• Developing Life Skills through Physical Activity: A Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model Approach

      Beamish, Nick; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-11-07)
      Ethnographic methods were used to study a weekly after-school physical activity program over an eight-month period. Based on Hellison’s Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, the program sought to foster positive life skills amongst youth. The study investigated how the developed program influenced this life skills education experience. Several themes were identified from the data revolving around culture, life skills, pedagogy, and lessons learned. Data suggests that the positive environment developed within the program positively influenced youths’ life skill education experience. The topic of ethnicity as it relates to the experience of marginalized youth in physical activity settings is also discussed. This study supports TPSR literature and suggests that effort to establish caring relationships and empower youth contribute to the establishment of a positive atmosphere where life skills education can occur. Beyond this, practical tools were developed through this study to help others deliver life skill education.
    • The Development of a Survey to Assess the Type of Capacity within Nonprofit Sport Organizations

      Morrison, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The topic of organizational capacity and organizational capacity-building has gained importance among Canadian nonprofit sport organizations. This is illustrated by practitioners calling for increased attention to the capacity-building matters of nonprofit organizations, and two critical Canadian federal government documents outlining strategic direction for the nonprofit sport sector. Consequently, the purpose of this quantitative research study was to develop a valid and reliable survey to categorize nonprofit sport organizations into capacity types identified by Stevens (Stevens, 2006). This quantitative research study offers a preliminary development towards achieving a reliable and valid tool for assessing types of nonprofit sport organizational capacity. This research provides interesting insight into what capacity means by organizing the all-encompassing literature into an easy to understand framework. In addition, it sets the stage for future researchers to build upon this survey development process to achieve a reliable and valid capacity measuring tool.
    • Does Education Setting Influence the Relationship between Substance use and Depression among Post Secondary Students

      Tester, Patricia; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-08-09)
      Background. This study examined whether experiences of and relationships between depressive symptoms and substance use differs for first year college and university students. Methods. A proportionate stratified random sample of 6,100 university students and a census sample of 7,300 college students were invited to anonymously complete the National College Health Assessment. The final sample included 444 young adult first year university (n = 298) and college (n = 146) students. Results. More college than university students used tobacco (26.7; 11.1%) and marijuana (26.7%; 20.8%). Similar proportions consumed alcohol (75.3%; 76.5%). Almost all students reported past-year depressive symptoms. Mean number of symptoms was 5.43. Tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were each positively associated with depression after adjusting for age and gender. Educational setting moderated the relationship between depression and tobacco use, and depression and marijuana use, with the relationship being stronger for university students. Implications. University campus health professionals especially, need to assess depression among students using substances and vice versa. Differences between college and university students require further attention.
    • THE DOMINO EFFECT: Evaluating Therapeutic Recreation Assessment Tools’ Utility for Persons Experiencing [Dis] abilities

      Salvagna, Jessica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Assessment tools are part of a systematic process that is needed to provide a comprehensive picture of a client’s ability, performance and/or quality of life. These tools should inspire Therapeutic Recreation (TR) practitioners to reflect on whether our participants are benefiting from our services in the way we think they are benefiting from them (Ellis & Witt, 1986). The purpose of my qualitative research study was threefold. To explore the utility of several selected assessment tools from both the implementer and recipient’s perspective and from a manifest and latent analysis of the clarity and construction of the selected TR assessment tools. Utilization- focused evaluation framework guided this study to better understand which elements within existing assessment tools present a challenge. Three program participants and 26 practitioners participated in the study. The data sets included interview transcripts, focus group summaries of engagement with a “mock” case study, and the tools themselves. Data analysis involved manifest and latent content analyses of the tools, thematic analyses of the interviews and focus group engagement with the case study, and a triangulated comparative pattern analysis across the three data sets. Results indicated five main challenges practitioners experience when administering standardized assessment tools, (1) inconsistencies, (2) language barriers, (3) accessibility, (4) relevance, (5) perspective. Three main themes revealed from the data derived from the target populations, were (1) Fear, (2) Stereotyping and (3) Social Control. This thesis is a gateway for professionals and future researchers to begin a phase of creating new or updating existing TR standardized assessment tools to better meet the needs of ALL the populations we serve. Keywords: Therapeutic Recreation (TR), Assessment Tools, Evaluation, Disability, Mental Health, Barriers, and Utility
    • Don’t worry, be fulfilled: Exploring employee experience with leadership and fulfillment in the Major Games context

