• Student Perspectives of the Context of Recess; Implications for Student Well-Being

      Dunseith, Ashley; Department of Child and Youth Studies (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      With most students in Canada spending approximately 180 days a year in school, averaging more than six hours a day (Morrison & Kirby, 2011), Wei, Szumilas and Kutcher (2011) argue that this places educational institutions in an unique position in terms of influencing the health and well-being of students. This brings forth the need for school environments to be utilized in ways that are conducive to promoting student development. Much of the educational and developmental components embedded within the school system as well as experiences within greatly influence student’s health and well-being. A national statement was made a concerning American children’s education and mental health that is greatly applicable to the Canadian school system. It was stated that schools “must be active partners in the mental health care of our children” because of the “important interplay between emotional health and school success” (Lazarus & Sulkowski, 2011, pp. 15-16). This identifies the need to ensure that all students, as much as possible, are being provided with safe environments and sufficient support in order to encourage positive developmental trajectories of student health and well-being.
    • A Study of Female Sport Fans with Respect to Fantasy Sport Participation

      Blain, Ben; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-01)
      Female sport fans make up ~40% of all North American big league sport fans. However, female sport fans make up only 20% of all fantasy sport participants. This study asked: why is there an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports? In order to answer this question, 35 female sport fans who do not participate in fantasy sports were separated into five focus groups to provide the data necessary for this study. Seven themes emerged to explain why there is an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports: lack of time, their friends do not play, negative associations, control versus escape, sport statistics, team versus player allegiances, and males acting as gatekeepers. Finally, four recommendations were made for those marketing fantasy sports to female sport fans: increase the overall awareness of fantasy sports, promote the social aspects of fantasy sports, streamline fantasy sports, and promote the ease of use.
    • A Study of NHL Fan Identification in Red Deer, Alberta

      Cipywnyk, Blair; Applied Health Sciences Program
      While there are many reasons sport fans choose to follow one team over another, geography is typically a major one, as people often follow their hometown team, or the team that is the closest (Rooney, 1974; 1975; Wann, 2006). However, limited academic attention has been given to situations where geographic proximity is likely to have little to no influence in the development of sport fan identification, and how individuals choose teams instead. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand how hockey fans chose their favourite team when two teams in two different cities are an equal distance away, and how they would maintain that fandom in the presence of the other team’s fans. Participants were recruited in Red Deer, Alberta, a city that is 84 miles or 135.2 km from both Edmonton and Calgary. Using Rooney’s (1974; 1975) spheres of influence for sport teams, Red Deer falls equally within the sphere for both teams. As a result of the equi-distance, however, it was assumed geographic proximity likely has little influence on fandom formation in Red Deer. Further, the constant threat of the rival group being in close proximity raises questions for how fans in Red Deer maintain their team fandom. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly identified fans of the Edmonton Oilers or Calgary Flames that were also lifelong residents of Red Deer. Geographic proximity proved to play no role, while family influence, team success, rebellious nature, and place attachment proved major factors in how fans in Red Deer choose between these two teams. Further, because the Oilers and Flames are traditional rivals dating back to the 1980s (Spector, 2015), and with Red Deer being caught in the middle, an assumption was made that rivalry would play a large role in fandom maintenance. However, that was not the case. Not only did rivalry not factor in fandom maintenance, but the rivalry was also seen as dead or dying by participants. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented and discussed.
    • A Study of Nonfans and Fans of the National Lacrosse League's Edmonton Rush

      Smith, Danielle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-01-27)
      The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is floundering. In an attempt to understand why NLL fans attend games and other sport fans do not, the NLL’s Edmonton Rush were studied. To best address the NLL’s attendance woes, two primary research questions were developed: 1) Why do fans of the Oilers and Oil Kings choose not to attend Edmonton Rush games? 2) Why do fans of the Edmonton Rush attend games? To answer these questions an online focus group along with a document analysis of Rush media, and a telephone interview were used to collect data. The data collection methods mentioned above assisted in answering the primary and secondary research questions, which allowed three major themes along with sub-themes to inductively emerge. The nonfans of the Rush do not attend Rush games because of the connection they have with hockey and the disconnection they have with lacrosse, some are simply not interested or were not entertained, as well as the lack of exposure the Rush receive. The Rush fan participants attend Rush games because of Edmonton community pride, the entertainment value they get out of attending a game, it is a great alternative new sport experience and it either is a substitute or a compliment to hockey. Both the nonfan and fan participants of this study believe that different marketing approaches can be utilized in order to attract nonfans to attend games.
    • A Study of One Living School Partnership

