• Socially Constructed Environmental Issues and Sport: A Content Analysis of Ski Resort Environmental Communications

      Spector, Sam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-04-02)
      Due to the impact of sport on the natural environment (UN, 2010), it is important to examine the interplay between environmental issues and sport (Hums, 2010, Mallen & Chard, 2011; Nauright & Pope, 2009; Ziegler, 2007). This research content analyzed 82 ski resort environmental communications (SRECs). These communications were rated for their prominence, breadth, and depth using the delineation of environmental issues provided by the Sustainable Slopes Program (SSP) Charter. This data was compared to the resorts’ degree of environmentally responsible action as rated by the Ski Area Citizens’ Coalition (SACC). An adaptation of Hudson and Miller's (2005) model was then used to classify the ski resorts as inactive, reactive, exploitive, or proactive in their environmental activities. Recommendations have been made for standardization and transparency in environmental disclosures and an environmental management system to aid ski resorts in moving from ad hoc processes to a systematic and comprehensive framework for improving environmental performance.
    • Sources of perceived support from friends in exercise : an application of self-determination theory /

      Muon, Sovoeun.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-09-23)
      Background: This study examined three social factors (i.e., autonomy support, structure, and involvement) and their relationship with the motivational processes proposed by Vallerand ( 1 997). This study explored sources of support for exercise participation. -~ ' Methods: Participants (N = 425) completed self-reported instruments which assessed variables outlined within Vallerand's ( 1 997) HMIEM. Results: Structural equation modeling analyses predicting the cognitive/affective and exercise behaviour accounted for 23 percent of variance in positive affect, 10 percent of variance in negative affect, 38 percent of variance in physical self-concept, and 4 percent of variance in exercise behaviour. Exploratory analyses revealed that friends, romantic partners, and educators to be consistent sources for providing autonomy support, structure, and involvement, f !,< r - r* Summary: This study is among the first to examine perceived sources oi autonomy support, structure, and involvement from friends in the exercise context and suggest such perceptions may contribute to motivating exercise behaviour in post-secondary students.
    • Sport Commitment in Wheelchair Basketball: An Interpretive Look into the Lives of Individuals with Physical Disabilities

      Lavigne, Joshua Robert; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      It is estimated that over 4.4 million people are living in Canada with a reported disability. Due to a number of risk factors associated with potential health concerns and sedentary lifestyles, it is important for people with physical disabilities to lead an active lifestyle. Recreation and leisure pursuits are a great outlet for this to take place. However, in order to gain the long terms benefits of these pursuits one must be committed to an activity. With the use of a collaborative interview method, with the Sport Commitment Model serving as the guiding framework, this study sought to find the underlying factors for continued participation for people with physical disabilities in wheelchair basketball. Through utilizing an interpretive approach it was found that enjoyment, social support, perceived ability and to some extent involvement opportunities, were the main contributors to overall commitment. Criticisms and suggestions for future research are also provided.
    • Sport for Development Organizations: An Analysis of Stakeholder Dynamics

      Hill, Abigail; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      Sport for Development (SFD) uses the power of sport to support international development initiatives that affect social change and empower under-resourced communities (Levermore, 2008a). Currently, there are more than 1,000 SFD organizations globally (Doyle, Payne, & Wolff, 2011) working to enact change and development initiatives in the least developed regions of the world. Stakeholders are key components of the long-term sustainability, development, and success of these SFD organizations. The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between SFD organizations and their stakeholders through the lens of social responsibility (SR). Through the analysis of interviews conducted with SFD leaders and their stakeholders, this research offers a modified version of Carroll’s (1979) four categories of SR. This modified version addresses the differences that exist with SFD stakeholder relationships from the perspectives of the organizations and their stakeholders. Further, broader implications will be discussed in terms of compatibility and long-term sustainability.
    • Sport Values of Bantam, Midget and Intermediate Female Hockey Players and Their Minor Hockey Associations

