• Social comparison and body image in non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers

      Varga, Heather.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Body image refers to an individual's internal representation ofhis/her outer self (Cash, 1994; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). It is a multidimensional construct which includes an individual's attitudes towards hislher own physical characteristics (Bane & McAuley, 1998; Cash, 1994; Cash, 2004; Davison & McCabe, 2005; Muth & Cash, 1997; Sabiston, Crocker, & Munroe-Chandler, 2005). Social comparison is the process of thinking about the self in relation to others in order to determine if one's opinions and abilities are adequate and to assess one's social status (Festinger, 1954; Wood, 1996). Research investigating the role of social comparisons on body image has provided some information on the types and nature of the comparisons that are made. The act of making social comparisons may have a negative impact on body image (van den Berg et ai., 2007). Although exercise may improve body image, the impact of social comparisons in exercise settings may be less positive, and there may be differences in the social comparison tendencies between non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. The present study examined the nature of social comparisons that female collegeaged non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers made with respect to their bodies, and the relationship of these social comparisons to body image attitudes. Specifically, the frequency and direction of comparisons on specific tal-gets and body dimensions were examined in both non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Finally, the relationship between body-image attitudes and the frequency and direction with which body-related social comparisons were made for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers were examined. One hundred and fifty-two participants completed the study (n = 70 non or ill infrequent exercisers; n = 82 exercisers). Participants completed measures of social physique anxiety (SPA), body dissatisfaction, body esteem, body image cognitions, leisure time physical activity, and social comparisons. Results suggested that both groups (non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers) generally made social comparisons and most frequently made comparisons with same-sex friends, and least frequently with same-sex parents. Also, both groups made more appearance-related comparisons than non-appearance-related comparisons. Further, both groups made more negative comparisons with almost all targets. However, non or infrequent exercisers generally made more negative comparisons on all body dimensions, while exercisers made negative comparisons only on weight and body shape dimensions. MANOV As were conducted to examine if any differences on social comparisons between the two groups existed. Results of the MANOVAs indicated that frequency of comparisons with targets, the frequency of comparisons on body dimensions, and direction of comparisons with targets did not differ based on exercise status. However, the direction of comparison of specific body dimensions revealed a significant (F (7, 144) = 3.26,p < .05; 1]2 = .132) difference based on exercise status. Follow-up ANOVAs showed significant differences on five variables: physical attractiveness (F (1, 150) = 6.33,p < .05; 1]2 = .041); fitness (F(l, 150) = 11.89,p < .05; 1]2 = .073); co-ordination (F(I, 150) = 5.61,p < .05; 1]2 = .036); strength (F(I, dO) = 12.83,p < .05; 1]2 = .079); muscle mass or tone (F(l, 150) = 17.34,p < .05; 1]2 = 1.04), with exercisers making more positive comparisons than non or infrequent exercisers. The results from the regression analyses for non or infrequent exercisers showed appearance orientation was a significant predictor of the frequency of social comparisons N (B = .429, SEB = .154, /3 = .312,p < .01). Also, trait body image measures accounted for significant variance in the direction of social comparisons (F(9, 57) = 13.43,p < .001, R2adj = .68). Specifically, SPA (B = -.583, SEB = .186, /3 = -.446,p < .01) and body esteem-weight concerns (B = .522, SEB = .207, /3 = .432,p < .01) were significant predictors of the direction of comparisons. For exercisers, regressions revealed that specific trait measures of body image significantly predicted the frequency of comparisons (F(9, 71) = 8.67,p < .001, R2adj = .463). Specifically, SPA (B = .508, SEB = .147, /3 = .497,p < .01) and appearance orientation (B = .457, SEB = .134, /3 = .335,p < .01) were significant predictors of the frequency of social comparisons. Lastly, for exercisers, the results for the regression of body image measures on the direction of social comparisons were also significant (F(9, 70) = 14.65,p < .001, R2adj = .609) with body dissatisfaction (B = .368, SEB = .143, /3 = .362,p < .05), appearan.ce orientation (B = .256, SEB = .123, /3 = .175,p < .05), and fitness orientation (B = .423, SEB = .194, /3 = .266,p < .05) significant predictors of the direction of social comparison. The results indicated that young women made frequent social comparisons regardless of exercise status. However, exercisers m,a de more positive comparisons on all the body dimensions than non or infrequent exercisers. Also, certain trait body image measures may be good predictors of one's body comp~son tendencies. However, the measures which predict comparison tendencies may be different for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Future research should examine the effects of social comparisons in different populations (i.e., males, the obese, older adults, etc.). Implications for practice and research were discussed.
    • The journey towards comprehensive school health within an aboriginal community

