• Ethics, tourists and the environmental practices of the North American cruise ship industry: a comparison study of the ethical standards of Alaskan and Caribbean cruise ship tourists

      Sheppard, Valerie A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (2013-01-02)
      Although a great deal of research has already been conducted on businesses and environmental ethics, little research has been undertaken in the area of ethics and tourism-related businesses. Even less research has been undertaken in the area of ethics and tourists. The cruise ship industry is a sector of the tourism industry that has been fined millions of dollars in penalties for its seemingly lack of an environmental ethic. Yet, the cruise industry is the fastest growing sector of the tourism industry, with 8.4% growth each year since 1980. In North America the growth rate has been a staggering 15% per year since 1998. While it would be easy to sit back and criticize the cruise ship industry for its lack of environmental concern, it is important to recognize that tourists may have a role in the industry’s practices. Tourists support the industry and without them the industry would not have experienced the growth that it has achieved. Consequently, this research sought to examine the role of ethics in sustainability, particularly as it applies to the tourism industry and more specifically tourists. By examining the ethical standards and orientation of cruise ship tourists, it was anticipated that valuable foundational knowledge would be gleaned on the role that tourists can be expected to play in sustainability. There were three objectives of this research. The first objective was to examine and compare the ethical standards and orientation of Alaskan and Caribbean cruise tourists. The second objective was to examine and compare Alaskan and Caribbean cruise tourists’ level of acceptance of the environmental practices of the industry, while the third objective was to create awareness amongst cruise ship tourists of the impacts of the industry and, more importantly, their impacts as tourists. An extensive literature review was undertaken to examine ethical and moral theory, which led to the examination of business and tourism ethics, and ultimately environmental ethics and the cruise ship industry. Two research sites were chosen as representing two different cruise ship markets: Alaska and Cozumel. Data was collected in Skagway and Juneau, Alaska from August 22nd to August 30th, 2004 and in Cozumel, Mexico from January 13th to January 22nd, 2005, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 237 surveys were completed in Alaska and 246 were completed in Cozumel. The use of the Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES) in the questionnaire permitted an analysis of the ethical standard of respondents from these two different markets. Overall, Alaskan respondents were found to have a higher standard of ethical conduct than Cozumel respondents. Alaskan and Cozumel respondents differed on the type of ethical orientation they were likely to employ when judging the ethical MES scenario in the questionnaire. There were also significant differences between males and females in Cozumel regarding the strength of their ethical orientation, with female Cozumel respondents utilizing a significantly stronger justice orientation than male respondents. The analysis also revealed that the majority of respondents found the environmental practices of the cruise ship industry unacceptable. However, females in both Alaska and Cozumel found the industry’s practices to be significantly more unacceptable than did male respondents. An interesting finding revealed itself through the negative correlation between the number of cruises taken and how the Alaskan respondents reacted to two sections of the questionnaire. Specifically, the more cruises the Alaskan respondents had been on, the more likely they were to find the environmental practices of the industry acceptable, and the more likely they were to find the captain’s behaviour to be ethical in the MES scenario.
    • Evaluating three self-help smoking cessation interventions for post-secondary smokers : a randomized controlled trial on six Ontario campuses

      Travis, Heather E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Smoking prevalence is highest among the young adult cohort. Postsecondary students are no exception. Although many students intend to quit smoking, no research has established what methods best promote reductions in, or complete abstinence from smoking. This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of three self-help smoking cessation interventions. Method. On six post-secondary campuses, 483 smokers who voluntarily accessed Leave The Pack Behind (a tobacco control initiative) were randomly assigned to one of three smoking cessation interventions: One Step At A Time (a 2-booklet, *gold standard' program for adults); Smoke|Quit (a newly-developed 2-booklet program for young adult students); and usual care (a 'Quit Kit' containing a booklet on stress management, information about pharmacological quitting aides and novelty items). All participants also received one proactive telephone support call from a peer counsellor. During the study, 85 participants withdrew. The final sample of 216 students who completed baseline questionnaires and 12-week follow-up telephone interviews was representative of the initial sample in terms of demographic characteristics, and smokingquitting- related variables. Results. Whether participants quit smoking depended upon treatment condition, ^(2, N=2\6) = 6.34, p = .04, with Smoke|Quit producing more successfijl quitters (18.4%) than One Step At A Time (4.5%) or the Quit Kit (1 1.4%). On average, participants had quit 53.46 days, with no significant difference across treatments. Selfefficacy also increased. Use of the intervention or other quitting aides was not associated with treatment condition. Among the 191 participants who did not quit smoking, treatment condition did not influence outcomes. Overall, 46.2% had made a quit attempt. Significant decreases in weekly tobacco consumption and increases in self-efficacy to resist smoking were observed from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion. Post-secondary institutions represent a potentially final opportunity for age-targeted interventions. Self-help resources tailored to students' social and contextual characteristics will have considerable more impact than stage-only tailored interventions. Both reduction and abstinence outcomes should be emphasized to positively support students to stop smoking.
    • Evaluation in Sport for Development: A Case Study of the Gansbaai Project, Football Foundation of South Africa, From A Critical Perspective

