• Removing Oneself from the Shadows: A Heuristic Inquiry to Understand the Lived Experience of Epilepsy in Young Adult Women and their Epilepsy Disclosure

      McGuire, Suzanne; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures (Stein & Kanner, 2009). The purpose of this study was to understand the essence of being a young woman living with epilepsy using heuristic inquiry (Moustakas, 1990). The research was built upon the assumption that each experience is unique, yet commonalities exist. Five women aged 22 to 28 years living with epilepsy were interviewed. Additionally, the researcher described her life with epilepsy. Participants characterized life with epilepsy as a transformative journey. The act of meeting and interacting with another woman living with epilepsy provided an opportunity to remove themselves from the shadows and discuss epilepsy. Three major themes of seizures, medical treatment, and social relationships were developed revealing a complex view of an illness requiring engaged advocacy in the medical system. Respondents frequently make difficult adjustments to accommodate epilepsy. This study provides a complex in-depth view of life with epilepsy.
    • Requisite Characteristics of a Mentor to Establish Positive Relationships in a Type One Diabetes Intervention from the Mentee’s Perspective

      Sjaarda, Vanessa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Diabetes has reached global epidemic proportions. Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) typically strikes in childhood and is now becoming more prevalent in young adults. Evidence suggests that proactive harnessing of the positive attributes of a peer-to-peer mentor-mentee relationship could help mediate and decrease prevalence, assist with better glycemic control, reverse nonadherence and provide psychosocial support and education to people with diabetes. Research Question: What are the requisite components of a mentor needed to establish an effective mentorship relationship in a peer-to-peer coaching intervention for young adults with type one diabetes from the mentee’s perspective? Methods: A qualitative research design was used with Sandelowski’s (2010) qualitative descriptive approach. The Right Who, Respect, Information gathering, Consistency, and Support (TRICS) model was used as a theoretical framework (Donlan et al., 2017). Sample: 20 young adults aged 18-30 with T1D were recruited through snowball sampling. One semi-structured interview was completed with each participant. Data Analysis: All interview data were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and managed through NVIVO. Findings/Discussion: Three themes were revealed in the data; 1) T1D is a personal journey through self-realization and acceptance; 2) inconsistencies in social support systems and 3) a mentor- is a companion on the journey. One supplemental theme highlights the perceived impact of COVID-19 on participants T1D. Conclusion: Individuals with T1D perceived there is value in cultivating a mentored form of peer support. Developing and evaluating a mentor/mentee dyad as a supportive intervention for T1D adults transitioning to adult care is the next step for future research.
    • Resilience in environmental educators

      Henderson, Kelly; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Contemporary environmental issues (such as global warming) can present psychological stress, the effects of which are under-examined. The ability to "bounce back" from stress associated with increasing environmental adversity can be understood as resilience, and can be found in some environmental educators. The following paper examines how veteran environmental educators respond to psychological stress to increasing environmental adversity and describes the experience of resilience. Through in-depth interviews, this hermeneutical study sheds light on the environmental factors and internal competencies that contribute to resilience in seven environmental educators. Additionally, the interaction (known as the person/environment transactional process) between these factors and competencies is explored, providing insight into how the participants construct resilience. Kumpfer's (1999) Resilience Framework provided the organizational framework for the results of this study. Findings suggest ways in which resilience in environmental educators can be supported and offers directions for future research.
    • Retrospective on the Experience of Parental Pressure and Support by Male Participants that Withdrew from Competitive Youth Hockey: A Phenomenological Investigation

      Schonewille, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-12-22)
      The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of parental pressure and support for males who withdrew from competitive youth hockey. A phenomenological approach was used to explore this phenomenon and develop meaning from the participants' experiences. Data for this study was collected by conducting one in-depth interview with each of the seven participants. Fourteen themes emerged as a result of the data analysis. These themes were grouped into three clusters: (1) Description of parental involvement: “I want them to be there and help me”; (2) Perceived impacts of parental involvement: “I felt like he actually cared”; and (3) Impact of parental involvement on commitment: “I kind of miss hockey now”. The descriptions provided by the participants in this study, and the themes that emerged, offer insight into what it is like for young males to experience parental involvement in competitive youth hockey.
    • Returning from the Wild: Exploring Participant's Experiences of Re-entry from Extended Wilderness Trips