      Smith, Lindsay; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace spirituality on the development of employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment in the Major Games context. Where Major Games organizational contexts are understood as unique, given their high velocity environments that are extremely susceptible to change (Parent, Olver, & Séguin, 2009), employees experience distinct stressors, including time constraints, role ambiguity, job insecurity, and work-life conflict. Given leader impact on employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment remains unknown (Parent et al., 2009), the preposition of this study is such that authentic leaders – said to positively influence employee attitudes, behaviours, and psychological wellbeing through prioritizing employees’ values and by winning employees’ trust and respect (Wang & Hsieh, 2013) – can positively respond to these unique stressors, thereby motivating employees to experience emotionally, spiritually, and intellectually engaging work, a beneficial outcome within this pressure-laden context. For this study, a qualitative research design with a phenomenographical method was applied with 20 Major Games’ employee participants, (i.e., employed from 2010 to present), who engaged in semi-structured interviews. Through open coding and thematic data analyses, the researcher discovered that it is through Major Games leaders applying characteristics of authentic leadership – including empowerment and social support – towards development of positive organizational cultures, Major Games employees may experience value congruence and sense of community (i.e., workplace spirituality), positively influencing the development of employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment in the Major Games industry.
    • Drafting Errors and Decision Making Theory in the NBA Draft

      Sailofsky, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Even with the recent influx of available data with regards to draft-eligible players and NBA teams investing more resources into scouting than ever before, NBA decision makers still struggle to consistently evaluate talent and select productive players (Berri et al., 2010) in the draft. In this paper, I examine the NCAA statistics and pre-draft player factors that predict both draft position and NBA performance for all NCAA players drafted to the NBA between 2006-2013. Following this analysis, I determine what errors NBA teams are making and how these errors relate to general decision making theory. To compare the predictors of draft position and NBA performance, linear regression models are specified for both draft position and NBA performance. The NBA performance model sample necessarily excludes players whose production cannot be assessed due to not playing a minimum (>=500) amount of NBA minutes, and therefore a Heckman (1971) sample selection correction is applied to the performance model to correct for this non-randomly selected sample. Both models are specified for the entire dataset as well as for subsets for position (Bigs, Wings, Point Guards) and conference size (Big Conference, Small Conference). The findings of this paper demonstrate that NBA decision makers continue to base their draft selections on factors that do not actually predict future NBA success, such as scoring, size, and college conference. Many of the decisions made by NBA decision makers relate to Heath and Tversky’s (1991) competency hypothesis, as front offices forego the use of reliable distributive data and select players according to their perceived knowledge. NBA decision makers also display risk averse behaviour (Kahneman and Tversky, 1973) and an insistence on sticking with the status quo (Samuelson and Zeckhauser, 1988) in their decisions. More specifically, this study also points to ball control and offensive efficiency as predictors of individual player success. These findings can not only affect NBA decision makers in the factors that they emphasize in player evaluations, but can also be used to change the way that sport executives think about general decision making and their own innate decision making biases.
    • The effect of acute exercise type on body image attitudes

      Drouin, Breanne; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The current study examined the effect of two types of acute exercise (resistance and mind-body yoga) on state body image attitudes, to see which, was most effective at reducing body image concerns. I t was hypothesized that both types of exercise would lead to improvements in body image, with yoga showing the biggest benefits. Collegeaged female non/infrequent exercisers (n = 40) completed state measures of body satisfaction, social physique anxiety (SPA), and appearance orientation prior to and following participation in a single yoga and resistance class. Participation in the yoga class was associated with decreases in SPA and increases in body satisfaction. However, participation in the resistance class was associated with no changes in any of the study variables. These findings indicate participation in a single yoga class may have positive effects on body image attitudes, which may encourage non-exercisers to become more active.
    • The effect of dairy consumption with exercise and healthy eating on the metabolic profile in overweight/obese adolescent girls