      Arnold, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of sport for development (SDP) evaluation within one program in Gansbaai, South Africa through critical, independent participant inclusive program evaluation. Qualitative research was conducted on the Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA), where semi-structured interview data were collected from administrators and participants, as were data from direct participant observations and organizational documents. Data analysis followed, according to Kvale and Brinkman’s (2008) methodology. FFSA goals were found, as were themes of social impact (i.e., regarding coach-player relationships, trust, and coaching impact on social integration). A further theme related to evaluation components and procedures. Further themes included life skill development, competition within programming, participants’ home life and social integration. Findings contribute to the SDP literature relating to program evaluation research and to FFSA administrators by providing an understanding of SDP program shortcomings, limitations, and suggested improvements.
    • Evaluation of a professional development curriculum in movement education and adapted physical activity for invisible disabilities : a critical cross-case analysis

      Hardman, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Movement education and adapted physical activity are content areas not addressed in pre-service education or in-service training for Ontario practitioners working with individuals with disabilities in physical environments. Consequently, physical activity is often overlooked by service providers in programming and intervention for exceptional young learners. A formative evaluation, multiple-case study design was employed in this research in which a purposeful sample of expert practitioners performed a guided, descriptive evaluation of a three-day professional development workshop curriculum designed to supplement these areas lacking in professional preparation within their respective cohorts. Case-by-case and comparative analyses illustrated the inherent assumptions and societal constraints which prioritize the structure of professional development within the education system and other government organizations providing services for school-aged persons with disabilities in Ontario. Findings, discussed from a critical postmodern perspective, illustrate the paradoxical nature of Western values and prevailing mind/body dichotomy that guide professional practice in these fields.
    • An Examination of Decision-Making Biases on Fourth Down in The National Football League

      Ross, Weller; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The recent developments in the field of sport analytics have given researchers the tools to examine an increasingly diverse set of topics within the world of sport in ways not previously possible (Alamar, 2013; Fry and Ohlmann, 2012). This study analyzes the decision-making processes of high level coaches under different contexts and then determines whether or not a specific subconscious psychological bias, known as the representativeness heuristic, caused the individual to make the choice they did. Past empirical research has examined people’s decisions in different contexts and, from those con- texts, made inferences about how those individuals made their decisions and what errors in their decision-making processes could have led to their suboptimal choices (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979; Kobberling and Wakker, 2005; Tom et al, 2007; Tversky and Kahneman, 1992). The representativeness heuristic explains that errors in people’s judgment occur because their mind places too much emphasis on the current situation (new information) and not enough on the original odds (prior information). Previous researchers have been unable to separate the new and prior components of people’s decision-making when studying real-world scenarios in a sport context (Carter and Machol, 1978; Carroll, Palmer, and Thorn, 1989; Carroll et al, 1989; Patel, 2012; Romer, 2006). This research is different than the previous related research in that we utilize statistical models to gauge how people weight different information when making high-pressure decisions in sport. We hypothesize that coaches are disproportionately weighting new information against prior information when making decisions, and thus, yielding to the representativeness heuristic. To test our hypothesis, we construct numerous Bayesian updating models to represent the impact of National Football League (NFL) coaches’ decision-making on the likelihood of winning games. Utilizing a Bayesian approach enables us to keep the new and prior odds of winning the game separate, and thus, keep the two components of the representativeness heuristic separate. Regression analysis is then used with both of the components to directly test for the representativeness heuristic in NFL coaches’ decision-making by estimating the effect each component has on the coaches’ decisions. These estimates form the basis of our hypothesis tests.
    • Examination of efficient roster design in the National Hockey League (NHL)