      Cooper, Lucas; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-22)
      The experience of a strong sense of community developed while participating in extended wilderness expeditions is one of the most significant and meaningful experiences associated with taking part in this form of outdoor recreation. The experience of returning to a home community from an extended wilderness expedition is explored through the impacts associated with psychological sense of community (McMillian & Chavis, 1986; McMillian, 1996). A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the re-entry experiences of six individuals through the use of semi-structured interviews. Twelve main themes and seventeen subthemes emerged within the findings and illustrate a lack of preparation for the difficulties associated with re-entry, negative impacts associated with the experience of sense of community, and problems transferring aspects of a wilderness community into participant’s post-expedition lives.
    • Returning to Play after Concussion: A Phenomenological Study

      Da Costa, Kathleen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This study examines and describes athletes’ felt sense of readiness returning to play following a concussion. Analyses of the interviews yielded a description of each participant’s experiences with concussions. Descriptions of this phenomenon generated by informants provide a detailed account of the unique issues athletes face when returning to play following a concussion. Participants’ descriptions highlight that in order to play, an athlete knows that he/she ought to be emotionally and physically ready to play. However, the athletes in this study believe that there is not an actual test that can “prove” this and that they can choose to lie and/or cheat the tests to return to play while they are still symptomatic. Athletes, parents, coaches, and trainers will benefit from learning to be better educated on the severity of concussions, concussion detection, assessment and the serious health consequences that can result from playing with a concussion.
    • Rucking into New Territory: A Case-Study on the Experiences of Pioneer Female Club Rugby Players in Ontario

      Kovacs, Nicole; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The gender hierarchy found within sport has been reinforced through the use of traditional interpretations of masculinity, making sport a well-suited arena to examine gender inequity in its many forms. My thesis explores the challenges experienced by female pioneer rugby players in Ontario and their participation in a traditionally masculine sport. In order to explore the experiences of the female pioneer club players in Ontario, I conducted interviews with eight women and did multiple forms of content analyses. The analyses allowed me to describe the type of support the participants had and the barriers these female players encountered relative to their male counterparts of the era. My findings indicated that gender inequity, in both blatant and habit based manifestations, was at the forefront of the challenges endured by the pioneer players. Further research should investigate women’s involvement with the political and policy development aspects of the sport of rugby.
    • School Directors’ Perspectives of Physical Education in El Salvador: A Qualitative Case Study

      Pinch, Kelsey; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-03-02)
      Youth violence is El Salvador’s most imperative social, economic and health problem today. In an attempt to contribute to youth violence prevention in the country, humanistic physical education has been implemented within schools. Using case study methodology, this study examines twelve Salvadoran school directors’ perspectives of physical education and physical education as a mean of youth violence prevention. School directors’ perceive multiple benefits of physical education including those related to student’s social and emotional health. School directors recognize physical education as a means of reducing violence because it keeps youth busy and provides an outlet to release stress. Results are discussed in relation to long-term violence prevention literature. Results suggest that it would be beneficial for school directors to understand the theory and goals behind humanistic physical education in their schools. Research maintains the continuation of research in the field of humanistic physical education in relation to youth violence prevention.
    • The Search for Scholarly Teaching in Elementary Education

      Hancharyk, Steffannie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-07)
      Elementary teachers are expected to prepare students to work efficiently with others, solve complex problems and self-regulate their own learning. Considering the importance of a solid educational foundation in the early years, students would benefit if elementary teachers engaged in scholarly teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate Boyer’s (1990) four dimensions of scholarship, application, integration, teaching and discovery, to better understand if there is scholarly teaching in elementary education. Four professional teaching documents were analyzed using a hermeneutic orientation. A deductive analysis suggests that we do have scholarly teaching in elementary education, with strong evidence that elementary teachers are scholars of application and integration. An inductive analysis of latent and manifest content suggests that underlying humanistic values run deeply through elementary education driving current curricular, instructional and pedagogical practices.
    • Searching for Accommodations within the Ontario Criminal Justice System for Persons with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Views of Social Service Agency and Justice Professionals

      Stromski, Samantha; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Although persons with intellectual disabilities have been conceptualized as having rights to equality in Canada and internationally, there continue to be gaps in the delivery of justice when they are involved within the criminal process. The literature consistently reported that individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASDs) often experienced challenges within the justice system, such as difficulty understanding abstract legal concepts (Conry & Fast, 2009). In the Canadian legal system, accommodations are available to enable persons with disabilities to receive equal access to justice; however, how these are applied to persons with FASDs had not been fully explored in the literature. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with social service agency workers (n=10) and justice professionals (n=10) regarding their views of the challenges persons with FASDs experience in the justice system and their suggestions on the use of accommodations. The findings showed that while supports have been provided for individuals with intellectual disabilities, there has been a lack of specialized accommodations available specifically for individuals with FASDs in accessing their right to justice.
    • Self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey

      Morris-Tries, Deanna Elizabeth.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      The purpose of this cross sectional survey design was to examine self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Using a mail-out survey, entitled the Fort Erie Survey of Health (FESH), a probability cluster sampling technique was used to measure self-reported health status (present health, health conditions, health challenges, functional health limitations) and lifestyle behaviour (smoking, alcohol use, drug use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body weight, and gaming). Each variable was described and analyzed in relation to socio-economic variables, age and gender. The findings from this study were compared to the Canadian Community Health Survey 2000/2001. Overall, 640 surveys were completed. The majority of Fort Erie residents rated their present health as good and were satisfied with their overall health and quality of life. The main chronic conditions reported were arthritis, back pain and heart disease. Other main health problems reported were vision, sleeping and chronic pain. Overall, 14.6% smoke; 58.8% engaged in physical activity either occasionally or never as opposed to regularly engaging in physical activity; 52.1% did not eat the required daily fruits and vegetables; and 40.0% were in the overweight category. Persons who practiced one healthy lifestyle behaviour were more likely to practice other healthy promoting behaviours. Therefore, health promotion programs are best designed to address multiple risk factors simultaneously. The ffiSH was generally consistent with the Canadian Community Health Survey in the overall findings. A small number of inconsistencies were identified that require further exploration to determine if they are unique to this community.
    • Sex Talk: A Multiple Case Study to Explore and Understand Parent-Child Sexual Health Communication in Chinese Immigrant Families

      Brown, Sabrina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-02-07)
      Parent-child sexual health communication can be beneficial. Many factors affect such communication in Chinese immigrant families. This qualitative study explored the influences of acculturation, parenting, and parental participation in the Raising Sexually Healthy Children Program (RSHC) on such communication. With a hermeneutic framework, the purpose was to develop understanding based on the topic, context, and researcher interpretations. Twelve interviews elicited data from six parent-child dyads, three from the RSHC. Analysis involved coding processes; data were compared repeatedly and organized into themes. Perceived personality differences between generations were confounded with cultural communicative differences. Parents used implicitness observed in Chinese culture to establish "open" communication; children expected explicitness observed in Western culture. Post- RSHC, parents perceived themselves as more open to talking about sex; children did not perceive such parental changes. Future research should include joint interviews and longitudinal program evaluation. Future practice should focus on cross-cultural communication and involving children in RSHC.
    • Social comparison and body image in non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers

      Varga, Heather.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Body image refers to an individual's internal representation ofhis/her outer self (Cash, 1994; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). It is a multidimensional construct which includes an individual's attitudes towards hislher own physical characteristics (Bane & McAuley, 1998; Cash, 1994; Cash, 2004; Davison & McCabe, 2005; Muth & Cash, 1997; Sabiston, Crocker, & Munroe-Chandler, 2005). Social comparison is the process of thinking about the self in relation to others in order to determine if one's opinions and abilities are adequate and to assess one's social status (Festinger, 1954; Wood, 1996). Research investigating the role of social comparisons on body image has provided some information on the types and nature of the comparisons that are made. The act of making social comparisons may have a negative impact on body image (van den Berg et ai., 2007). Although exercise may improve body image, the impact of social comparisons in exercise settings may be less positive, and there may be differences in the social comparison tendencies between non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. The present study examined the nature of social comparisons that female collegeaged non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers made with respect to their bodies, and the relationship of these social comparisons to body image attitudes. Specifically, the frequency and direction of comparisons on specific tal-gets and body dimensions were examined in both non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Finally, the relationship between body-image attitudes and the frequency and direction with which body-related social comparisons were made for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers were examined. One hundred and fifty-two participants completed the study (n = 70 non or ill infrequent exercisers; n = 82 exercisers). Participants completed measures of social physique anxiety (SPA), body dissatisfaction, body esteem, body image cognitions, leisure time physical activity, and social comparisons. Results suggested that both groups (non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers) generally made social comparisons and most frequently made comparisons with same-sex friends, and least frequently with same-sex parents. Also, both groups made more appearance-related comparisons than non-appearance-related comparisons. Further, both groups made more negative comparisons with almost all targets. However, non or infrequent exercisers generally made more negative comparisons on all body dimensions, while exercisers made negative comparisons only on weight and body shape dimensions. MANOV As were conducted to examine if any differences on social comparisons between the two groups existed. Results of the MANOVAs indicated that frequency of comparisons with targets, the frequency of comparisons on body dimensions, and direction of comparisons with targets did not differ based on exercise status. However, the direction of comparison of specific body dimensions revealed a significant (F (7, 144) = 3.26,p < .05; 1]2 = .132) difference based on exercise status. Follow-up ANOVAs showed significant differences on five variables: physical attractiveness (F (1, 150) = 6.33,p < .05; 1]2 = .041); fitness (F(l, 150) = 11.89,p < .05; 1]2 = .073); co-ordination (F(I, 150) = 5.61,p < .05; 1]2 = .036); strength (F(I, dO) = 12.83,p < .05; 1]2 = .079); muscle mass or tone (F(l, 150) = 17.34,p < .05; 1]2 = 1.04), with exercisers making more positive comparisons than non or infrequent exercisers. The results from the regression analyses for non or infrequent exercisers showed appearance orientation was a significant predictor of the frequency of social comparisons N (B = .429, SEB = .154, /3 = .312,p < .01). Also, trait body image measures accounted for significant variance in the direction of social comparisons (F(9, 57) = 13.43,p < .001, R2adj = .68). Specifically, SPA (B = -.583, SEB = .186, /3 = -.446,p < .01) and body esteem-weight concerns (B = .522, SEB = .207, /3 = .432,p < .01) were significant predictors of the direction of comparisons. For exercisers, regressions revealed that specific trait measures of body image significantly predicted the frequency of comparisons (F(9, 71) = 8.67,p < .001, R2adj = .463). Specifically, SPA (B = .508, SEB = .147, /3 = .497,p < .01) and appearance orientation (B = .457, SEB = .134, /3 = .335,p < .01) were significant predictors of the frequency of social comparisons. Lastly, for exercisers, the results for the regression of body image measures on the direction of social comparisons were also significant (F(9, 70) = 14.65,p < .001, R2adj = .609) with body dissatisfaction (B = .368, SEB = .143, /3 = .362,p < .05), appearan.ce orientation (B = .256, SEB = .123, /3 = .175,p < .05), and fitness orientation (B = .423, SEB = .194, /3 = .266,p < .05) significant predictors of the direction of social comparison. The results indicated that young women made frequent social comparisons regardless of exercise status. However, exercisers m,a de more positive comparisons on all the body dimensions than non or infrequent exercisers. Also, certain trait body image measures may be good predictors of one's body comp~son tendencies. However, the measures which predict comparison tendencies may be different for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Future research should examine the effects of social comparisons in different populations (i.e., males, the obese, older adults, etc.). Implications for practice and research were discussed.
    • Social development of primary aged children through a movement education program

