• The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self-Talk on Cross-Training Exercise Performance

      Sampson, Jack; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-talk is a multi-dimensional construct comprised of self-statements that provide instruction, or motivation, for successful task completion. Instructional self-talk has been shown to be more effective during precision tasks, and motivational self-talk has been shown to be more effective during gross motor and exercise tasks. The effects of self-talk on task performance have not been explored through a combination of endurance and precision exercise, or cross-training. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of instructional and motivational self-talk during a cross-training exercise task of running and overhead squatting. 30 participants were evenly divided into three groups (i.e., control, motivational, and instructional), and were examined across three exercise trials. Two 3 x 3 factorial ANOVAs comparing exercise time and mechanical score revealed no significant differences between groups across exercise trials. The results of the present study provide a potential starting point for future self-talk studies analyzing the combination of exercise tasks.
    • The Effects of the Mad Dog Diet on Bowel Function, Body Composition, Neuropathic Pain, and Depression in a Spinal Cord Injury and Multiple Sclerosis Population

      Sullivan, Timothy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Inflammation has been shown to negatively influence bowel function, body composition, neuropathic pain, and depression within the spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) populations. Four individuals with varying levels of SCI’s (C5-T1/AIS A-D/3 male 1 female) and two individuals with varying diagnoses of MS (SPMS & RRMS, female) were recruited for the study. Bowel function was assessed via The Bowel Management subset of the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) and Neurological Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) questionnaires, body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, neuropathic pain was assessed via the neuropathic pain questionnaire, and depression was measured via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire. This study investigated the effects of 6-weeks of the Mad Dog diet, which aimed to reduce inflammation, and improve the aforementioned ailments. The 6-week Mad Dog diet was associated with a significant reduction in total body mass (p=0.006), lean mass (p=0.046) and fat mass (p=0.038). Despite the significant reduction in fat mass, there were no significant changes in subcutaneous fat mass (p=0.091), or visceral mass (p=0.33), which suggests that the study was underpowered and could not distinguish the relative contribution of either fat source to the losses in total fat mass. Likewise, there were no significant changes in bowel function as determined by SCI-QOL scores (p=0.33), or NBD scores (p=0.29), and no significant changes in any domain of neuropathic pain (sensory, p=0.55; affective, p=0.15; sensitivity, p=0.12), or depression (CES-D scores, p=0.34). These findings demonstrate that 6 weeks of the Mad Dog diet may be beneficial for body composition in the SCI and MS populations. Findings from this research provide the basis for a larger study that can more fully assess the outcomes from this study along with changes in biological measures of inflammation.
    • Escape and connection : a phenomenological investigation into the meaning of an after-school program for adolescent boys

      Joseph, Thao; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The purpos e of this phenomenological research is to explore the meaning of a YMCA-sponsored after-school recreation program in the lives of four adolescent boys. Listening to youth voice is impor t ant to the ability of othe r s to design, implement and evaluate high-quality programs tha t facilitate learning opportunities tha t a r e meaningful to participants. Within the context of interviews, task-based activities we r e used to ga the r data. Guided by Creswell's analytic spiral (1998), data wa s analyzed according to van Manen's (1990) thematic analysis and Caeilli's (2000) creative narrative analysis. It wa s found tha t this after-school progr am provided the s e adolescents with the opportunity to escape from the i r monotonous after-school activities and the instability of the i r home and school environments. Also, they we r e connected wi th positive peers, caring adults and the wide r community, opportunities tha t we r e limited in othe r aspects of the i r lives. Methodological issues a r e also discussed.
    • The Ethics of Categorization in Sport: An Analysis of the Possible Elimination of Under 19 Lightweight Rowing in Canada

      Giesbrecht, Jacob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 a proposed rule change was made by a working group appointed by Rowing Canada Aviron to eliminate the U19 lightweight rowing category in Canada. While this proposal did not come to fruition, it did raise questions about the purpose and ethics of maintaining such a category. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the perceptions of those closely involved with U19 lightweight rowing in Canada and the ethical considerations and ramifications of a possible ban on this category. Ten interviews were conducted with coaches and administrators closely associated with the topic to ascertain individual and group perceptions of this proposal. Based on Charles Taylor’s hermeneutic phenomenology, this study uncovered and evaluated the ethical implications and validity of the possible elimination of U19 rowing in Canada and provided a commentary on categorization in sport more broadly. The results of the interviews revealed six main emergent themes that included concepts of; natural lightweights, opportunity and fairness, health and harm reduction, education, coaching abuse or neglect, and accountability. After analyzing the perceptions of participants and applying an ethical analysis to the issue, a possible ban of U19 lightweight rowing in Canada was deemed ethically unjustifiable.
    • An Ethnographic Case Study of Developing and Maintaining the Coach-Athlete Relationship in Elite University Sport