      Tselios, Stephanos; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The study estimates the values of NHL roster positions. The analysis was conducted in two phases. First, cluster analysis was used to evaluate and rank players for their overall performance across positions. Second, regression analysis based on aggregated player classifications across team-games estimated the value of roster position and measured diminishing returns to talent across positions. Players were evaluated based on their regular season performance. The clustering of all skaters was administered separately for each position and each year. Standardized regular season-long variables were applied in the analysis. The variables used to cluster all positions were: points per time on ice, goals per time on ice, assists per time on ice, plus/minus per time on ice, shots differential per time on ice, blocks per time on ice, hits per time on ice and penalties per time on ice. Forwards were distributed amongst four lines and defensemen were allocated to three pairings. The linear regression analysis used play-by-play data from the 2010-17 NHL regular seasons. Results indicated that an increase in the quality of centers increased the win probability of a team the most. Teams make player acquisitions decisions based on the talent available and their current composition of players. A team’s hockey operations department can use the findings to evaluate their roster composition and identify positions with the greatest marginal benefit from player acquisitions.
    • An examination of NHL fans' reactions to the cancelled 2004-2005 season

      Asselstine, Chad.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      AN EXAMINATION OF NHL FANS' REACTIONS TO THE CANCELLED 2004- 2005 SEASON Chad Asselstine Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University Gary Bettman, the Commissioner of the National Hockey League (NHL) stepped in front of the worldwide media on February 16, 2005 to announce that there would be no NHL games played during the 2004-2005 season. Two sides were prominent during the labour dispute; the NHL owners and the NHLP A, however a third side that became the forgotten party was the fans (NHLF A, 2005). The fans are the consumers of the NHL and all the brands associated with its franchises, they are the people who provide the revenues that allow owners to pay the players' salaries. The present study is situated within the sport marketing framework, particularly within the fan loyalty literature to provide an understanding of the impact of the 2004- 2005 lockout on the forgotten party, NHL fans. This study examines 16 fans' experiences in four stages: becoming a fan of the NHL, being a fan prior to the lockout, being a fan during the lockout including their anticipated reaction to the return of the NHL, and their actual reaction to the return of the NHL. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with each ofthe participants, resulting in 16 fans' stories of how the lockout impacted them specifically. Through analysis of the data themes began to emerge including the fans' understanding that there was a need to restructure game play, the business operations of the NHL, a desire for service recovery strategies which would exceed fans' expectations, 4 and the desire for alternative forms of consumption including alternative hockey leagues as well as the growing popularity of poker playing. The study summarizes the effects that the NHL lockout had on the relationship between 16 individual fan~ and their favourite teams, and concludes with Suggestions for Future Research and Implications for Sport Marketers that emerged from this unique case in the history of North American professional sport.
    • Examination of students' ability to observe domains of client behaviour in therapeutic recreation

      Kerr, Amber (Alexis); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      When observing client behaviours, a therapeutic recreation specialist must have a base understanding of typical client behaviours to provide an informed analysis (burlingame & Blaschko, 2010). Providing students with the necessary tools for client observation is significant to the success of this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships amongst the TR student demographic characteristics on acquiring the observation competency necessary to conduct a TR assessment. One hundred seventy-two TR college and university students, enrolled in post-secondary undergraduate TR programs across Ontario, observed a client assessment via video, and recorded their observations using the Tracking Behavioural Assessment (TBA) (Passmore, 2002). Independent samples t-tests and analysis of variance were calculated for the different student characteristics on the domains of the TBA. Significant findings indicated that university students scored more accurately than college students, and advanced students more accurately than novice students, on the emotional and socialization domains.
    • Examining and describing professional development and continuing education in the personal training and fitness industry : sites and issues of disconnect

      Fielder, Lee E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The following phenomenologically oriented study examines and describes the relevance and effectiveness of professional development and continuing education programs for real-world situations of personal trainers. The participants were personal trainers, facility managers, and persons involved in the accreditation process. Data collection took place in 3 phases. The first phase consisted of the participants completing the PUMP Questionnaire, followed by focus groups with personal trainers and interviews with managers. The study's 3 data sets required reduction via a content analysis by question, content analysis by existential categories, and further thematic analysis using the lived relation existential dimension. The discussion contains the salient sites and issues of disconnect between clients, personal trainers, and facility managers and how they might affect the personal training experience. The intergenerational disconnect emphasized between Boomers as clients and Millennials as personal trainers requires further exploration and dialogue and underscores the need for different approaches to content and delivery of professional development and continuing education experiences for personal trainers and managers of fitness facilities.
    • Examining Bullying Intervention Motivations Through a Cost/Benefit Analysis