      Matsumura, Lyndsey.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this research is to describe the journey towards Comprehensive School Health at two Aboriginal elementary schools. An advocate and a healthy schools committee were identified at both schools and were responsible for developing initiatives to create a healthy school community. A case study was used to gather an in-depth understanding of Comprehensive School Health for the two schools involved. As a researcher, I functioned within the role of a participantobserver, as I was actively involved in the programs and initiatives completed in both schools. The research process included: the pilot study, ethics clearance and distribution of letters of invitation and consent forms. Data collection included 16 semi-structured, guided interviews with principals, teachers, and stupents. Participant observations included sites of the gymnasium, classroom, playgrounds, school environments, bulletin boards as well as artifact analysis of decuments such as school newsletters, physical education schedules and school handbooks. The interviews were transcribed and coded using an inductive approach which involves finding patterns, themes and categories from the data (patton, 2002). Research questions guided the findings as physical activity, physical education, nutrition and transportation were discussed. Themes developed t~rough coding were teacherstudent interactions, cultural traditions, time constraints and professional development and were discussed using a Comprehensive School Health framework.
    • What gets plans off the shelf? : a multi-site case study of the factors influencing municipal recreation plan implementation

      Leone, Michelle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Municipalities that engage in recreation planning have the potential to use their resources more effectively. However, successful planning means getting the plan off the shelf and implemented. This study investigated the factors that influenced municipal recreation plan implementation in three municipalities. Interviews were conducted with eleven key informants (recreation directors, planning consultants, a city councillor, and members of plan steering committees). The findings of this study suggested that because the implementation of recreation plans occurs in a highly political environment, recreation professionals will need effective strategies to get their plans implemented and that implementation can be facilitated by developing or expanding strategies that: (l) build the power of the recreation department within the municipal government structure; (2) build support for recreation within the local community; and (3) build the political and organizational capacity in the recreation department.
    • Active living in municipal parks and recreation : a case study

      Stewart, Virginia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-01)
      If quality of life is an important recreation outcome, then municipal parks and recreation management's efforts have to change because:· Over one-third of all the little kids in schools will be diabetic in their lifetime if the trends we are looking at continue. The average loss of life is about 15 years, and there is an average reduction in quality oflife by about 20 years (Jackson, 2007). This thesis is about municipal parks and recreation, an agency that controls and limits physical activity opportunity. It is also about active living; from an ecological perspective, a multi-disciplinary approach to incorporate physical activity into more 111 people's daily lives. In particular, this thesis examines one case --'. the Donutville Case - . with the intent of providing an explanation of how municipal parks and recreation can advance its management efforts to improve health outcomes of people suffering from daily physical activity deficits. More specifically, how can the tension between external and internal environments to municipal parks and recreation be better balanced to affect the change needed? Given that changing the current social reality is through making decisions, decision-making functions connected with systems theory helps identify how recreation authorities can more effectively influence environmental physical activity determinants. , Sallis et al.' (2006) ·social ecological model provides the a priori focus on active living decision-making. An integrated analogous emerging logic model is developed and presented as an efficacious strategy for how municipal parks and recreation decisionmakers can affect change. Keywords: physical activity, benefits outcomes, healthy livable community, quality of life, systems thinking, social ecological model, deci~ion-making, logic modeling, municipal parks and recreation, active living.
    • Toward a grounded theory of trigger events and leadership development in early adulthood

      Hess, Daniel G.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      The purpose of this research study was to develop a conceptual model through the use of a grounded theory approach, which explains how trigger events are related to leadership development. Trigger events are experience that cause developmental growth and may result in an increased ability to lead (Luthans and Avolio (2003). In this study, there were two phases of data collection. First participants completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT), where their respective leadership developmental stage was measured. Second, participants were involved in two in-depth interviews where an understanding was reached as to how various trigger events have impacted their leadership development. From these data, a conceptual model was developed to explain the relationship between trigger events and leadership development. Participants described trigger events as being important developmental periods, during which time they grew as people and became more capable leaders.
    • Bullying in physical education : its prevalence & impact on the intention to continue secondary school physical education

      Hurley, Vanessa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying in physical education and its influence on students' intention to participate in the class in the future. Additionally, the study researched the relationship between bullying and body image as well as bullying and physical competency in physical education. A survey was utilized that collected both quantitative and qualitative data about students' experiences in physical education. Two-hundred and thirty-four grade 10 students (144 female and 90 male) from 8 different secondary schools participated in the study. Data analyses were completed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results showed thaLapproximately 18.3% of respondents had .experienced physical bullying in physical education; 23.7% had experienced verbal bullying; and 20.4% experienced social bullying. Furthermore, those who experienced frequent bullying in physical education did not intend on taking the class in the future. The relationship between body image and bullying was not found to be significant. However, physical competence was found to significantly predict bullying in physical education. These results show how prevalent bullying is in physical education classes and how it negatively impacts future participation in the class.
    • The interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) by the IOC/Olympic Games 1994-2008