      Corkery, Erin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Relationships and social interactions are crucial components in sport participation from adolescence through to elite and professional levels of competition. Recently, there has been growing interest in the study of the coach-athlete relationship as a result of an increase in the awareness of its implications and potential impact on performance success. The purposes of this research were to: (a) describe and interpret how one university sport coach develops and maintains relationships with athletes within one competitive season, and (b) describe and interpret the practices (including intentions and actions) used to facilitate social interactions that nurture the coach-athlete relationship. One male coach and twelve female elite university athletes from one sport team participated in the research. Data were generated from two main sources: observations of team practices and games, and two individual interviews with the coach and three athletes (one interview during the competitive season and one interview after the season had ended). Through a constructivist lens, I investigated the participants’ unique perspectives of the ongoing processes within the coach-athlete relationship. I used Jowett’s (2001) adaptation of interdependence theory, the 3+1Cs model (closeness, commitment, complementarity, and co-orientation), to examine the perspectives of both coach and athletes and subsequently create an interpretive representation of my findings. Findings highlighted the variety of ways participants understood and interpreted their coach-athlete relationship. Several potential influences of these relationships were uncovered during data analysis such as: vulnerability, gender, communication, and self-reflection. Implications for coaches, athletes, and coach educators are discussed.
    • Evaluating three self-help smoking cessation interventions for post-secondary smokers : a randomized controlled trial on six Ontario campuses

      Travis, Heather E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Smoking prevalence is highest among the young adult cohort. Postsecondary students are no exception. Although many students intend to quit smoking, no research has established what methods best promote reductions in, or complete abstinence from smoking. This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of three self-help smoking cessation interventions. Method. On six post-secondary campuses, 483 smokers who voluntarily accessed Leave The Pack Behind (a tobacco control initiative) were randomly assigned to one of three smoking cessation interventions: One Step At A Time (a 2-booklet, *gold standard' program for adults); Smoke|Quit (a newly-developed 2-booklet program for young adult students); and usual care (a 'Quit Kit' containing a booklet on stress management, information about pharmacological quitting aides and novelty items). All participants also received one proactive telephone support call from a peer counsellor. During the study, 85 participants withdrew. The final sample of 216 students who completed baseline questionnaires and 12-week follow-up telephone interviews was representative of the initial sample in terms of demographic characteristics, and smokingquitting- related variables. Results. Whether participants quit smoking depended upon treatment condition, ^(2, N=2\6) = 6.34, p = .04, with Smoke|Quit producing more successfijl quitters (18.4%) than One Step At A Time (4.5%) or the Quit Kit (1 1.4%). On average, participants had quit 53.46 days, with no significant difference across treatments. Selfefficacy also increased. Use of the intervention or other quitting aides was not associated with treatment condition. Among the 191 participants who did not quit smoking, treatment condition did not influence outcomes. Overall, 46.2% had made a quit attempt. Significant decreases in weekly tobacco consumption and increases in self-efficacy to resist smoking were observed from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion. Post-secondary institutions represent a potentially final opportunity for age-targeted interventions. Self-help resources tailored to students' social and contextual characteristics will have considerable more impact than stage-only tailored interventions. Both reduction and abstinence outcomes should be emphasized to positively support students to stop smoking.
    • Evaluation in Sport for Development: A Case Study of the Gansbaai Project, Football Foundation of South Africa, From A Critical Perspective

      Arnold, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of sport for development (SDP) evaluation within one program in Gansbaai, South Africa through critical, independent participant inclusive program evaluation. Qualitative research was conducted on the Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA), where semi-structured interview data were collected from administrators and participants, as were data from direct participant observations and organizational documents. Data analysis followed, according to Kvale and Brinkman’s (2008) methodology. FFSA goals were found, as were themes of social impact (i.e., regarding coach-player relationships, trust, and coaching impact on social integration). A further theme related to evaluation components and procedures. Further themes included life skill development, competition within programming, participants’ home life and social integration. Findings contribute to the SDP literature relating to program evaluation research and to FFSA administrators by providing an understanding of SDP program shortcomings, limitations, and suggested improvements.
    • Evaluation of a professional development curriculum in movement education and adapted physical activity for invisible disabilities : a critical cross-case analysis