      Bylsma, Adam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-16)
      Abstract The purpose of this paper was to explore the ways one partnership evaluated its partners and relationships using Gray‟s model of collaboration (2000). The model consists of five approaches that are made up of: problem-focused, relational, cognitive, structural, and political. These approaches were tested at one „Living School‟ partnership that was constituted by a school, a public health department, the City‟s Park and Recreation Department, commercial enterprises, and organizations from the non-profit sector. Eight pre-arranged interviews were conducted using conversational interview technique, with three additional interviews on-site. The results of the research revealed that based on Gray‟s five approaches, this one Living School partnership was found to be successful. Consistent with partnership research, trust, social capital and structure were found to be key ingredients, as well as new themes of leadership, role clarity, and a shared vision were also found to be vital.
    • Sustaining Health Care Practice Change: The Experience of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations Implementing and Sustaining RNAO Best Practice Guidelines

      Schenck, Tracey; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Sustainability of change for improvement initiatives has been widely reported as a global challenge both within and outside health care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which factors related to staff training and involvement, staff behaviour, and clinical leaders’ and senior leaders’ engagement and support impact the long term sustainability of practice changes for BPSO health care organizations who have implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines. Semi structured interviews with eleven organizational leaders’ from ten health care organizations were conducted to explore the unique experiences, views and perspectives on factors related to staff, clinical leaders and senior leaders and their involvement and impact on the long term sustainability of clinical practice changes within organizations who had implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs). The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Further analysis identified patterns and themes in relation to: 1. The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model which was used as the theoretical framework for this research; and 2. Organizations found to have sustained practice changes longer term verses organizations that did not. Six organizations were found to have sustained practice changes while the remaining four were found to have been unsuccessful in their efforts to sustain the changes. Five major findings in relation to sustainability emerged from this study. First is the importance of early and sustained engagement and frontline staff, managers, and clinical leaders in planning, implementation and ongoing development of BPGs through use of working groups and champions models. Second is the importance of ongoing provision of formal training, tools and resources to all key stakeholders during and after the implementation phase and efforts made to embed changes in current processes whenever possible to ensure sustainability. Third is to ensure staff and management are receptive to the proposed change(s) and/or have been given the necessary background information and rationale so they understand and can support the need for the change. Fourth is the need for early and sustained fiscal and human resources dedicated to supporting BPG implementation and the ongoing use of the BPGs already in place. Fifth is ensuring clinical leaders are trusted, influential, respected and seen as clinical resources by frontline staff. The significance of this study lies in a greater understanding of the influence and impact of factors related to staff on the long term sustainability of implemented practice changes within health care organizations. This study has implications for clinical practice, policy, education and research in relation to sustainability in health care.
    • Teacher-Student Rapport: Investigating its Impact on the Dropout Rate in Physical and Health Education

      Temertzoglou, Ted; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This study was an investigation into whether strong teacher-student rapport relates to the drop-out rates of students in grade 9 and 10 health and physical education (HPE). In the study, One hundred and thirty-six grade 9 students from five high schools in Ontario participated in this study. Findings of whether or not rapport related to students’ decision to take an additional HPE credit beyond grade 9 did not prove conclusive. A significant multivariate interaction effect was not found; however, tests of between-subject effects on sex and grade 10 dropouts showed some interesting trends. More research is needed to further illuminate the link between teacher-student rapport and students’ enrollment in optional HPE classes.
    • A Temporal Analysis of Emotions in Girls' Secondary School Physical Education Games and Fitness Classes