      Johnson, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Unique in Canada, is a university based movement program offered to children aged 1-12 which is diverse and inclusive in its design to foster healthy physical, cognitive, affective and social development. The purpose of this study is to investigate how children's involvement in a weekly movement education program influences their social development. The primary-aged children involved in this research are participants in the university based Saturday morning program, The Children's Movement Program (CMP), in which creative dance, educational gymnastics and developmental games are employed to enhance optimal development. The 15 participants were systematically observed for 8 weeks as they naturally engaged in the program's activities. Interviews were conducted with both children and their caregivers throughout the duration of the program. Particular attention was paid to the perceptions of caregivers regarding the advantages of a program based upon principles of movement education. Results indicate that participation in the program increases children's opportunity to interact socially and address ways in which program content, pedagogy and context encourage social development. A figure was developed with these components to assist teachers in creating inclusive and meaningful movement experiences. 'Content' is referred to as the material to be learned or the desired outcome for the learner. 'Pedagogy' refers to the process in which the student will engage and 'Context' refers to the environment in which the experience occurs (eg. skating rink with playground balls). It is recommended that each is thoroughly addressed individually for its potential in lesson design.
    • Socially Constructed Environmental Issues and Sport: A Content Analysis of Ski Resort Environmental Communications

      Spector, Sam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-04-02)
      Due to the impact of sport on the natural environment (UN, 2010), it is important to examine the interplay between environmental issues and sport (Hums, 2010, Mallen & Chard, 2011; Nauright & Pope, 2009; Ziegler, 2007). This research content analyzed 82 ski resort environmental communications (SRECs). These communications were rated for their prominence, breadth, and depth using the delineation of environmental issues provided by the Sustainable Slopes Program (SSP) Charter. This data was compared to the resorts’ degree of environmentally responsible action as rated by the Ski Area Citizens’ Coalition (SACC). An adaptation of Hudson and Miller's (2005) model was then used to classify the ski resorts as inactive, reactive, exploitive, or proactive in their environmental activities. Recommendations have been made for standardization and transparency in environmental disclosures and an environmental management system to aid ski resorts in moving from ad hoc processes to a systematic and comprehensive framework for improving environmental performance.
    • Sources of perceived support from friends in exercise : an application of self-determination theory /

      Muon, Sovoeun.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-09-23)
      Background: This study examined three social factors (i.e., autonomy support, structure, and involvement) and their relationship with the motivational processes proposed by Vallerand ( 1 997). This study explored sources of support for exercise participation. -~ ' Methods: Participants (N = 425) completed self-reported instruments which assessed variables outlined within Vallerand's ( 1 997) HMIEM. Results: Structural equation modeling analyses predicting the cognitive/affective and exercise behaviour accounted for 23 percent of variance in positive affect, 10 percent of variance in negative affect, 38 percent of variance in physical self-concept, and 4 percent of variance in exercise behaviour. Exploratory analyses revealed that friends, romantic partners, and educators to be consistent sources for providing autonomy support, structure, and involvement, f !,< r - r* Summary: This study is among the first to examine perceived sources oi autonomy support, structure, and involvement from friends in the exercise context and suggest such perceptions may contribute to motivating exercise behaviour in post-secondary students.
    • Sport Commitment in Wheelchair Basketball: An Interpretive Look into the Lives of Individuals with Physical Disabilities