      Hardman, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Movement education and adapted physical activity are content areas not addressed in pre-service education or in-service training for Ontario practitioners working with individuals with disabilities in physical environments. Consequently, physical activity is often overlooked by service providers in programming and intervention for exceptional young learners. A formative evaluation, multiple-case study design was employed in this research in which a purposeful sample of expert practitioners performed a guided, descriptive evaluation of a three-day professional development workshop curriculum designed to supplement these areas lacking in professional preparation within their respective cohorts. Case-by-case and comparative analyses illustrated the inherent assumptions and societal constraints which prioritize the structure of professional development within the education system and other government organizations providing services for school-aged persons with disabilities in Ontario. Findings, discussed from a critical postmodern perspective, illustrate the paradoxical nature of Western values and prevailing mind/body dichotomy that guide professional practice in these fields.
    • An Examination of Decision-Making Biases on Fourth Down in The National Football League

      Ross, Weller; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The recent developments in the field of sport analytics have given researchers the tools to examine an increasingly diverse set of topics within the world of sport in ways not previously possible (Alamar, 2013; Fry and Ohlmann, 2012). This study analyzes the decision-making processes of high level coaches under different contexts and then determines whether or not a specific subconscious psychological bias, known as the representativeness heuristic, caused the individual to make the choice they did. Past empirical research has examined people’s decisions in different contexts and, from those con- texts, made inferences about how those individuals made their decisions and what errors in their decision-making processes could have led to their suboptimal choices (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979; Kobberling and Wakker, 2005; Tom et al, 2007; Tversky and Kahneman, 1992). The representativeness heuristic explains that errors in people’s judgment occur because their mind places too much emphasis on the current situation (new information) and not enough on the original odds (prior information). Previous researchers have been unable to separate the new and prior components of people’s decision-making when studying real-world scenarios in a sport context (Carter and Machol, 1978; Carroll, Palmer, and Thorn, 1989; Carroll et al, 1989; Patel, 2012; Romer, 2006). This research is different than the previous related research in that we utilize statistical models to gauge how people weight different information when making high-pressure decisions in sport. We hypothesize that coaches are disproportionately weighting new information against prior information when making decisions, and thus, yielding to the representativeness heuristic. To test our hypothesis, we construct numerous Bayesian updating models to represent the impact of National Football League (NFL) coaches’ decision-making on the likelihood of winning games. Utilizing a Bayesian approach enables us to keep the new and prior odds of winning the game separate, and thus, keep the two components of the representativeness heuristic separate. Regression analysis is then used with both of the components to directly test for the representativeness heuristic in NFL coaches’ decision-making by estimating the effect each component has on the coaches’ decisions. These estimates form the basis of our hypothesis tests.
    • Examination of efficient roster design in the National Hockey League (NHL)

      Tselios, Stephanos; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The study estimates the values of NHL roster positions. The analysis was conducted in two phases. First, cluster analysis was used to evaluate and rank players for their overall performance across positions. Second, regression analysis based on aggregated player classifications across team-games estimated the value of roster position and measured diminishing returns to talent across positions. Players were evaluated based on their regular season performance. The clustering of all skaters was administered separately for each position and each year. Standardized regular season-long variables were applied in the analysis. The variables used to cluster all positions were: points per time on ice, goals per time on ice, assists per time on ice, plus/minus per time on ice, shots differential per time on ice, blocks per time on ice, hits per time on ice and penalties per time on ice. Forwards were distributed amongst four lines and defensemen were allocated to three pairings. The linear regression analysis used play-by-play data from the 2010-17 NHL regular seasons. Results indicated that an increase in the quality of centers increased the win probability of a team the most. Teams make player acquisitions decisions based on the talent available and their current composition of players. A team’s hockey operations department can use the findings to evaluate their roster composition and identify positions with the greatest marginal benefit from player acquisitions.
    • An examination of NHL fans' reactions to the cancelled 2004-2005 season