      Paquette, Justine; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to examine the interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) within the Olympic 11 Movement. Two research questions guided the inquiry - first, how has the concept of ES been defined by the International Olympic Committee (lOC), and second, how has the concept of ES been defined and enacted by the Organizing Committees ofthe Olympic Games (OCOGs)? During the past two decades, the International Olympic Committee (lOC) established several policies and programs related to ES. Its actions reflect a broader trend of environmentalism within economic and social spheres around the world (Milton-Smith, 2002). Despite the numerous initiatives, the Olympic Games continue to cause significant environmental damage. Frey, et al. (2007) argued that the Olympic Movement contradicts the fundamental premises of ES because the Games are hosted in a two week time period, are situated in a confined area, and accumulate operating and infrastructure costs in the billions of dollars. Further, Etzion (2007) stated "there is positive and significant correlation between firm siz~ and environmental performance" (p. 642) and in the context of the Olympics the sizeimpact relation is striking. Since 1972, the year the UN launched its international environmental awareness efforts, the Summer Olympics grew to 201 nations (39% increase), 10,500 athletes (32% increase), 28 sports (30% increase), and 302 events (43% increase) (Johnson, 2004; Girginov & Parry, 2005; Upegui, 2008). The proliferation of Games activities counters the ES principles that exist within many of the IOC declarations, policies and programs.
    • Evaluation of a professional development curriculum in movement education and adapted physical activity for invisible disabilities : a critical cross-case analysis

      Hardman, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Movement education and adapted physical activity are content areas not addressed in pre-service education or in-service training for Ontario practitioners working with individuals with disabilities in physical environments. Consequently, physical activity is often overlooked by service providers in programming and intervention for exceptional young learners. A formative evaluation, multiple-case study design was employed in this research in which a purposeful sample of expert practitioners performed a guided, descriptive evaluation of a three-day professional development workshop curriculum designed to supplement these areas lacking in professional preparation within their respective cohorts. Case-by-case and comparative analyses illustrated the inherent assumptions and societal constraints which prioritize the structure of professional development within the education system and other government organizations providing services for school-aged persons with disabilities in Ontario. Findings, discussed from a critical postmodern perspective, illustrate the paradoxical nature of Western values and prevailing mind/body dichotomy that guide professional practice in these fields.
    • Leisure connections : a case study to understand facilitation techniques with survivors of trauma

      Greig, Carrie L.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Leisure-based therapy is a potentially effective approach to supporting survivors of trauma in their healing. The purpose ofthis qualitative case study was to describe the recreation therapist's facilitation techniques of Leisure Connections, a unique leisurebased psycho-educational group for survivors of trauma, and explore how the facilitation was experienced by participants. Qualitative case study design, following the methods of Yin (1994) was used. One two week, three session Leisure Connections group was observed. Six participants completed the Group· Therapy Alliance Scale (pinsof & Catherall, 1986) and reflection cards. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the recreation therapist and four participants. Six themes emerged describing group leader interventions, recreation therapist's actions, recreation therapist's preparation and reflections, group members' experience of a therapeutic alliance, group cohesion, and prior influences and assumptions. Therapeutic alliance and group cohesion were influenced by the recreation therapist's group leader interventions (drawing out, processing, protecting) and actions. The context of the group within a therapeutic community milieu was an important influence.
    • Analyzing the learning of the taking personal and social responsibility model within a new physical education undergraduate degree program in El Salvador

      Andre, Mauro Henrique; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      EI Salvador presents an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggle nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 as a program to combat youth violence throughout the re-formulation of physical education (PE) classes in public schools, promoting life skills learning that supports the resolution of conflicts with nonviolent ways. In 2007, SEI supported the creation of a physical e~ucation teacher education (PETE) degree at the Universidad Pedag6gica de EI Salvador (UPES), having the goal to assist pre-service teachers with a better understanding of humanistic principles. The present research analyzed if after attending all three years ofUPES PETE program, students presented high self-perception levels of competence and confidence related to attitude, skills and knowledge to teach PE within humanistic principles. Taking Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) was the theoretical framework used to analyze the development of humanistic principles. The study had a mixed-method longitudinal design that included questionnaires, reflection templates and interviews. In conclusion, although it is suggested that UPES should provide better support for the development of the teaching principles of empowering students and transfer learning, most of the humanistic principles were highly promoted by the program. At last, it is suggested that future research should track teachers' progress while teaching in schools, in order to analyze if the theory of promoting humanistic principles have also become a daily practice.
    • Moving from values inaction to values-in-action : an exploration of how values can be managed intentionally by national sports organizations

      Bell-Laroche, Dina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      The study examined the intentional use of National Sport Organizations' (NSOs) stated values. Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) was applied to an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach of interviewing NSO senior leaders. One intention of this research was to foster a connection between academia and practitioners, and in so doing highlight the gap between values inaction and values-in-action. Data were collected from nine NSOs through multiple-case studies analysis of interview transcripts, websites, and constitutional statements. