• Sport-Specific Arbitration in Canada: A Qualitative Investigation of Four Athletes' Perceptions of the Fairness of the Process

      Gardner, Peter C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      This thesis explored Canadian high performance Athletes' perceptions of the fairness of the SDRCC sport-specific arbitral process. Leventhal’s (1980) model of procedural justice judgment was found to be an effective tool for exploring Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process. Five of his six procedural justice antecedents: consistency, bias suppression, accuracy of information, representativeness, and ethicality influenced the Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process. Emergent data also revealed that the Athletes’ perceptions of fairness were also influenced by three contextual factors and an additional antecedent of procedural justice. Efficiency of the process, inherent power imbalance between Athletes and NSOs, and the measurable effect of the process on personal and professional relationships differentiate sport-specific arbitration from most other processes of allocation. The data also indicated that the opportunity to voice one’s case was also an important determinant of the Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process.
    • Staff Perceptions on the Qualities of Meaningful Relationships with Residents at End of Life in Long Term Care

      Attis, Leyla; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Long Term Care is a place where many people die, and it is the job of the staff members to assist the resident with their dying and death experience. A peaceful transition to death is largely dependent on the relationship between resident and staff members. In order to provide the best dying and death experience for the resident, I sought to explore staff perceptions on the qualities of a meaningful relationship with resident at the end of life. Using interpretive phenomenology as a qualitative research design and Heidegger’s (1962) concept of the lifeworld as a tool of analysis, I uncovered aspects of good ethical care by listening to the people who provide it. I completed a series of nine interviews and depicted staff perceptions of the qualities of their relationships with residents at the end of life. My data analysis uncovered three qualities of staff and resident relationship that positively influenced the dying and death experience for resident. These qualities are fearlessness, meaningful time and vulnerability. Furthermore, these findings reflect the mutual giving and receiving of care for both staff and resident throughout this relationship. Often this complex dynamic can be misunderstood or masked by what ministry standards tell us in how this relationship should look in LTC. My research exposes a different side of care at the end of life. With all the unknowns a resident is faced with at the end of life, the emotional relationship between resident and staff member can be the most comforting.
    • A Struggle Against the Odds: Understanding the Lived Experiences of Canadian Hockey League (CHL) Players

      Grygar, Victoria; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-09)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the experiences of Canadian Hockey League (CHL) players using a Foucauldian theory-based analysis. Specifically, this thesis contends that power relations between players and CHL hockey authorities need to be critically assessed. The CHL is the world’s leading developmental junior ice hockey league. Comprised of 1,400 hockey players, aged 15–21 years old on 60 teams through three divisions, the CHL is a primary supplier of talent for the National Hockey League. In the last year, several issues surrounding unjust practices within the CHL have been brought to the forefront, indicating that the potential for harassment, abuse, and exploitative practices are heightened in an organization such as the CHL, where profits are extracted from the labour of youth. Ultimately, this study is designed to contribute to both scholarly and public audiences, providing a critical analysis of the welfare of youth in the CHL.
    • Student Perspectives of the Context of Recess; Implications for Student Well-Being

      Dunseith, Ashley; Department of Child and Youth Studies (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      With most students in Canada spending approximately 180 days a year in school, averaging more than six hours a day (Morrison & Kirby, 2011), Wei, Szumilas and Kutcher (2011) argue that this places educational institutions in an unique position in terms of influencing the health and well-being of students. This brings forth the need for school environments to be utilized in ways that are conducive to promoting student development. Much of the educational and developmental components embedded within the school system as well as experiences within greatly influence student’s health and well-being. A national statement was made a concerning American children’s education and mental health that is greatly applicable to the Canadian school system. It was stated that schools “must be active partners in the mental health care of our children” because of the “important interplay between emotional health and school success” (Lazarus & Sulkowski, 2011, pp. 15-16). This identifies the need to ensure that all students, as much as possible, are being provided with safe environments and sufficient support in order to encourage positive developmental trajectories of student health and well-being.
    • A Study of Female Sport Fans with Respect to Fantasy Sport Participation

      Blain, Ben; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-01)
      Female sport fans make up ~40% of all North American big league sport fans. However, female sport fans make up only 20% of all fantasy sport participants. This study asked: why is there an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports? In order to answer this question, 35 female sport fans who do not participate in fantasy sports were separated into five focus groups to provide the data necessary for this study. Seven themes emerged to explain why there is an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports: lack of time, their friends do not play, negative associations, control versus escape, sport statistics, team versus player allegiances, and males acting as gatekeepers. Finally, four recommendations were made for those marketing fantasy sports to female sport fans: increase the overall awareness of fantasy sports, promote the social aspects of fantasy sports, streamline fantasy sports, and promote the ease of use.
    • A Study of NHL Fan Identification in Red Deer, Alberta