      Pitts, Sandra L; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The sport values of female hockey players and their minor hockey associations were explored to better inform a values-based approach for adult-managed minor hockey. Data were collected from 294 participatory HL and competitive Rep players (12-22 years of age) using the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire-2 and from 30 hockey association board members using a modified YSVQ-2. Results indicated player importance (VI) ratings for Moral (M = 4.08) and Competence (M = 4.15) values were not significantly different but were significantly higher than Status (M = 2.11) value. Significant weak relationships between age and competition level versus VI ratings were found. There were medium/ high Moral, medium/ low Competence and high/ high Status value congruence between Rep and HL Player-Board Members, respectively. Based upon the findings, girls’ minor hockey associations need to recognize the values female youth players prioritize, and ensure each is considered within a values-based decision-making approach to governance.
    • Sport, The Business of ________: Exploring Higher Purpose in a Professional Sport Organization

      Gwartz, Evan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Researchers have demonstrated that organizational leaders’ communication of an organizational higher purpose (i.e., a definition of ‘why the organization exists’) profoundly benefits organizational performance (Sisodia, Sheth, & Wolfe,2014); however, sport organizational scholars and leaders remain ambiguous in their definitions of why such organizations exist (Newman, 2014; Zeigler, 2007). Thus, the purpose of this research is to explore the presence and management of higher purpose in a professional sport organization. To fulfill this research purpose, a qualitative, single-site case study was used to study a professional sport organization, with data collection methods including employee interviews, observation of organizational artifacts and an analysis of organizational documents. These data were analyzed by creating typologies based upon two theoretical frameworks: (1) Mackey and Sisodia’s (2013) four types of higher purpose; and (2) Bell-Laroche, Maclean, Thibault and Wolfe’s (2014) 4-I Values Framework, to understand how leaders were managing higher purpose with Management by Values (MBV) practices. From this analysis, the organization’s higher purpose was found to be largely ambiguous; however, most stakeholders espoused The Good (i.e., service to others) as the predominant source of higher purpose. Secondly, leaders were found to informally and intuitively manage higher purpose through a ‘top-down’ communication of organizational core values. These findings suggest that leaders have an opportunity to both discover and communicate their organization’s higher purpose and to develop formal MBV practices that could allow higher purpose to be utilized as a beneficial strategic management resource.
    • Sport-Specific Arbitration in Canada: A Qualitative Investigation of Four Athletes' Perceptions of the Fairness of the Process

      Gardner, Peter C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      This thesis explored Canadian high performance Athletes' perceptions of the fairness of the SDRCC sport-specific arbitral process. Leventhal’s (1980) model of procedural justice judgment was found to be an effective tool for exploring Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process. Five of his six procedural justice antecedents: consistency, bias suppression, accuracy of information, representativeness, and ethicality influenced the Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process. Emergent data also revealed that the Athletes’ perceptions of fairness were also influenced by three contextual factors and an additional antecedent of procedural justice. Efficiency of the process, inherent power imbalance between Athletes and NSOs, and the measurable effect of the process on personal and professional relationships differentiate sport-specific arbitration from most other processes of allocation. The data also indicated that the opportunity to voice one’s case was also an important determinant of the Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process.
    • Staff Perceptions on the Qualities of Meaningful Relationships with Residents at End of Life in Long Term Care

      Attis, Leyla; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Long Term Care is a place where many people die, and it is the job of the staff members to assist the resident with their dying and death experience. A peaceful transition to death is largely dependent on the relationship between resident and staff members. In order to provide the best dying and death experience for the resident, I sought to explore staff perceptions on the qualities of a meaningful relationship with resident at the end of life. Using interpretive phenomenology as a qualitative research design and Heidegger’s (1962) concept of the lifeworld as a tool of analysis, I uncovered aspects of good ethical care by listening to the people who provide it. I completed a series of nine interviews and depicted staff perceptions of the qualities of their relationships with residents at the end of life. My data analysis uncovered three qualities of staff and resident relationship that positively influenced the dying and death experience for resident. These qualities are fearlessness, meaningful time and vulnerability. Furthermore, these findings reflect the mutual giving and receiving of care for both staff and resident throughout this relationship. Often this complex dynamic can be misunderstood or masked by what ministry standards tell us in how this relationship should look in LTC. My research exposes a different side of care at the end of life. With all the unknowns a resident is faced with at the end of life, the emotional relationship between resident and staff member can be the most comforting.
    • A Struggle Against the Odds: Understanding the Lived Experiences of Canadian Hockey League (CHL) Players