      Asselstine, Chad.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      AN EXAMINATION OF NHL FANS' REACTIONS TO THE CANCELLED 2004- 2005 SEASON Chad Asselstine Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University Gary Bettman, the Commissioner of the National Hockey League (NHL) stepped in front of the worldwide media on February 16, 2005 to announce that there would be no NHL games played during the 2004-2005 season. Two sides were prominent during the labour dispute; the NHL owners and the NHLP A, however a third side that became the forgotten party was the fans (NHLF A, 2005). The fans are the consumers of the NHL and all the brands associated with its franchises, they are the people who provide the revenues that allow owners to pay the players' salaries. The present study is situated within the sport marketing framework, particularly within the fan loyalty literature to provide an understanding of the impact of the 2004- 2005 lockout on the forgotten party, NHL fans. This study examines 16 fans' experiences in four stages: becoming a fan of the NHL, being a fan prior to the lockout, being a fan during the lockout including their anticipated reaction to the return of the NHL, and their actual reaction to the return of the NHL. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with each ofthe participants, resulting in 16 fans' stories of how the lockout impacted them specifically. Through analysis of the data themes began to emerge including the fans' understanding that there was a need to restructure game play, the business operations of the NHL, a desire for service recovery strategies which would exceed fans' expectations, 4 and the desire for alternative forms of consumption including alternative hockey leagues as well as the growing popularity of poker playing. The study summarizes the effects that the NHL lockout had on the relationship between 16 individual fan~ and their favourite teams, and concludes with Suggestions for Future Research and Implications for Sport Marketers that emerged from this unique case in the history of North American professional sport.
    • Examination of students' ability to observe domains of client behaviour in therapeutic recreation

      Kerr, Amber (Alexis); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      When observing client behaviours, a therapeutic recreation specialist must have a base understanding of typical client behaviours to provide an informed analysis (burlingame & Blaschko, 2010). Providing students with the necessary tools for client observation is significant to the success of this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships amongst the TR student demographic characteristics on acquiring the observation competency necessary to conduct a TR assessment. One hundred seventy-two TR college and university students, enrolled in post-secondary undergraduate TR programs across Ontario, observed a client assessment via video, and recorded their observations using the Tracking Behavioural Assessment (TBA) (Passmore, 2002). Independent samples t-tests and analysis of variance were calculated for the different student characteristics on the domains of the TBA. Significant findings indicated that university students scored more accurately than college students, and advanced students more accurately than novice students, on the emotional and socialization domains.
    • An Examination of ‘Choice’ on Mental Health among Informal Caregivers to Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities

      Soucie-Vukmanich, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction: To examine the effects of ‘choice’ on the mental health outcomes of informal intellectual developmental disability (IDD) caregivers, which has been examined in previous literature in alternate caregiving contexts. Background: Stressors of the caregiving role have been shown to negatively affect the mental health of informal caregivers in multiple contexts, where stressors can include a specific task or number of tasks, time spent caregiving or perceived stress levels. However, research has also shown that whether the caregiver identifies as having a choice in taking on their role may also have an affect on their mental health status, where lack of choice may cause psychological impairments, and decreased life satisfaction. Methodology: Using the General Social Survey – Cycle 26 – Caregiving and Care Receiving, linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were analyzed to determine how choice in the caregiving role affects the caregivers mental health in relation to numerous caregiving stressors. Results: The results show that those who have higher levels of stress experience worse mental health outcomes, alongside those who have more tasks, and more time allotted to their duties. Choice approaches significance in relation to mental health, however, does not have a significant relationship with the development of mental health outcomes in these caregivers when the burdens of the caregiving role are considered. Conclusion: Overall, this research shows the complexities in which the informal caregiving role has on the development of mental health concerns within this population, where the burdens of the role play a more significant role on their mental health than their perception of choice.
    • Examining and describing professional development and continuing education in the personal training and fitness industry : sites and issues of disconnect

      Fielder, Lee E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The following phenomenologically oriented study examines and describes the relevance and effectiveness of professional development and continuing education programs for real-world situations of personal trainers. The participants were personal trainers, facility managers, and persons involved in the accreditation process. Data collection took place in 3 phases. The first phase consisted of the participants completing the PUMP Questionnaire, followed by focus groups with personal trainers and interviews with managers. The study's 3 data sets required reduction via a content analysis by question, content analysis by existential categories, and further thematic analysis using the lived relation existential dimension. The discussion contains the salient sites and issues of disconnect between clients, personal trainers, and facility managers and how they might affect the personal training experience. The intergenerational disconnect emphasized between Boomers as clients and Millennials as personal trainers requires further exploration and dialogue and underscores the need for different approaches to content and delivery of professional development and continuing education experiences for personal trainers and managers of fitness facilities.
    • Examining Bullying Intervention Motivations Through a Cost/Benefit Analysis