      Caetano Feitoza, Natalie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Childhood obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce this condition, including lifestyle modification with exercise and healthy nutrition, can reduce disease risk. Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends a well balanced and healthy diet, however, children and adolescents are not meeting these recommendations, and this too is associated with poorer health. It has been proposed that the intake of dairy products can improve cardiometabolic risk factors in adults. However, research findings are inconsistent for dairy and cardiometabolic variables among adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of dairy consumption, as part of a 12-week exercise and nutrition program, on fasting serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides), insulin and glucose in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) adolescent girls. Twenty adolescents (10-18 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: recommended dairy (RDa, n=9) or low dairy (LDa, n=11). The RDa group consumed CFG’s recommended servings of dairy (4 servings/d), and the LDa group consumed ≤ 1 serving/d (reflecting habitual intakes). All participants followed an exercise program (three 60-minute sessions/wk) and a eucaloric weight management diet. There were no changes in the metabolic profile following the intervention, and no differences were seen between groups. Waist circumference (p=0.003) and fat mass (p<0.001) decreased and lean mass (p=0.01) increased after 12 weeks, with no differences between groups. Significant correlations were seen between body mass change and insulin change, waist circumference change and total cholesterol, insulin and HOMA-IR changes, and QUICKI change and body fat percent change. Further analysis with a larger sample size is required to determine the effect of increased dairy consumption as part of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic variables in OW/OB adolescent populations.
    • The effect of different phases of synchrony on the synchrony effect

      Rickers, Katelyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Synchronization of behaviour between individuals has been found to result in a variety of prosocial outcomes. The role of endorphins in vigorous synchronous activities (Cohen, Ejsmond-Frey, Knight, & Dunbar, 2010) may underlie these effects as endorphins have been implicated in social bonding (Dunbar & Shultz, 2010). Although research on synchronous behaviour has noted that there are two dominant phases of synchrony: in-phase and anti-phase (Marsh, Richardson, Baron, & Schmidt, 2006), research on the effect of synchrony on endorphins has only incorporated in-phase synchrony. The current study examined whether both phases of synchrony would generate the synchrony effect. Twenty-two participants rowed under three counterbalanced conditions - alone, in-phase synchrony and anti-phase synchrony. Endorphin release, as measured via pain threshold, was assessed before and after each session. Change in pain threshold during the in-phase synchrony session was significantly higher than either of the other two conditions. These results suggest that the synchrony effect may be specific to just in-phase synchrony, and that social presence is not a viable explanation for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold
    • The effect of synchronized group activities on pain threshold as a predictor of cooperation

      Gagnon, Morgan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-10)
      Recent research suggests that participating in vigorous synchronized physical activity may result in elevated levels of endorphins, which may in turn affect social bonding (Cohen et. al., 2009). The present research aimed to examine whether or not the change in pain tolerance would be able to predict participants’ willingness to cooperate after statistically controlling for the groups’ condition. Participants were asked to run on a treadmill for 30 minutes under one of two conditions (control vs. synchronized). Prior to and after the run participants underwent a pain tolerance test. Once completed, a second activity was introduced to the participants; a cooperative game. A public goods game was used to measure an individual’s willingness to cooperate. The results showed the synchronized condition was able to predict that participants cooperated more during the public goods game (p = .009), however the change in pain threshold was unable to significantly predict cooperation (p = .32).
    • The effects of a general excercise program on task self-efficacy and social physique anxiety in older adults