      Grygar, Victoria; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-09)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the experiences of Canadian Hockey League (CHL) players using a Foucauldian theory-based analysis. Specifically, this thesis contends that power relations between players and CHL hockey authorities need to be critically assessed. The CHL is the world’s leading developmental junior ice hockey league. Comprised of 1,400 hockey players, aged 15–21 years old on 60 teams through three divisions, the CHL is a primary supplier of talent for the National Hockey League. In the last year, several issues surrounding unjust practices within the CHL have been brought to the forefront, indicating that the potential for harassment, abuse, and exploitative practices are heightened in an organization such as the CHL, where profits are extracted from the labour of youth. Ultimately, this study is designed to contribute to both scholarly and public audiences, providing a critical analysis of the welfare of youth in the CHL.
    • Student Perspectives of the Context of Recess; Implications for Student Well-Being

      Dunseith, Ashley; Department of Child and Youth Studies (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      With most students in Canada spending approximately 180 days a year in school, averaging more than six hours a day (Morrison & Kirby, 2011), Wei, Szumilas and Kutcher (2011) argue that this places educational institutions in an unique position in terms of influencing the health and well-being of students. This brings forth the need for school environments to be utilized in ways that are conducive to promoting student development. Much of the educational and developmental components embedded within the school system as well as experiences within greatly influence student’s health and well-being. A national statement was made a concerning American children’s education and mental health that is greatly applicable to the Canadian school system. It was stated that schools “must be active partners in the mental health care of our children” because of the “important interplay between emotional health and school success” (Lazarus & Sulkowski, 2011, pp. 15-16). This identifies the need to ensure that all students, as much as possible, are being provided with safe environments and sufficient support in order to encourage positive developmental trajectories of student health and well-being.
    • A Study of Female Sport Fans with Respect to Fantasy Sport Participation

      Blain, Ben; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-01)
      Female sport fans make up ~40% of all North American big league sport fans. However, female sport fans make up only 20% of all fantasy sport participants. This study asked: why is there an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports? In order to answer this question, 35 female sport fans who do not participate in fantasy sports were separated into five focus groups to provide the data necessary for this study. Seven themes emerged to explain why there is an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports: lack of time, their friends do not play, negative associations, control versus escape, sport statistics, team versus player allegiances, and males acting as gatekeepers. Finally, four recommendations were made for those marketing fantasy sports to female sport fans: increase the overall awareness of fantasy sports, promote the social aspects of fantasy sports, streamline fantasy sports, and promote the ease of use.
    • A Study of NHL Fan Identification in Red Deer, Alberta

      Cipywnyk, Blair; Applied Health Sciences Program
      While there are many reasons sport fans choose to follow one team over another, geography is typically a major one, as people often follow their hometown team, or the team that is the closest (Rooney, 1974; 1975; Wann, 2006). However, limited academic attention has been given to situations where geographic proximity is likely to have little to no influence in the development of sport fan identification, and how individuals choose teams instead. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand how hockey fans chose their favourite team when two teams in two different cities are an equal distance away, and how they would maintain that fandom in the presence of the other team’s fans. Participants were recruited in Red Deer, Alberta, a city that is 84 miles or 135.2 km from both Edmonton and Calgary. Using Rooney’s (1974; 1975) spheres of influence for sport teams, Red Deer falls equally within the sphere for both teams. As a result of the equi-distance, however, it was assumed geographic proximity likely has little influence on fandom formation in Red Deer. Further, the constant threat of the rival group being in close proximity raises questions for how fans in Red Deer maintain their team fandom. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly identified fans of the Edmonton Oilers or Calgary Flames that were also lifelong residents of Red Deer. Geographic proximity proved to play no role, while family influence, team success, rebellious nature, and place attachment proved major factors in how fans in Red Deer choose between these two teams. Further, because the Oilers and Flames are traditional rivals dating back to the 1980s (Spector, 2015), and with Red Deer being caught in the middle, an assumption was made that rivalry would play a large role in fandom maintenance. However, that was not the case. Not only did rivalry not factor in fandom maintenance, but the rivalry was also seen as dead or dying by participants. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented and discussed.
    • A Study of Nonfans and Fans of the National Lacrosse League's Edmonton Rush