      Cipywnyk, Blair; Applied Health Sciences Program
      While there are many reasons sport fans choose to follow one team over another, geography is typically a major one, as people often follow their hometown team, or the team that is the closest (Rooney, 1974; 1975; Wann, 2006). However, limited academic attention has been given to situations where geographic proximity is likely to have little to no influence in the development of sport fan identification, and how individuals choose teams instead. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand how hockey fans chose their favourite team when two teams in two different cities are an equal distance away, and how they would maintain that fandom in the presence of the other team’s fans. Participants were recruited in Red Deer, Alberta, a city that is 84 miles or 135.2 km from both Edmonton and Calgary. Using Rooney’s (1974; 1975) spheres of influence for sport teams, Red Deer falls equally within the sphere for both teams. As a result of the equi-distance, however, it was assumed geographic proximity likely has little influence on fandom formation in Red Deer. Further, the constant threat of the rival group being in close proximity raises questions for how fans in Red Deer maintain their team fandom. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly identified fans of the Edmonton Oilers or Calgary Flames that were also lifelong residents of Red Deer. Geographic proximity proved to play no role, while family influence, team success, rebellious nature, and place attachment proved major factors in how fans in Red Deer choose between these two teams. Further, because the Oilers and Flames are traditional rivals dating back to the 1980s (Spector, 2015), and with Red Deer being caught in the middle, an assumption was made that rivalry would play a large role in fandom maintenance. However, that was not the case. Not only did rivalry not factor in fandom maintenance, but the rivalry was also seen as dead or dying by participants. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented and discussed.
    • A Study of Nonfans and Fans of the National Lacrosse League's Edmonton Rush

      Smith, Danielle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-01-27)
      The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is floundering. In an attempt to understand why NLL fans attend games and other sport fans do not, the NLL’s Edmonton Rush were studied. To best address the NLL’s attendance woes, two primary research questions were developed: 1) Why do fans of the Oilers and Oil Kings choose not to attend Edmonton Rush games? 2) Why do fans of the Edmonton Rush attend games? To answer these questions an online focus group along with a document analysis of Rush media, and a telephone interview were used to collect data. The data collection methods mentioned above assisted in answering the primary and secondary research questions, which allowed three major themes along with sub-themes to inductively emerge. The nonfans of the Rush do not attend Rush games because of the connection they have with hockey and the disconnection they have with lacrosse, some are simply not interested or were not entertained, as well as the lack of exposure the Rush receive. The Rush fan participants attend Rush games because of Edmonton community pride, the entertainment value they get out of attending a game, it is a great alternative new sport experience and it either is a substitute or a compliment to hockey. Both the nonfan and fan participants of this study believe that different marketing approaches can be utilized in order to attract nonfans to attend games.
    • A Study of One Living School Partnership

      Bylsma, Adam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-16)
      Abstract The purpose of this paper was to explore the ways one partnership evaluated its partners and relationships using Gray‟s model of collaboration (2000). The model consists of five approaches that are made up of: problem-focused, relational, cognitive, structural, and political. These approaches were tested at one „Living School‟ partnership that was constituted by a school, a public health department, the City‟s Park and Recreation Department, commercial enterprises, and organizations from the non-profit sector. Eight pre-arranged interviews were conducted using conversational interview technique, with three additional interviews on-site. The results of the research revealed that based on Gray‟s five approaches, this one Living School partnership was found to be successful. Consistent with partnership research, trust, social capital and structure were found to be key ingredients, as well as new themes of leadership, role clarity, and a shared vision were also found to be vital.
    • Sustaining Health Care Practice Change: The Experience of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations Implementing and Sustaining RNAO Best Practice Guidelines

      Schenck, Tracey; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Sustainability of change for improvement initiatives has been widely reported as a global challenge both within and outside health care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which factors related to staff training and involvement, staff behaviour, and clinical leaders’ and senior leaders’ engagement and support impact the long term sustainability of practice changes for BPSO health care organizations who have implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines. Semi structured interviews with eleven organizational leaders’ from ten health care organizations were conducted to explore the unique experiences, views and perspectives on factors related to staff, clinical leaders and senior leaders and their involvement and impact on the long term sustainability of clinical practice changes within organizations who had implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs). The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Further analysis identified patterns and themes in relation to: 1. The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model which was used as the theoretical framework for this research; and 2. Organizations found to have sustained practice changes longer term verses organizations that did not. Six organizations were found to have sustained practice changes while the remaining four were found to have been unsuccessful in their efforts to sustain the changes. Five major findings in relation to sustainability emerged from this study. First is the importance of early and sustained engagement and frontline staff, managers, and clinical leaders in planning, implementation and ongoing development of BPGs through use of working groups and champions models. Second is the importance of ongoing provision of formal training, tools and resources to all key stakeholders during and after the implementation phase and efforts made to embed changes in current processes whenever possible to ensure sustainability. Third is to ensure staff and management are receptive to the proposed change(s) and/or have been given the necessary background information and rationale so they understand and can support the need for the change. Fourth is the need for early and sustained fiscal and human resources dedicated to supporting BPG implementation and the ongoing use of the BPGs already in place. Fifth is ensuring clinical leaders are trusted, influential, respected and seen as clinical resources by frontline staff. The significance of this study lies in a greater understanding of the influence and impact of factors related to staff on the long term sustainability of implemented practice changes within health care organizations. This study has implications for clinical practice, policy, education and research in relation to sustainability in health care.
    • Teacher-Student Rapport: Investigating its Impact on the Dropout Rate in Physical and Health Education

      Temertzoglou, Ted; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This study was an investigation into whether strong teacher-student rapport relates to the drop-out rates of students in grade 9 and 10 health and physical education (HPE). In the study, One hundred and thirty-six grade 9 students from five high schools in Ontario participated in this study. Findings of whether or not rapport related to students’ decision to take an additional HPE credit beyond grade 9 did not prove conclusive. A significant multivariate interaction effect was not found; however, tests of between-subject effects on sex and grade 10 dropouts showed some interesting trends. More research is needed to further illuminate the link between teacher-student rapport and students’ enrollment in optional HPE classes.
    • A Temporal Analysis of Emotions in Girls' Secondary School Physical Education Games and Fitness Classes

      Muir, Amber; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-10-24)
      Female enthusiasm towards engaging in physical education (PE) significantly decreases with age as it provides females with positive and negative emotional experiences. This study examined emotions within four grade nine female PE soccer and fitness classes (N = 67). Emotional patterns were studied over time and across two units of instruction and in relation to student grades. A mixed-method approach was utilized assessing the state emotions of shame, enjoyment, anxiety, and social physique anxiety (SPA). Results revealed unsatisfactory internal consistency for shame and thus it was removed. Statistical analysis revealed no significant changes in emotions over time, whereas qualitative analysis found that state emotions were inconsistent. Statistical analysis indicated that students in the fitness classes reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and SPA on the final class (p < .01). Qualitative analysis signaled different origins and themes of students‟ emotions. No predictive relationship between emotion and students‟ grade was found.
    • Therapeutic Recreation Education in Canada: A Review of the Current Curriculum

      Ridgway, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-12-16)
      Abstract This descriptive study sought to identify the similarities and differences between the various educational institutions offering therapeutic recreation curriculum across Canada. The study utilized mixed methods, including open and closed-ended questions on a survey and document analysis. The research participants were from 14 educational institutions located across the nation. Results from this study identify similarities and differences in the curriculum used to prepare students pursuing a career in the TR field. Core competencies and standards of practice for the field of therapeutic recreation were defined and discussed. Accreditation and the accrediting bodies in the field of TR are reviewed because of their significant impact on curriculum. Implications regarding certification and regulation pertaining to the education for therapeutic recreation practitioners were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
    • Through Their Eyes: Exploring older adults’ experiences with an intergenerational project

      Rogers-Jarrell, Tia; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Canada’s aging population and intergenerational programs’ ability to encourage active aging point to the need for further support and encouragement for these programs. The purpose of this case study was to explore and understand, from an insider’s perspective, the lived experiences of six older adults who participated in an intergenerational project – Through Their Eyes. Three questions guided this inquiry: What are the experiences of older adults participating in the Through Their Eyes project? How did this experience influence their well-being? How did this experience influence their relationship to their community? I conducted critical qualitative research using semi-structured individual interviews, a focus group, a knowledge translation workshop, observations and field notes. The qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative and inductive analysis techniques. Analysis highlighted ‘opportunity’ as the central theme of the study. During a time in older adults’ lives when they are experiencing many losses, the Through Their Eyes project was an opportunity for gain. Specifically, the intergenerational project provided an opportunity for new relationships. There was a familial-type intimacy to the relationships older adults develop with students as participants’ often compared their student interviewers to their grandchildren. The Through Their Eyes project also offered a space and place for older adults to be heard regarding their community. Older adults wanted the information they provided for the project to help other aging adults in their community. Finally the intergenerational project added a joyful memory and experience for participants. When participants shared their thoughts on the Through Their Eyes project, it was clear that it was a joyful experience as all of them describe it as such. Findings illustrated that the Through Their Eyes project encouraged active aging and enhanced quality of life for participants by providing an opportunity for social participation and allowing them to remain active and engaged citizens. The Through Their Eyes project fostered social participation by establishing connections between generations, addressing social isolation and loneliness, and breaking down stereotypes and age barriers. The Through Their Eyes project allowed older adults to remain active and engaged citizens in their neighbourhoods by providing an important opportunity for reciprocity and a place for them to be listened to in regards to their community matters. Insights into practical implications based on the findings from this study and suggestions for future research in the area of intergenerational programs are identified.
    • Toward a grounded theory of trigger events and leadership development in early adulthood

      Hess, Daniel G.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      The purpose of this research study was to develop a conceptual model through the use of a grounded theory approach, which explains how trigger events are related to leadership development. Trigger events are experience that cause developmental growth and may result in an increased ability to lead (Luthans and Avolio (2003). In this study, there were two phases of data collection. First participants completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT), where their respective leadership developmental stage was measured. Second, participants were involved in two in-depth interviews where an understanding was reached as to how various trigger events have impacted their leadership development. From these data, a conceptual model was developed to explain the relationship between trigger events and leadership development. Participants described trigger events as being important developmental periods, during which time they grew as people and became more capable leaders.
    • The Transfer of Wilderness Trips to the Everyday Lives of Young People: A Case Study

      Sayle, Hilary; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-02-22)
      There has been considerable research that investigates the outcomes, benefits, and perceptions of wilderness trip experiences. However, the transfer of learning from a wilderness trip to the everyday lives of youth trip participants, that has deliberately explored post-trip experience, is minimal. Using a qualitative multi-case study approach, methods of data collection included interviews with six youth program participants, six parents/legal guardians, and three program staff, as well as document solicitation. Reports from the participants suggested that the key content transferred to a post-wilderness trip context were interpersonal skills; life skills; and instances of personal growth. Participants applied their learning content from the wilderness trip to school; sports; community and international volunteering; work and career aspirations; family and home life; and social life contexts. Implications for adventure programming and curriculum design, instruction, and transfer are considered.
    • Understanding community perspectives: A Case Study of a Bottom-Up Sport-For-Development initiative in rural Africa

      Robar, Justin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The first wave of Sport for Development (SfD) initiatives made bold assumptions that sport was inherently good for participants and could achieve social and developmental outcomes (Levermore, 2008; Lyras & Peachey, 2011). Scholars began to question the impacts that SfD programs were having in achieving developmental goals and positive social outcomes (Coalter, 2013; Darnell, 2010; Schulenkorf; Sherry, & Rowe, 2016; Svensson & Levine, 2017). Researchers also conveyed that there were issues associated with race, power dynamics, Global North and South relations, cultural sensitivity, and gender apparent in SfD programs (Darnell et al., 2016). There has been shifts in the SfD sphere responding to this critical research to work closer with the communities and individuals who are the co-creators of these programs (Coalter, 2007, 2010; Collison & Marchesseault, 2018; Darnell, 2012; Van der Kleshorst, 2018). The purpose of this study was to understand how the community members who are co-creators and participants of this SfD initiative perceive the Bottom-Up approach and impacts of the program. The community that I worked with has been partnered with a SfD organization for eight years. A local gatekeeper (the rugby development officer) helped me understand the community and identify interviewees. Participants included: community members, parents, coaches, teachers, and former participants. During my time there I also participated in coaching seminars, worked with participants, and helped with education sessions. Using Stake’s (1995) case study approach, interviews, fieldwork, and content analysis were conducted. Utilizing these methods and incorporating qualitative data analysis techniques, four overarching themes emerged: Theme One; Community development through a sport-education centre; Theme Two; community interaction and engagement; Theme Three; development of participants; and Theme Four; Rugby development. The findings work to fill multiple gaps in literature identified by Schulenkorf et al. (2016) and attempt to address critical issues laid out by Darnell et al. (2016). This research also hopes to work as a bridge between academia and practitioners and makes recommendations for possible best practices moving forward in SfD that include; community engagement in development, upskilling local participants and community members, and seeking out feedback from the community members involved.
    • Understanding End-of-Life in a Long-Term Care Home: Perceptions of Bereaved Family Members

      Thoms, Shannon; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Rather than a natural aspect of life, adherence to the medical model within long-term care (LTC) homes has framed death as something to be avoided and a failure of the system. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to contribute to the ongoing discussion in the literature regarding the experience of dying and death in a LTC home from the perspective of bereaved family members. Interviews were conducted with eight family members who had a relative die in a LTC home within the preceding 12 months. Interviews with participants focused on their experiences while their relative approached the end-of-life, at the time of death, and after their death. My findings resulted in the overall theme of Respecting the Life and Death. Within this theme, I found that taking a compassionate approach to care; staff, families, and residents coming together for care; and the continuation of care all supported residents on their end-of-life journey. The findings of this research call attention to the multifaceted nature of dying beyond physiological care and work to address ways to provide quality end-of life care.
    • Understanding Interorganizational Relationships and Organizational Capacity in a Youth Baseball Network

      Willis, Jackson; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Within the Canadian sport system there has been a noted decline in team sport participation among youth athletes. Factors that have contributed to this decline include increased competition amongst organizations, a larger number of sport options and sport specialization. Baseball in particular is a sport that has seen declining participation rates in recent years. Within the sport management literature two key concepts have emerged as key areas of interest for youth sport organizations in their operations; interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity. Interorganizational relationship (IOR) development has been identified as an effective strategy for strengthening the capacity of youth sport organizations (Misener & Doherty, 2013). Organizational capacity has been related to the ability of organizations to draw on a variety of resources to help achieve desired outcomes (Hall et al., 2003), while there is also evidence to support the connection between greater organizational capacity and increased success in achieving these outcomes (Jones et al., 2017). Thus, the purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity within a youth baseball network in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada. Data were collected from representatives of ten youth baseball organizations through a survey instrument via telephone interview format. Data were analyzed using a social network analysis methodology including the use of the UCINET 6.0 software program and NetDraw function that allowed for the calculation of density and centrality measures along with visual representations of the network. QAP Multiple Regression analysis was also conducted and showed that IORs and sector were both found to be statistically significant in their ability to predict organizational capacity ties within this network. Overall, the results of this study allowed for conclusions to be drawn related to network structure, state of organizational capacity, and the relationship between IORs and organizational capacity in this youth baseball network.
    • Understanding Network Governance: A Case Study Exploration of Active Canada 20/20

      Wu, Brandon R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-06)
      Consistent with the governance shift towards network forms of governance, a number of new social movements have formed in response to the declining levels of physical activity in the Western world. One such movement is Active Canada 20/20: A Physical Activity Strategy and Change Agenda for Canada. Network governance is employed as the theoretical framework for this case study exploration of Active Canada 20/20 and the political landscape surrounding its development and implementation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in addition to document/policy analysis and direct observations. Analysis of the data resulted in three overarching themes – the defining characteristics of network governance, the political landscape, and intersectoral linkages – that interconnect multifariously based the nature of the Canadian federal government and its relationship with the voluntary sector for physical activity. Despite progress in driving Active Canada 20/20 forward, entrenched dynamics of power need to be navigated within the political landscape surrounding network governance.
    • Understanding Parents' Perspectives of Youth Summer Hockey Camps using Importance-Performance Analysis: A Consideration of Value Equity Drivers

      de Souza, Raiven; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Given the move towards sport specialization, hockey has become subject to year-round participation. Summer hockey camps provide an outlet for children to continue to work on their skills and stay on the ice during the off-season. As there are numerous hockey camps operating during the summer months, camps compete against each other for consumers. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was twofold. First, the aim was to understand what value equity factors are most important to parents when deciding to register their child for a summer hockey camp; second, the researcher hoped to ascertain if summer hockey camp operators are performing to the deemed level of importance of those factors as determined by the parents, and assist the camps in identifying and closing any perception gaps in their offering. Surveys were used in order to complete an importance-performance analysis; 148 parents who registered their child in a summer hockey camp in the Niagara Region in 2019 completed the survey. Through the findings it is clear that factors of quality were of utmost importance to parents; all but one factor of convenience and price were over-delivered. Overall, parents are generally satisfied with the performance of summer hockey camps in the Niagara Region.