      Ransom, Kerry; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Older adults represent the most sedentary segment of the adult population, and thus it is critical to investigate factors that influence exercise behaviour for this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a general exercise program, incorporating cardiovascular, strength, flexibility, and balance components, on task selfefficacy and SPA in older adult men and women. Participants (n=114, Mage = 67 years) were recruited from the Niagara region and randomly assigned to a 12-week supervised exercise program or a wait-list control. Task self-efficacy and SPA measures were taken at baseline and program end. The present study found that task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of leisure time physical activity for older adults. In addition, change in task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of change in SPA. The findings of this study suggest that sources of task self-efficacy should be considered for exercise interventions targeting older adults.
    • Effects of a Tailored Social Marketing Campaign Targeting Smoking Policy Compliance on Smoking-Related Behaviour on Campus

      Turnbull, Haley A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction. Smoking represents a significant risk to Canadians. Young people in Canada have historically had the highest smoking prevalence of any other age group. Implementing smoking policies can be an effective strategy for post-secondary campuses to interrupt smoking trajectories and reduce the risk of campus citizens being exposed to second- hand smoke, however compliance can be a barrier to achieving these outcomes. This study examined the effects of a social marketing campaign on policy-non-compliance on a post- secondary campus in Ontario, Canada. Methods. The 3-week campaign was implemented by students and focused on policy- compliance-related objectives. Six smoking sites were observed twice a day for one week before the campaign, and one week after the campaign was completed. 4 sites were designated smoking areas, as defined by the smoking policy at the institution. 2 sites were undesignated “hot-spots” where smoking was frequently observed to occur. A butt litter audit was completed before and after the campaign to determine if butt litter decreased after the campaign. Results. At designated smoking sites, using the strict policy definition of the designated smoking sites, the proportion of observed behaviour that was non-compliant decreased in designated smoking areas (-0.079, 95% CI = 0.143, -0.0151, p < .05). Noncompliant behaviours also significantly decreased after the campaign using a more lenient measure of compliance (-0.102, 95% CI = -0.203, -0.001, p < .05). At undesignated hot spots, the average number of people using the areas to smoke decreased at both sites after the campaign. The proportion of all cigarettes which were disposed of correctly in receptacles was 75.5% before the campaign and 77.4% after the campaign. It is unclear if second-hand smoke exposure was reduced for non- smoking pedestrians despite the overall reduction in non-compliant behaviours. Conclusions. Implementing a student-led, social marketing campaign focussed on improving compliance was an effective strategy to improve compliance with smoking policy.
    • The Effects of a Therapeutic Recreation Program on Overall Well-being Among Older-adults with Alzheimer Disease and Their Care Partner

      Rolph, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: With the increased pressures that our aging population has on our country, this study looks at the effects that an 8 week Therapeutic Recreation infused program has on the well-being for both individuals with Alzheimer Disease and their Care Partner. Method: Sample of the study is from a single secondary data set. Sampling criteria for the study was individuals with early to mid-stage signs of Alzheimer Disease or other dementias and their Care Partner from across 6 different locations in Ontario, Canada. Pre and Post data from the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was analyzed through a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Care Partners indicated an increase in well-being slightly higher than that of the Persons With Dementia. This slight increase in well-being was not statistically significant for either the Care Partner or the Person’s with Dementia. Unexpected ANOVA findings revealed that there was a significant between-subject effect as Care Partners showed a higher overall level of well-being. This further emphasizes the importance for early intervention for Persons with Dementia. Conclusion: Overall this program is in the early stages of development. It is still believed that program modifications could facilitate a cost-effective intervention for communities.
    • The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self-Talk on Cross-Training Exercise Performance

      Sampson, Jack; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-talk is a multi-dimensional construct comprised of self-statements that provide instruction, or motivation, for successful task completion. Instructional self-talk has been shown to be more effective during precision tasks, and motivational self-talk has been shown to be more effective during gross motor and exercise tasks. The effects of self-talk on task performance have not been explored through a combination of endurance and precision exercise, or cross-training. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of instructional and motivational self-talk during a cross-training exercise task of running and overhead squatting. 30 participants were evenly divided into three groups (i.e., control, motivational, and instructional), and were examined across three exercise trials. Two 3 x 3 factorial ANOVAs comparing exercise time and mechanical score revealed no significant differences between groups across exercise trials. The results of the present study provide a potential starting point for future self-talk studies analyzing the combination of exercise tasks.
    • The Effects of the Mad Dog Diet on Bowel Function, Body Composition, Neuropathic Pain, and Depression in a Spinal Cord Injury and Multiple Sclerosis Population