      Smith, Danielle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-01-27)
      The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is floundering. In an attempt to understand why NLL fans attend games and other sport fans do not, the NLL’s Edmonton Rush were studied. To best address the NLL’s attendance woes, two primary research questions were developed: 1) Why do fans of the Oilers and Oil Kings choose not to attend Edmonton Rush games? 2) Why do fans of the Edmonton Rush attend games? To answer these questions an online focus group along with a document analysis of Rush media, and a telephone interview were used to collect data. The data collection methods mentioned above assisted in answering the primary and secondary research questions, which allowed three major themes along with sub-themes to inductively emerge. The nonfans of the Rush do not attend Rush games because of the connection they have with hockey and the disconnection they have with lacrosse, some are simply not interested or were not entertained, as well as the lack of exposure the Rush receive. The Rush fan participants attend Rush games because of Edmonton community pride, the entertainment value they get out of attending a game, it is a great alternative new sport experience and it either is a substitute or a compliment to hockey. Both the nonfan and fan participants of this study believe that different marketing approaches can be utilized in order to attract nonfans to attend games.
    • A Study of One Living School Partnership

      Bylsma, Adam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-16)
      Abstract The purpose of this paper was to explore the ways one partnership evaluated its partners and relationships using Gray‟s model of collaboration (2000). The model consists of five approaches that are made up of: problem-focused, relational, cognitive, structural, and political. These approaches were tested at one „Living School‟ partnership that was constituted by a school, a public health department, the City‟s Park and Recreation Department, commercial enterprises, and organizations from the non-profit sector. Eight pre-arranged interviews were conducted using conversational interview technique, with three additional interviews on-site. The results of the research revealed that based on Gray‟s five approaches, this one Living School partnership was found to be successful. Consistent with partnership research, trust, social capital and structure were found to be key ingredients, as well as new themes of leadership, role clarity, and a shared vision were also found to be vital.
    • Sustaining Health Care Practice Change: The Experience of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations Implementing and Sustaining RNAO Best Practice Guidelines

      Schenck, Tracey; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Sustainability of change for improvement initiatives has been widely reported as a global challenge both within and outside health care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which factors related to staff training and involvement, staff behaviour, and clinical leaders’ and senior leaders’ engagement and support impact the long term sustainability of practice changes for BPSO health care organizations who have implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines. Semi structured interviews with eleven organizational leaders’ from ten health care organizations were conducted to explore the unique experiences, views and perspectives on factors related to staff, clinical leaders and senior leaders and their involvement and impact on the long term sustainability of clinical practice changes within organizations who had implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs). The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Further analysis identified patterns and themes in relation to: 1. The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model which was used as the theoretical framework for this research; and 2. Organizations found to have sustained practice changes longer term verses organizations that did not. Six organizations were found to have sustained practice changes while the remaining four were found to have been unsuccessful in their efforts to sustain the changes. Five major findings in relation to sustainability emerged from this study. First is the importance of early and sustained engagement and frontline staff, managers, and clinical leaders in planning, implementation and ongoing development of BPGs through use of working groups and champions models. Second is the importance of ongoing provision of formal training, tools and resources to all key stakeholders during and after the implementation phase and efforts made to embed changes in current processes whenever possible to ensure sustainability. Third is to ensure staff and management are receptive to the proposed change(s) and/or have been given the necessary background information and rationale so they understand and can support the need for the change. Fourth is the need for early and sustained fiscal and human resources dedicated to supporting BPG implementation and the ongoing use of the BPGs already in place. Fifth is ensuring clinical leaders are trusted, influential, respected and seen as clinical resources by frontline staff. The significance of this study lies in a greater understanding of the influence and impact of factors related to staff on the long term sustainability of implemented practice changes within health care organizations. This study has implications for clinical practice, policy, education and research in relation to sustainability in health care.
    • Teacher-Student Rapport: Investigating its Impact on the Dropout Rate in Physical and Health Education

      Temertzoglou, Ted; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This study was an investigation into whether strong teacher-student rapport relates to the drop-out rates of students in grade 9 and 10 health and physical education (HPE). In the study, One hundred and thirty-six grade 9 students from five high schools in Ontario participated in this study. Findings of whether or not rapport related to students’ decision to take an additional HPE credit beyond grade 9 did not prove conclusive. A significant multivariate interaction effect was not found; however, tests of between-subject effects on sex and grade 10 dropouts showed some interesting trends. More research is needed to further illuminate the link between teacher-student rapport and students’ enrollment in optional HPE classes.
    • A Temporal Analysis of Emotions in Girls' Secondary School Physical Education Games and Fitness Classes