      Muir, Amber; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-10-24)
      Female enthusiasm towards engaging in physical education (PE) significantly decreases with age as it provides females with positive and negative emotional experiences. This study examined emotions within four grade nine female PE soccer and fitness classes (N = 67). Emotional patterns were studied over time and across two units of instruction and in relation to student grades. A mixed-method approach was utilized assessing the state emotions of shame, enjoyment, anxiety, and social physique anxiety (SPA). Results revealed unsatisfactory internal consistency for shame and thus it was removed. Statistical analysis revealed no significant changes in emotions over time, whereas qualitative analysis found that state emotions were inconsistent. Statistical analysis indicated that students in the fitness classes reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and SPA on the final class (p < .01). Qualitative analysis signaled different origins and themes of students‟ emotions. No predictive relationship between emotion and students‟ grade was found.
    • Therapeutic Recreation Education in Canada: A Review of the Current Curriculum

      Ridgway, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-12-16)
      Abstract This descriptive study sought to identify the similarities and differences between the various educational institutions offering therapeutic recreation curriculum across Canada. The study utilized mixed methods, including open and closed-ended questions on a survey and document analysis. The research participants were from 14 educational institutions located across the nation. Results from this study identify similarities and differences in the curriculum used to prepare students pursuing a career in the TR field. Core competencies and standards of practice for the field of therapeutic recreation were defined and discussed. Accreditation and the accrediting bodies in the field of TR are reviewed because of their significant impact on curriculum. Implications regarding certification and regulation pertaining to the education for therapeutic recreation practitioners were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
    • Through Their Eyes: Exploring older adults’ experiences with an intergenerational project

      Rogers-Jarrell, Tia; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Canada’s aging population and intergenerational programs’ ability to encourage active aging point to the need for further support and encouragement for these programs. The purpose of this case study was to explore and understand, from an insider’s perspective, the lived experiences of six older adults who participated in an intergenerational project – Through Their Eyes. Three questions guided this inquiry: What are the experiences of older adults participating in the Through Their Eyes project? How did this experience influence their well-being? How did this experience influence their relationship to their community? I conducted critical qualitative research using semi-structured individual interviews, a focus group, a knowledge translation workshop, observations and field notes. The qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative and inductive analysis techniques. Analysis highlighted ‘opportunity’ as the central theme of the study. During a time in older adults’ lives when they are experiencing many losses, the Through Their Eyes project was an opportunity for gain. Specifically, the intergenerational project provided an opportunity for new relationships. There was a familial-type intimacy to the relationships older adults develop with students as participants’ often compared their student interviewers to their grandchildren. The Through Their Eyes project also offered a space and place for older adults to be heard regarding their community. Older adults wanted the information they provided for the project to help other aging adults in their community. Finally the intergenerational project added a joyful memory and experience for participants. When participants shared their thoughts on the Through Their Eyes project, it was clear that it was a joyful experience as all of them describe it as such. Findings illustrated that the Through Their Eyes project encouraged active aging and enhanced quality of life for participants by providing an opportunity for social participation and allowing them to remain active and engaged citizens. The Through Their Eyes project fostered social participation by establishing connections between generations, addressing social isolation and loneliness, and breaking down stereotypes and age barriers. The Through Their Eyes project allowed older adults to remain active and engaged citizens in their neighbourhoods by providing an important opportunity for reciprocity and a place for them to be listened to in regards to their community matters. Insights into practical implications based on the findings from this study and suggestions for future research in the area of intergenerational programs are identified.
    • Toward a grounded theory of trigger events and leadership development in early adulthood

      Hess, Daniel G.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      The purpose of this research study was to develop a conceptual model through the use of a grounded theory approach, which explains how trigger events are related to leadership development. Trigger events are experience that cause developmental growth and may result in an increased ability to lead (Luthans and Avolio (2003). In this study, there were two phases of data collection. First participants completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT), where their respective leadership developmental stage was measured. Second, participants were involved in two in-depth interviews where an understanding was reached as to how various trigger events have impacted their leadership development. From these data, a conceptual model was developed to explain the relationship between trigger events and leadership development. Participants described trigger events as being important developmental periods, during which time they grew as people and became more capable leaders.
    • The Transfer of Wilderness Trips to the Everyday Lives of Young People: A Case Study

      Sayle, Hilary; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-02-22)
      There has been considerable research that investigates the outcomes, benefits, and perceptions of wilderness trip experiences. However, the transfer of learning from a wilderness trip to the everyday lives of youth trip participants, that has deliberately explored post-trip experience, is minimal. Using a qualitative multi-case study approach, methods of data collection included interviews with six youth program participants, six parents/legal guardians, and three program staff, as well as document solicitation. Reports from the participants suggested that the key content transferred to a post-wilderness trip context were interpersonal skills; life skills; and instances of personal growth. Participants applied their learning content from the wilderness trip to school; sports; community and international volunteering; work and career aspirations; family and home life; and social life contexts. Implications for adventure programming and curriculum design, instruction, and transfer are considered.
    • Understanding End-of-Life in a Long-Term Care Home: Perceptions of Bereaved Family Members

      Thoms, Shannon; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Rather than a natural aspect of life, adherence to the medical model within long-term care (LTC) homes has framed death as something to be avoided and a failure of the system. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to contribute to the ongoing discussion in the literature regarding the experience of dying and death in a LTC home from the perspective of bereaved family members. Interviews were conducted with eight family members who had a relative die in a LTC home within the preceding 12 months. Interviews with participants focused on their experiences while their relative approached the end-of-life, at the time of death, and after their death. My findings resulted in the overall theme of Respecting the Life and Death. Within this theme, I found that taking a compassionate approach to care; staff, families, and residents coming together for care; and the continuation of care all supported residents on their end-of-life journey. The findings of this research call attention to the multifaceted nature of dying beyond physiological care and work to address ways to provide quality end-of life care.
    • Understanding Network Governance: A Case Study Exploration of Active Canada 20/20

      Wu, Brandon R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-06)
      Consistent with the governance shift towards network forms of governance, a number of new social movements have formed in response to the declining levels of physical activity in the Western world. One such movement is Active Canada 20/20: A Physical Activity Strategy and Change Agenda for Canada. Network governance is employed as the theoretical framework for this case study exploration of Active Canada 20/20 and the political landscape surrounding its development and implementation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in addition to document/policy analysis and direct observations. Analysis of the data resulted in three overarching themes – the defining characteristics of network governance, the political landscape, and intersectoral linkages – that interconnect multifariously based the nature of the Canadian federal government and its relationship with the voluntary sector for physical activity. Despite progress in driving Active Canada 20/20 forward, entrenched dynamics of power need to be navigated within the political landscape surrounding network governance.
    • Understanding the Integration of Living Skills Through the Context of Health and Physical Education: A Case Study of Educators’ Experiences

      Weir, Jillian; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-19)
      The research presented is a qualitative case study of educators’ experiences in integrating living skills in the context of health and physical education (HPE). In using semi-structured interviews the study investigated HPE educators’ experiences and revealed their insights relative to three major themes; professional practice, challenges and support systems. Professional practice experiences detailed the use of progressive lesson planning, reflective and engaging activities, explicit student centered pedagogy as well as holistic teaching philosophies. Even further, the limited knowledge and awareness of living skills, conflicting teaching philosophies, competitive environments between subject areas and lack of time and accessibility were four major challenges that emerged throughout the data. Major supportive roles for HPE educators in the integration process included other educators, consultants, school administration, public health, parents, community programs and professional organizations. The study provides valuable discussion and suggestions for improvement of pedagogical practices in teaching living skills in the HPE setting.
    • "Unfreezing" Year-Round Programming: A Case Study of Organizational Change in Summer Camps

      Dabrowski, Hannah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The term summer camp does not often bring to mind tobogganing and ice skating, yet more and more frequently, summer camps are transitioning into programs capable of running year-round. This study aimed to examine both the formation and process of creating year-round programming within summer camps in Ontario. A descriptive case study was employed to uncover answers to the study’s research questions: (1) in what ways have camps become year-round programs? and (2) what has been learned by individuals involved in creating year-round programming? Interviews were conducted with camp directors from six camps who had created year-round programming. Narratives and themes were identified from the interviews with eight major themes highlighted. These eight themes were “inherited or donated,” “planning,” “correctly the first time,” “marketing,” “relationships,” “staffing,” “benefits to other seasons” and “financial justification.” Using Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step model of planned change, themes were characterized into one of Lewin’s stages of “unfreezing,” “changing,” and “refreezing.” Two themes did not pertain to one of Lewin’s stages, but were still relevant. Although listed individually, the themes were all connected in order to prescribe what may be an ideal process of creating year-round programming.
    • University Physical Education Students’ Understanding and Interpretation of Social Interaction as Part of a Meaningful Physical Education Experience

      Chee, Caleb Siang Heng; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The promotion of meaningful experiences is a primary way teachers can enact a transformative physical education (PE) curriculum for students (Kretchmar, 2006). Recent advances have led to a framework that outlines the following features of a meaningful experience: social interaction, challenge, fun, motor competence, delight, and personally relevant learning (Beni, Fletcher, & Ní Chróinín, 2017). This study examined how university physical education students understand, learn to articulate, and plan to enact positive social interaction as one feature of meaningful experiences in PE. The study took place in one undergraduate class where the instructor emphasized and articulated the components of positive social interaction. Participants (n = 10) took part in one or two individual interviews at the beginning and/or end of one academic term. Non-participant observations (5) of the class were conducted and exit slips (42) collected from students. Students had a basic understanding of positive social interaction at the first data collection point, whereby finding and making friends or encouraging one another were emphasized, which revealed a lack of sophistication in understanding. At the end of the course, students developed a deeper understanding of social interaction and its components, which they contributed to their teacher educator intentionally reflecting on positive social interaction and articulating the complexity of it with them, organizing inclusive class activities, and making an effort to develop meaningful relationships. This study is significant because it highlights the need for PE teacher education (PETE) instructors to be explicit in articulating and demonstrating ways in which social interaction can be understood, interpreted, and enacted.
    • Unpacking Pieces of a Puzzle: Understanding Obesity-Related Health Risk through Lifestyle Behaviours and Well-Being

      Brooks, Kimberly M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-26)
      The primary objective of this non-experimental study was to examine the differences based on obesity-related health risk in terms of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and well-being in adults. Participants (N = 50; Mage = 38.50, SDage = 14.21) were asked to wear a SenseWear Armband (SWA) across a seven day monitoring period followed by a questionnaire package. Using the National Institute of Health’s (1998) criteria, participants were classified as either least, increased, or high risk based on waist circumference and Body Mass Index scores. Differences between these classifications were found in the amount of time spent in active energy expenditure for bouts of ten minutes or more (p = .002); specifically between least and high risk (p < .05). No other differences (p > .05) emerged. Participants’ also perceived the SWA as a practical and worthwhile device. Overall, these findings provide practical applications and future directions for health promotional research.

      Cracknell, Janel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-03-24)
      Cognitive interviews were used to evaluate two draft versions of a financial survey in Jamaica. The qualitative version used a few open-ended questions, and the quantitative version used numerous close-ended questions. A secondary analysis based on the cognitive interview literature was used to guide a content analysis of the aggregate data of both surveys. The cognitive interview analysis found that the long survey had fewer respondent errors than the open-ended questions on the short survey. A grounded theory analysis then examined the aggregate cognitive data, showing that the respondents attached complex meanings to their financial information. The main limitation of this study was that the standard assessments of quantitative and qualitative reliability and validity were not utilized. Further research should utilize statistical methods to compare and contrast aggregated cognitive interview probe responses on open and close ended surveys.
    • Using Network Analysis to Understand and Advance Falls Prevention Services and Programs

      Dang, Phuc; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-22)
      The purpose of this study was to understand referral linkages that exist among falls prevention agencies in a southern Ontario region using network analysis theory. This was a single case study which included fifteen individual interviews. The data was analyzed through the constant comparative approach. Ten themes emerged and are classified into internal and external factors. Themes associated with internal factors are: 1) health professionals initiating services; 2) communication strategies; 3) formal partnerships; 4) trust; 5) program awareness; and 6) referral policies. Themes associated with external factors are: 1) client characteristics; 2) primary and community care collaboration; 3) networking; and 4) funding. Recommendations to improve the referral pathway are: 1) electronic database; 2) electronic referral forms; 3) educating office staff; and 4) education days. This study outlined the benefit of using network analysis to understand referral pathways and the importance of implementing strategies that will improve falls prevention referral pathways.