      Spadafora, Natalie; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the bystander in bullying situations. A cost/benefit model was explored in researching factors adolescents consider in deciding whether to intervene when witnessing bullying. Adolescents in the present study (N = 101 (50.5% female), between the ages of 12 to 18, M = 15.37 years; SD = 1.71 years) completed self-report questionnaires, and also responded to bullying scenarios, stating how the bystander would react, while explaining potential personal costs and benefits. Adolescents were able to articulate various personal costs and benefits when making the decision to intervene. Conclusions of the present study include: 1) the evolutionary approach is quite informative in illuminating the decision process of the bystander, 2) adolescents’ beliefs about bullying and the role of bystanders are different from their teachers’, and 3) the rather explicit cost/benefit model could be used to develop more targeted anti-bullying programs.
    • Examining Physical Activity in Natural Outdoor Environments on Markers of Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis

      Kelley, Caitlin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published scientific literature pertaining to the relationship between physical activity (PA) in the natural outdoor environment (NOE) and well-being (WB). Of studies included in the primary analysis (N = 19), several studies (n = 5) were retained for secondary analysis to determine whether differences on WB exist between PA in the NOE with an indoor comparator group. The overall effect size for the primary analysis was moderate (d = .49). The largest effect of PA in the NOE was observed for positive affect (d = .56). Results from the secondary analysis indicated PA in the NOE was greater in the NOE (d = .53, 95% CI = .28, .78; p < 0.001) compared to indoors (d = .28, 95% CI = .04, .51, p = 0.02) however this finding was not statistically significant between environment types (p = 0.15). There was significant heterogeneity in the primary analysis of PA in the NOE only (Q = 68.72, p < 0.001). Results of the moderator analyses of PA (p = 0.06), sample (p = 0.34) and study (p = 0.13) characteristics did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Results of the subgroup analyses indicated that there were significant findings within but not between subgroups for NOE type (p = 0.37), PA type (p = 0.47) and PA intensity (p = 0.55). In conclusion, while PA in the NOE was associated with higher WB, there was limited evidence to support that PA in the NOE allots superior benefits to PA engaged in an indoor environment. Future investigations are encouraged to include study designs that measure markers of WB at multiple time points, consider the eudaimonic tradition of WB, include diverse NOE types such as blue space and include an indoor comparison. Practical implications of the findings of this research include the potential for stakeholders to incorporate findings into future nature-based solutions that address societal challenges like increasing WB.
    • Examining sport commitment and intentions to participate in intramural sports : application of the Sport Commitment Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour in a campus recreational sport setting

      Jess, Sarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Fifty-six percent of Canadians, 20 years of age and older, are inactive (Canadian Community Health Survey, 200012001). Research has indicated that one of the most dramatic declines in population physical activity occurs between adolescence and young adulthood (Melina, 2001; Stephens, Jacobs, & White, 1985), a time when individuals this age are entering or attending college or university. Colleges and universities have generally been seen as environments where physical activity and sport can be promoted and accommodated as a result of the available resources and facilities (Archer, Probert, & Gagne, 1987; Suminski, Petosa, Utter, & Zhang, 2002). Intramural sports, one of the most common campus recreational sports options available for post-secondary students, enable students to participate in activities that are suited for different levels of ability and interest (Lewis, Jones, Lamke, & Dunn, 1998). While intramural sports can positively affect the physical activity levels and sport participation rates of post-secondary students, their true value lies in their ability to encourage sport participation after school ends and during the post-school lives of graduates (Forrester, Ross, Geary, & Hall, 2007). This study used the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan et aI., 1993a) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) with post secondary intramural volleyball participants in an effort to examine students' commitment to intramural sport and 1 intentions to participate in intramural sports. More specifically, the research objectives of this study were to: (1.) test the Sport Commitment Model with a sample of postsecondary intramural sport participants(2.) determine the utility of the sixth construct, social support, in explaining the sport commitment of post-secondary intramural sport participants; (3.) determine if there are any significant differences in the six constructs of IV the SCM and sport commitment between: gender, level of competition (competitive A vs. B), and number of different intramural sports played; (4.) determine if there are any significant differences between sport commitment levels and constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions); (5.) determine the relationship between sport commitment and intention to continue participation in intramural volleyball, continue participating in intramurals and continuing participating in sport and physical activity after graduation; and (6.) determine if the level of sport commitment changes the relationship between the constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Of the 318 surveys distributed, there were 302 partiCipants who completed a usable survey from the sample of post-secondary intramural sport participants. There was a fairly even split of males and females; the average age of the students was twenty-one; 90% were undergraduate students; for approximately 25% of the students, volleyball was the only intramural sport they participated in at Brock and most were part of the volleyball competitive B division. Based on the post-secondary students responses, there are indications of intent to continue participation in sport and physical activity. The participation of the students is predominantly influenced by subjective norms, high sport commitment, and high sport enjoyment. This implies students expect, intend and want to 1 participate in intramurals in the future, they are very dedicated to playing on an intramural team and would be willing to do a lot to keep playing and students want to participate when they perceive their pursuits as enjoyable and fun, and it makes them happy. These are key areas that should be targeted and pursued by sport practitioners.
    • Examining The Impact of Campus Intramural Sports Participation on Students’ Sense of Community Using A Pre-Test Post-Test Design

      Arkell, Stephen; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Participation in out-of-class activities and campus recreation/intramural sports are some of the most popular activities for students on college campuses and one of the most beneficial social outlets for students. However only recently has this connection been examined more deeply. Due to the overwhelming number of students participating in these programs and services it is important to examine the impact of participation in an attempt to better understand the degree to which involvement in campus recreational sports contributes to students’ sense of community. The purpose of this quantitative pre-test post-test study was to examine changes in students’ perceived sense of community over the duration of an intramural season. One hundred and forty-seven intramural participants (N=147) completed a pre-test questionnaire on their first week of their intramural sport season and a post-test on their last week of their intramural sport season. The initial plan of analysis to complete a Repeated Measures Multiple Analysis of Co-Variance (MANCOVA) was stopped promptly due to high mean scores from participants. For each question and factor the data was so consistently skewed and high it was simply not normally distributed leading to assumptions to be broken immediately. A Non-parametric design model Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the data instead which indicates that there was not a significant change testing factors mean score ranks between the pre and post-test. This finding demonstrates that there was not a significant difference in participants perception of sense of community but rather participants had high perceived feelings of sense of community both times they were tested. This study supports the findings of previous research which has found that those students who are involved in recreational sports in a post-secondary environment receive both perceived feelings of sense of community but also relationship building opportunities and experiences. Future research should focus on studying perceptions of sense of community and to explore other areas of a campus community, such as; clubs, varsity sports teams, events, etc. Through studying other areas of a campus community there would be the ability to indicate if there are differences or similarities between feelings of sense of community by specific programs.
    • Examining the influence of the coach athlete relationship on motivation and performance in female rugby players

      Gregson, J. Paige; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The purpose of the study was two-fold; first, the association between interpersonal coaching styles and self-determined motivation was examined, followed by the investigation of the motivation-performance relationship. Participants included 221 female Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) rugby players, aged sixteen to thirty-three (M= 20.1: SD = 2.26), who reported the number of years they played CIS rugby (M= 2.3: SD = 1.37) and organized rugby (M= 5.9: SD = 2.31). Multiple and bivariate regressions were employed with autonomy-support, structure, and involvement accounting for 17%, 41 % and 22% of the variance of competence, autonomy and relatedness. The three basic needs accounted for 40% of the variance of motivation, and motivation accounted for 2% of the variance of athletes' perceptions of performance. Findings indicated that autonomy-support emerged as a predictor of all three basic needs, involvement predicted relatedness and competence, autonomy predicted motivation, and motivation predicted athletes' perception of performance.
    • Examining the Influence of the Patient Declaration of Values on Hospital Policies and Practices

      Bridge, Erica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to explore how a leading Ontario hospital operationalizes their Patient Declaration of Values (PDoV) in policy and in practice. This was a single case study, which took place in a leading patient-centred Ontario hospital. The study included 18 individual interviews with employees and patient experience advisors, as well as, document analysis of strategic planning reports (n=10). Five themes emerged: (1) setting the stage, (2) inspiring change, (3) organizational structures, (4) organizational and environmental barriers, and (5) reflection and improvement. This study has highlighted the role of the PDoV within a leading Ontario hospital. It lends itself to providing a process with core strategies for creating change in an acute health care organization; to embed a culture of patient and family centred care.