      Sullivan, Timothy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Inflammation has been shown to negatively influence bowel function, body composition, neuropathic pain, and depression within the spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) populations. Four individuals with varying levels of SCI’s (C5-T1/AIS A-D/3 male 1 female) and two individuals with varying diagnoses of MS (SPMS & RRMS, female) were recruited for the study. Bowel function was assessed via The Bowel Management subset of the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) and Neurological Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) questionnaires, body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, neuropathic pain was assessed via the neuropathic pain questionnaire, and depression was measured via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire. This study investigated the effects of 6-weeks of the Mad Dog diet, which aimed to reduce inflammation, and improve the aforementioned ailments. The 6-week Mad Dog diet was associated with a significant reduction in total body mass (p=0.006), lean mass (p=0.046) and fat mass (p=0.038). Despite the significant reduction in fat mass, there were no significant changes in subcutaneous fat mass (p=0.091), or visceral mass (p=0.33), which suggests that the study was underpowered and could not distinguish the relative contribution of either fat source to the losses in total fat mass. Likewise, there were no significant changes in bowel function as determined by SCI-QOL scores (p=0.33), or NBD scores (p=0.29), and no significant changes in any domain of neuropathic pain (sensory, p=0.55; affective, p=0.15; sensitivity, p=0.12), or depression (CES-D scores, p=0.34). These findings demonstrate that 6 weeks of the Mad Dog diet may be beneficial for body composition in the SCI and MS populations. Findings from this research provide the basis for a larger study that can more fully assess the outcomes from this study along with changes in biological measures of inflammation.
    • Escape and connection : a phenomenological investigation into the meaning of an after-school program for adolescent boys

      Joseph, Thao; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The purpos e of this phenomenological research is to explore the meaning of a YMCA-sponsored after-school recreation program in the lives of four adolescent boys. Listening to youth voice is impor t ant to the ability of othe r s to design, implement and evaluate high-quality programs tha t facilitate learning opportunities tha t a r e meaningful to participants. Within the context of interviews, task-based activities we r e used to ga the r data. Guided by Creswell's analytic spiral (1998), data wa s analyzed according to van Manen's (1990) thematic analysis and Caeilli's (2000) creative narrative analysis. It wa s found tha t this after-school progr am provided the s e adolescents with the opportunity to escape from the i r monotonous after-school activities and the instability of the i r home and school environments. Also, they we r e connected wi th positive peers, caring adults and the wide r community, opportunities tha t we r e limited in othe r aspects of the i r lives. Methodological issues a r e also discussed.
    • The Ethics of Categorization in Sport: An Analysis of the Possible Elimination of Under 19 Lightweight Rowing in Canada

      Giesbrecht, Jacob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 a proposed rule change was made by a working group appointed by Rowing Canada Aviron to eliminate the U19 lightweight rowing category in Canada. While this proposal did not come to fruition, it did raise questions about the purpose and ethics of maintaining such a category. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the perceptions of those closely involved with U19 lightweight rowing in Canada and the ethical considerations and ramifications of a possible ban on this category. Ten interviews were conducted with coaches and administrators closely associated with the topic to ascertain individual and group perceptions of this proposal. Based on Charles Taylor’s hermeneutic phenomenology, this study uncovered and evaluated the ethical implications and validity of the possible elimination of U19 rowing in Canada and provided a commentary on categorization in sport more broadly. The results of the interviews revealed six main emergent themes that included concepts of; natural lightweights, opportunity and fairness, health and harm reduction, education, coaching abuse or neglect, and accountability. After analyzing the perceptions of participants and applying an ethical analysis to the issue, a possible ban of U19 lightweight rowing in Canada was deemed ethically unjustifiable.
    • An Ethnographic Case Study of Developing and Maintaining the Coach-Athlete Relationship in Elite University Sport