      Spadafora, Natalie; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the bystander in bullying situations. A cost/benefit model was explored in researching factors adolescents consider in deciding whether to intervene when witnessing bullying. Adolescents in the present study (N = 101 (50.5% female), between the ages of 12 to 18, M = 15.37 years; SD = 1.71 years) completed self-report questionnaires, and also responded to bullying scenarios, stating how the bystander would react, while explaining potential personal costs and benefits. Adolescents were able to articulate various personal costs and benefits when making the decision to intervene. Conclusions of the present study include: 1) the evolutionary approach is quite informative in illuminating the decision process of the bystander, 2) adolescents’ beliefs about bullying and the role of bystanders are different from their teachers’, and 3) the rather explicit cost/benefit model could be used to develop more targeted anti-bullying programs.
    • Examining Physical Activity in Natural Outdoor Environments on Markers of Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis

      Kelley, Caitlin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published scientific literature pertaining to the relationship between physical activity (PA) in the natural outdoor environment (NOE) and well-being (WB). Of studies included in the primary analysis (N = 19), several studies (n = 5) were retained for secondary analysis to determine whether differences on WB exist between PA in the NOE with an indoor comparator group. The overall effect size for the primary analysis was moderate (d = .49). The largest effect of PA in the NOE was observed for positive affect (d = .56). Results from the secondary analysis indicated PA in the NOE was greater in the NOE (d = .53, 95% CI = .28, .78; p < 0.001) compared to indoors (d = .28, 95% CI = .04, .51, p = 0.02) however this finding was not statistically significant between environment types (p = 0.15). There was significant heterogeneity in the primary analysis of PA in the NOE only (Q = 68.72, p < 0.001). Results of the moderator analyses of PA (p = 0.06), sample (p = 0.34) and study (p = 0.13) characteristics did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Results of the subgroup analyses indicated that there were significant findings within but not between subgroups for NOE type (p = 0.37), PA type (p = 0.47) and PA intensity (p = 0.55). In conclusion, while PA in the NOE was associated with higher WB, there was limited evidence to support that PA in the NOE allots superior benefits to PA engaged in an indoor environment. Future investigations are encouraged to include study designs that measure markers of WB at multiple time points, consider the eudaimonic tradition of WB, include diverse NOE types such as blue space and include an indoor comparison. Practical implications of the findings of this research include the potential for stakeholders to incorporate findings into future nature-based solutions that address societal challenges like increasing WB.
    • Examining sport commitment and intentions to participate in intramural sports : application of the Sport Commitment Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour in a campus recreational sport setting

      Jess, Sarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Fifty-six percent of Canadians, 20 years of age and older, are inactive (Canadian Community Health Survey, 200012001). Research has indicated that one of the most dramatic declines in population physical activity occurs between adolescence and young adulthood (Melina, 2001; Stephens, Jacobs, & White, 1985), a time when individuals this age are entering or attending college or university. Colleges and universities have generally been seen as environments where physical activity and sport can be promoted and accommodated as a result of the available resources and facilities (Archer, Probert, & Gagne, 1987; Suminski, Petosa, Utter, & Zhang, 2002). Intramural sports, one of the most common campus recreational sports options available for post-secondary students, enable students to participate in activities that are suited for different levels of ability and interest (Lewis, Jones, Lamke, & Dunn, 1998). While intramural sports can positively affect the physical activity levels and sport participation rates of post-secondary students, their true value lies in their ability to encourage sport participation after school ends and during the post-school lives of graduates (Forrester, Ross, Geary, & Hall, 2007). This study used the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan et aI., 1993a) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) with post secondary intramural volleyball participants in an effort to examine students' commitment to intramural sport and 1 intentions to participate in intramural sports. More specifically, the research objectives of this study were to: (1.) test the Sport Commitment Model with a sample of postsecondary intramural sport participants(2.) determine the utility of the sixth construct, social support, in explaining the sport commitment of post-secondary intramural sport participants; (3.) determine if there are any significant differences in the six constructs of IV the SCM and sport commitment between: gender, level of competition (competitive A vs. B), and number of different intramural sports played; (4.) determine if there are any significant differences between sport commitment levels and constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions); (5.) determine the relationship between sport commitment and intention to continue participation in intramural volleyball, continue participating in intramurals and continuing participating in sport and physical activity after graduation; and (6.) determine if the level of sport commitment changes the relationship between the constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Of the 318 surveys distributed, there were 302 partiCipants who completed a usable survey from the sample of post-secondary intramural sport participants. There was a fairly even split of males and females; the average age of the students was twenty-one; 90% were undergraduate students; for approximately 25% of the students, volleyball was the only intramural sport they participated in at Brock and most were part of the volleyball competitive B division. Based on the post-secondary students responses, there are indications of intent to continue participation in sport and physical activity. The participation of the students is predominantly influenced by subjective norms, high sport commitment, and high sport enjoyment. This implies students expect, intend and want to 1 participate in intramurals in the future, they are very dedicated to playing on an intramural team and would be willing to do a lot to keep playing and students want to participate when they perceive their pursuits as enjoyable and fun, and it makes them happy. These are key areas that should be targeted and pursued by sport practitioners.
    • Examining the influence of the coach athlete relationship on motivation and performance in female rugby players