      Muir, Amber; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-10-24)
      Female enthusiasm towards engaging in physical education (PE) significantly decreases with age as it provides females with positive and negative emotional experiences. This study examined emotions within four grade nine female PE soccer and fitness classes (N = 67). Emotional patterns were studied over time and across two units of instruction and in relation to student grades. A mixed-method approach was utilized assessing the state emotions of shame, enjoyment, anxiety, and social physique anxiety (SPA). Results revealed unsatisfactory internal consistency for shame and thus it was removed. Statistical analysis revealed no significant changes in emotions over time, whereas qualitative analysis found that state emotions were inconsistent. Statistical analysis indicated that students in the fitness classes reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and SPA on the final class (p < .01). Qualitative analysis signaled different origins and themes of students‟ emotions. No predictive relationship between emotion and students‟ grade was found.
    • Therapeutic Recreation Education in Canada: A Review of the Current Curriculum

      Ridgway, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-12-16)
      Abstract This descriptive study sought to identify the similarities and differences between the various educational institutions offering therapeutic recreation curriculum across Canada. The study utilized mixed methods, including open and closed-ended questions on a survey and document analysis. The research participants were from 14 educational institutions located across the nation. Results from this study identify similarities and differences in the curriculum used to prepare students pursuing a career in the TR field. Core competencies and standards of practice for the field of therapeutic recreation were defined and discussed. Accreditation and the accrediting bodies in the field of TR are reviewed because of their significant impact on curriculum. Implications regarding certification and regulation pertaining to the education for therapeutic recreation practitioners were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
    • Through Their Eyes: Exploring older adults’ experiences with an intergenerational project

      Rogers-Jarrell, Tia; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Canada’s aging population and intergenerational programs’ ability to encourage active aging point to the need for further support and encouragement for these programs. The purpose of this case study was to explore and understand, from an insider’s perspective, the lived experiences of six older adults who participated in an intergenerational project – Through Their Eyes. Three questions guided this inquiry: What are the experiences of older adults participating in the Through Their Eyes project? How did this experience influence their well-being? How did this experience influence their relationship to their community? I conducted critical qualitative research using semi-structured individual interviews, a focus group, a knowledge translation workshop, observations and field notes. The qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative and inductive analysis techniques. Analysis highlighted ‘opportunity’ as the central theme of the study. During a time in older adults’ lives when they are experiencing many losses, the Through Their Eyes project was an opportunity for gain. Specifically, the intergenerational project provided an opportunity for new relationships. There was a familial-type intimacy to the relationships older adults develop with students as participants’ often compared their student interviewers to their grandchildren. The Through Their Eyes project also offered a space and place for older adults to be heard regarding their community. Older adults wanted the information they provided for the project to help other aging adults in their community. Finally the intergenerational project added a joyful memory and experience for participants. When participants shared their thoughts on the Through Their Eyes project, it was clear that it was a joyful experience as all of them describe it as such. Findings illustrated that the Through Their Eyes project encouraged active aging and enhanced quality of life for participants by providing an opportunity for social participation and allowing them to remain active and engaged citizens. The Through Their Eyes project fostered social participation by establishing connections between generations, addressing social isolation and loneliness, and breaking down stereotypes and age barriers. The Through Their Eyes project allowed older adults to remain active and engaged citizens in their neighbourhoods by providing an important opportunity for reciprocity and a place for them to be listened to in regards to their community matters. Insights into practical implications based on the findings from this study and suggestions for future research in the area of intergenerational programs are identified.
    • Toward a grounded theory of trigger events and leadership development in early adulthood

      Hess, Daniel G.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      The purpose of this research study was to develop a conceptual model through the use of a grounded theory approach, which explains how trigger events are related to leadership development. Trigger events are experience that cause developmental growth and may result in an increased ability to lead (Luthans and Avolio (2003). In this study, there were two phases of data collection. First participants completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT), where their respective leadership developmental stage was measured. Second, participants were involved in two in-depth interviews where an understanding was reached as to how various trigger events have impacted their leadership development. From these data, a conceptual model was developed to explain the relationship between trigger events and leadership development. Participants described trigger events as being important developmental periods, during which time they grew as people and became more capable leaders.