      Corkery, Erin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Relationships and social interactions are crucial components in sport participation from adolescence through to elite and professional levels of competition. Recently, there has been growing interest in the study of the coach-athlete relationship as a result of an increase in the awareness of its implications and potential impact on performance success. The purposes of this research were to: (a) describe and interpret how one university sport coach develops and maintains relationships with athletes within one competitive season, and (b) describe and interpret the practices (including intentions and actions) used to facilitate social interactions that nurture the coach-athlete relationship. One male coach and twelve female elite university athletes from one sport team participated in the research. Data were generated from two main sources: observations of team practices and games, and two individual interviews with the coach and three athletes (one interview during the competitive season and one interview after the season had ended). Through a constructivist lens, I investigated the participants’ unique perspectives of the ongoing processes within the coach-athlete relationship. I used Jowett’s (2001) adaptation of interdependence theory, the 3+1Cs model (closeness, commitment, complementarity, and co-orientation), to examine the perspectives of both coach and athletes and subsequently create an interpretive representation of my findings. Findings highlighted the variety of ways participants understood and interpreted their coach-athlete relationship. Several potential influences of these relationships were uncovered during data analysis such as: vulnerability, gender, communication, and self-reflection. Implications for coaches, athletes, and coach educators are discussed.
    • Evaluating three self-help smoking cessation interventions for post-secondary smokers : a randomized controlled trial on six Ontario campuses

      Travis, Heather E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Smoking prevalence is highest among the young adult cohort. Postsecondary students are no exception. Although many students intend to quit smoking, no research has established what methods best promote reductions in, or complete abstinence from smoking. This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of three self-help smoking cessation interventions. Method. On six post-secondary campuses, 483 smokers who voluntarily accessed Leave The Pack Behind (a tobacco control initiative) were randomly assigned to one of three smoking cessation interventions: One Step At A Time (a 2-booklet, *gold standard' program for adults); Smoke|Quit (a newly-developed 2-booklet program for young adult students); and usual care (a 'Quit Kit' containing a booklet on stress management, information about pharmacological quitting aides and novelty items). All participants also received one proactive telephone support call from a peer counsellor. During the study, 85 participants withdrew. The final sample of 216 students who completed baseline questionnaires and 12-week follow-up telephone interviews was representative of the initial sample in terms of demographic characteristics, and smokingquitting- related variables. Results. Whether participants quit smoking depended upon treatment condition, ^(2, N=2\6) = 6.34, p = .04, with Smoke|Quit producing more successfijl quitters (18.4%) than One Step At A Time (4.5%) or the Quit Kit (1 1.4%). On average, participants had quit 53.46 days, with no significant difference across treatments. Selfefficacy also increased. Use of the intervention or other quitting aides was not associated with treatment condition. Among the 191 participants who did not quit smoking, treatment condition did not influence outcomes. Overall, 46.2% had made a quit attempt. Significant decreases in weekly tobacco consumption and increases in self-efficacy to resist smoking were observed from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion. Post-secondary institutions represent a potentially final opportunity for age-targeted interventions. Self-help resources tailored to students' social and contextual characteristics will have considerable more impact than stage-only tailored interventions. Both reduction and abstinence outcomes should be emphasized to positively support students to stop smoking.
    • Evaluation in Sport for Development: A Case Study of the Gansbaai Project, Football Foundation of South Africa, From A Critical Perspective

      Arnold, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of sport for development (SDP) evaluation within one program in Gansbaai, South Africa through critical, independent participant inclusive program evaluation. Qualitative research was conducted on the Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA), where semi-structured interview data were collected from administrators and participants, as were data from direct participant observations and organizational documents. Data analysis followed, according to Kvale and Brinkman’s (2008) methodology. FFSA goals were found, as were themes of social impact (i.e., regarding coach-player relationships, trust, and coaching impact on social integration). A further theme related to evaluation components and procedures. Further themes included life skill development, competition within programming, participants’ home life and social integration. Findings contribute to the SDP literature relating to program evaluation research and to FFSA administrators by providing an understanding of SDP program shortcomings, limitations, and suggested improvements.