      Gregson, J. Paige; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The purpose of the study was two-fold; first, the association between interpersonal coaching styles and self-determined motivation was examined, followed by the investigation of the motivation-performance relationship. Participants included 221 female Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) rugby players, aged sixteen to thirty-three (M= 20.1: SD = 2.26), who reported the number of years they played CIS rugby (M= 2.3: SD = 1.37) and organized rugby (M= 5.9: SD = 2.31). Multiple and bivariate regressions were employed with autonomy-support, structure, and involvement accounting for 17%, 41 % and 22% of the variance of competence, autonomy and relatedness. The three basic needs accounted for 40% of the variance of motivation, and motivation accounted for 2% of the variance of athletes' perceptions of performance. Findings indicated that autonomy-support emerged as a predictor of all three basic needs, involvement predicted relatedness and competence, autonomy predicted motivation, and motivation predicted athletes' perception of performance.
    • Examining the Influence of the Patient Declaration of Values on Hospital Policies and Practices

      Bridge, Erica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to explore how a leading Ontario hospital operationalizes their Patient Declaration of Values (PDoV) in policy and in practice. This was a single case study, which took place in a leading patient-centred Ontario hospital. The study included 18 individual interviews with employees and patient experience advisors, as well as, document analysis of strategic planning reports (n=10). Five themes emerged: (1) setting the stage, (2) inspiring change, (3) organizational structures, (4) organizational and environmental barriers, and (5) reflection and improvement. This study has highlighted the role of the PDoV within a leading Ontario hospital. It lends itself to providing a process with core strategies for creating change in an acute health care organization; to embed a culture of patient and family centred care.
    • Examining the role of goals and motives for physical activity and eating behaviour in commercial weight-loss program participants

      Grattan, Kimberley.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity and healthy eating behaviour with the participant's motives and goals for each health behaviour. Methods: Participants (N 121; 93.2% female) enrolled in commercial weightloss programs at the time of data collection, completed self-reported instruments using a web-based interface that were in accordance with Deci and Ryan's (2002) Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Results: Multiple linear regression models revealed that motivation and goals collectively accounted for between 0.21 to 0.29 percent and 0.03 to 0.16 percent of the variance in physical and healthy eating behaviours in this sample. In general, goals regarding either behaviour did not appear to have strong predictive relationships with each health behaviour beyond the contributions of motives. Discussion: Overall, findings from this study suggest that motives seem to mattermore than goals for both physical activity and healthy eating behaviour in clientele of commercial weight-loss programs. Therefore commercial weight-loss program implementers may want to consider placing more attention on motives I than goals for their clientele when designing weight-loss and weight-maintenance initiatives.
    • Experiences and meaning of the aquatic environment for individuals with physical disabilities

