a leading Ontario hospital. It lends itself to providing a process with core strategies for creating change in an acute health care organization; to embed a culture of patient and family centred care.
    • Examining the role of goals and motives for physical activity and eating behaviour in commercial weight-loss program participants

      Grattan, Kimberley.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity and healthy eating behaviour with the participant's motives and goals for each health behaviour. Methods: Participants (N 121; 93.2% female) enrolled in commercial weightloss programs at the time of data collection, completed self-reported instruments using a web-based interface that were in accordance with Deci and Ryan's (2002) Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Results: Multiple linear regression models revealed that motivation and goals collectively accounted for between 0.21 to 0.29 percent and 0.03 to 0.16 percent of the variance in physical and healthy eating behaviours in this sample. In general, goals regarding either behaviour did not appear to have strong predictive relationships with each health behaviour beyond the contributions of motives. Discussion: Overall, findings from this study suggest that motives seem to mattermore than goals for both physical activity and healthy eating behaviour in clientele of commercial weight-loss programs. Therefore commercial weight-loss program implementers may want to consider placing more attention on motives I than goals for their clientele when designing weight-loss and weight-maintenance initiatives.
    • Experiences and meaning of the aquatic environment for individuals with physical disabilities

      Cocchio, Cathleen Anne.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This study examines the experiences and meaning of physical activity in the aquatic environment to enhance social, cultural and political understanding of its impact in the lives of individuals with physical disabilities. Interviews, lived experience descriptions and artifacts present an explanation of the felt sense oftheir bodies as they engage in swimming or scuba diving. 11 Combining written, verbal and visual descriptions generated by informants provides a detailed account of the unique qualities of physical activity in the water for those with physical disabilities. Participants' descriptions highlight that context is an important aspect of physical activity among individuals with physical disabilities through discussion of motility and the role of the lived body. Aspects of the aquatic environment create a setting that facilitates forgetfulness of the lived body's presence. Instructors and participants alike will benefit from learning the difference between the object body and the lived body, listening to the body's voice as they participate in physical activity .
    • An Exploratory Study of a Coach's Response to Mandated Regulation Change

      Wilson, Jenna; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 the University Interscholastic League mandated a regulation change that all Texas high school football coaches required certification through Atavus Tackling Training. The mandate represented a significant modification to the way tackling is taught, aimed at addressing risk of concussion and serious trauma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore how coaches’ respond to mandated regulation change. This qualitative study utilized an individual level of analysis contributing to academic works concerning the understanding of organizational change, including the use of Bridges’ (1991) Transition Model within a sporting context, and the call for agent focused perspective work in neo-institutional theory. Through an abductive analysis blend consisting of inductive coding, and deductive a priori concept of the Bridges Transition Model, this study aimed to discern the role transition played in actualizing institutional change by addressing the research questions: RQ1: How do coaches respond when faced with mandated regulation change? RQ2: How does their response reflect transition? To account for the complex nature of the 15 interviewed head football coaches’ responses, the qualitative methodology of this study utilized various triangulation methods such as data, analysis, and theory triangulation, to capture rigor and trustworthiness. Rich findings were mined from the data including 15 propositional statements that represented the a priori model and 10 inductive themes that contributed to defining the identity of a coach, and the sport. The overlap between inductive and deductive findings explored factors earmarking why coaches progress or regress through transition. This study found a relationship between responses and the Bridges Transition Model phases (addressing RQ2), in addition to multiple transition cycles, and triggers for movement through the phases based on coaches' individual needs. This research not only provided examples of what those responses were (addressing RQ1), but also discussed why coaches responded in various ways. Discussion included use of organizational change literature, Bridges’ (1991) Transition Model, and institutional theory, accounting for what coaches experienced and the beliefs and values impacting their decisions and thus, responses to mandated regulation change.
    • An Exploratory Study of the Design of Major Junior Hockey Regional Leagues, from the Perspective of Member Team Employees

      Moussa, Jordyn A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Major Junior Hockey (MJH) is a unique part of the Canadian hockey system. Beginning in the 1960s, regional leagues began to form across Canada, culminating with the creation of the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) in 1974. The CHL is currently the governing body of MJH in Canada which is the most elite level of junior hockey in Canada. MJH regional leagues have been regarded as the best possible route to the National Hockey League (NHL) for junior-aged male hockey players, despite alternative paths existing in the United States and Europe. While much of the hockey literature in the past decade includes a broad scope of scholarly research, Canadian MJH remains a sub-context of that conversation. To date, the operations of MJH regional leagues have yet to be explored. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is to examine how Canadian MJH regional league offices are currently designed. Drawing upon organizational design literature both in and out of sport contexts, the research seeks to understand the design of the MJH regional leagues through specific principles. To explore this study, nine semi-structured interviews with Canadian MJH regional league member team employees were conducted. The findings indicated there exists a hybrid of two interconnected focuses within the MJH regional leagues’ organizational design: player development and revenue generation. The member team employee perceptions of the MJH regional leagues’ design are further discussed relating to previous organizational design literature, and historical developments of Canadian MJH. Several contributions to research and practice, and opportunities for future research are outlined to continue exploring the MJH system in Canada.
    • Exploring authentic leadership : a narrative case study

      Mahoney, Tarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth, life history examination of the leadership qualities of the President of a for-profit sport organization and explore this individual's leadership development within the framework of the Authentic Leadership Development Model (ALDM). A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted, including interviews with the President, three employees within the organization, and three individuals as selected by the President who attested to her authenticity and lifehistory. As well, observations for a period of three months were used to create a lifehistory of the President and determine if she was aligned with the ALDM. Creating a lifehistory of the President allowed the researcher to outline the story of her life up until the conclusion of the study. The narrative case study of the female President of a for-profit sport organization provided a glimpse into the life of a person whose values, beliefs, and actions aligned. The major findings of this study suggested that the President displayed characteristics similar to those identified as outcomes of the ALDM model.
    • Exploring Body-Related Experiences among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

      Bailey, KA; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-25)
      Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore body-related experiences, specifically body image, in people with spinal cord injury. A total of nine participants (five women, four men) who had a broad range of body image experiences (from very negative to very positive) were interviewed. Most participants explained experiencing a fluctuating body image that varied from day-to-day. Negative body image experiences were represented by appearance, weight concerns, and function with all body image experiences encompassed by self-presentational concerns and tactics (an unanticipated finding). Positive body image was represented by acceptance, appreciation and gratitude of the body. Interestingly, negative body image experiences were not found to be represented by the opposite of positive body image experiences as they were each distinct. These findings have direct implications for medical professionals in hospital and rehabilitation settings to understand the importance of body image after spinal cord injury.