      Lavigne, Joshua Robert; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      It is estimated that over 4.4 million people are living in Canada with a reported disability. Due to a number of risk factors associated with potential health concerns and sedentary lifestyles, it is important for people with physical disabilities to lead an active lifestyle. Recreation and leisure pursuits are a great outlet for this to take place. However, in order to gain the long terms benefits of these pursuits one must be committed to an activity. With the use of a collaborative interview method, with the Sport Commitment Model serving as the guiding framework, this study sought to find the underlying factors for continued participation for people with physical disabilities in wheelchair basketball. Through utilizing an interpretive approach it was found that enjoyment, social support, perceived ability and to some extent involvement opportunities, were the main contributors to overall commitment. Criticisms and suggestions for future research are also provided.
    • Sport for Development Organizations: An Analysis of Stakeholder Dynamics

      Hill, Abigail; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      Sport for Development (SFD) uses the power of sport to support international development initiatives that affect social change and empower under-resourced communities (Levermore, 2008a). Currently, there are more than 1,000 SFD organizations globally (Doyle, Payne, & Wolff, 2011) working to enact change and development initiatives in the least developed regions of the world. Stakeholders are key components of the long-term sustainability, development, and success of these SFD organizations. The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between SFD organizations and their stakeholders through the lens of social responsibility (SR). Through the analysis of interviews conducted with SFD leaders and their stakeholders, this research offers a modified version of Carroll’s (1979) four categories of SR. This modified version addresses the differences that exist with SFD stakeholder relationships from the perspectives of the organizations and their stakeholders. Further, broader implications will be discussed in terms of compatibility and long-term sustainability.
    • Sport Values of Bantam, Midget and Intermediate Female Hockey Players and Their Minor Hockey Associations

      Pitts, Sandra L; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The sport values of female hockey players and their minor hockey associations were explored to better inform a values-based approach for adult-managed minor hockey. Data were collected from 294 participatory HL and competitive Rep players (12-22 years of age) using the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire-2 and from 30 hockey association board members using a modified YSVQ-2. Results indicated player importance (VI) ratings for Moral (M = 4.08) and Competence (M = 4.15) values were not significantly different but were significantly higher than Status (M = 2.11) value. Significant weak relationships between age and competition level versus VI ratings were found. There were medium/ high Moral, medium/ low Competence and high/ high Status value congruence between Rep and HL Player-Board Members, respectively. Based upon the findings, girls’ minor hockey associations need to recognize the values female youth players prioritize, and ensure each is considered within a values-based decision-making approach to governance.
    • Sport, The Business of ________: Exploring Higher Purpose in a Professional Sport Organization

      Gwartz, Evan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Researchers have demonstrated that organizational leaders’ communication of an organizational higher purpose (i.e., a definition of ‘why the organization exists’) profoundly benefits organizational performance (Sisodia, Sheth, & Wolfe,2014); however, sport organizational scholars and leaders remain ambiguous in their definitions of why such organizations exist (Newman, 2014; Zeigler, 2007). Thus, the purpose of this research is to explore the presence and management of higher purpose in a professional sport organization. To fulfill this research purpose, a qualitative, single-site case study was used to study a professional sport organization, with data collection methods including employee interviews, observation of organizational artifacts and an analysis of organizational documents. These data were analyzed by creating typologies based upon two theoretical frameworks: (1) Mackey and Sisodia’s (2013) four types of higher purpose; and (2) Bell-Laroche, Maclean, Thibault and Wolfe’s (2014) 4-I Values Framework, to understand how leaders were managing higher purpose with Management by Values (MBV) practices. From this analysis, the organization’s higher purpose was found to be largely ambiguous; however, most stakeholders espoused The Good (i.e., service to others) as the predominant source of higher purpose. Secondly, leaders were found to informally and intuitively manage higher purpose through a ‘top-down’ communication of organizational core values. These findings suggest that leaders have an opportunity to both discover and communicate their organization’s higher purpose and to develop formal MBV practices that could allow higher purpose to be utilized as a beneficial strategic management resource.