      Cocchio, Cathleen Anne.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This study examines the experiences and meaning of physical activity in the aquatic environment to enhance social, cultural and political understanding of its impact in the lives of individuals with physical disabilities. Interviews, lived experience descriptions and artifacts present an explanation of the felt sense oftheir bodies as they engage in swimming or scuba diving. 11 Combining written, verbal and visual descriptions generated by informants provides a detailed account of the unique qualities of physical activity in the water for those with physical disabilities. Participants' descriptions highlight that context is an important aspect of physical activity among individuals with physical disabilities through discussion of motility and the role of the lived body. Aspects of the aquatic environment create a setting that facilitates forgetfulness of the lived body's presence. Instructors and participants alike will benefit from learning the difference between the object body and the lived body, listening to the body's voice as they participate in physical activity .
    • Exploring authentic leadership : a narrative case study

      Mahoney, Tarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth, life history examination of the leadership qualities of the President of a for-profit sport organization and explore this individual's leadership development within the framework of the Authentic Leadership Development Model (ALDM). A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted, including interviews with the President, three employees within the organization, and three individuals as selected by the President who attested to her authenticity and lifehistory. As well, observations for a period of three months were used to create a lifehistory of the President and determine if she was aligned with the ALDM. Creating a lifehistory of the President allowed the researcher to outline the story of her life up until the conclusion of the study. The narrative case study of the female President of a for-profit sport organization provided a glimpse into the life of a person whose values, beliefs, and actions aligned. The major findings of this study suggested that the President displayed characteristics similar to those identified as outcomes of the ALDM model.
    • Exploring Body-Related Experiences among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

      Bailey, KA; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-25)
      Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore body-related experiences, specifically body image, in people with spinal cord injury. A total of nine participants (five women, four men) who had a broad range of body image experiences (from very negative to very positive) were interviewed. Most participants explained experiencing a fluctuating body image that varied from day-to-day. Negative body image experiences were represented by appearance, weight concerns, and function with all body image experiences encompassed by self-presentational concerns and tactics (an unanticipated finding). Positive body image was represented by acceptance, appreciation and gratitude of the body. Interestingly, negative body image experiences were not found to be represented by the opposite of positive body image experiences as they were each distinct. These findings have direct implications for medical professionals in hospital and rehabilitation settings to understand the importance of body image after spinal cord injury.
    • Exploring Chinese-Canadians' perspectives on health : a quantitative study

      Chen, Dengshu.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Chinese have unique perspectives on health and illness, which is mostly umecognized by western medicine. Immigration may contribute to problems with health consultations, inconvenience, and dissatisfaction. As the largest visible minority in Canada, Chinese- Canadians' perspectives on health should be studied in order to help Chinese immigrants adapt to a new health-care and health-promotion system, and keep them healthy. A quantitative questionnaire was designed based on the findings from a pilot study and previous literature. A hundred participants were recruited from Toronto, Vancouver, Halifax, and St. Catharines. Descriptive analysis and correlation analysis were used to investigate the structure of the variables. Findings indicated that most oftheir attitudes and corresponding practices to the different health aspects were positive. The relation between dietary practices and attitude was only found in small cities. Their attitudes were impacted by their length of stay in Canada. Their attitudes to regularly timed meals and psychological consultation were related to their acculturation level, as was the regularity of their practice of dental flossing. Their self-evaluated general health levels were also found to be affected by their medical history, education level, feeling to talk about • sexual health, and smoking, particularly in the male subjects of the study. In conclusion, they realized that each health aspect w~s important to their health. However, their practices did not bear a strong relation to their beliefs. Traditional thoughts about health reseeded with time. Acculturation level did not affect most of their attitudes or practices. Under pressure, the priority of the daily health practices decreased. Older persons, those with low incomes, lower education levels or families under stress need to pay more attention to their health level. In-depth future research was recommended.
    • Exploring Healthcare Experiences of Transgender Individuals

      Ross, Katie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-06)
      The purpose of this study was to explore how transgender individuals were supported to navigate the healthcare system to achieve positive healthcare experiences. A single case study was conducted in Southern Ontario, which included ten individual interviews. Data was analyzed through thematic analysis, allowing for seven themes to emerge within macro (large-scale system), meso (local/interpersonal), and micro (individual/internal) levels of healthcare system support. Themes that emerged within the levels of system support included: 1) existing deficits with hope for change; 2) significant external supports; 3) importance of informal networking; 4) support from local area family physicians and walk-in clinics; 5) navigating the healthcare system alone; 6) personality traits for successful healthcare experiences; and 7) the development of strategies to achieve positive healthcare experiences. This study outlined factors that contributed to positive healthcare experiences for transgender individuals, showing that meso and micro level support are compensating for large-scale healthcare system deficits.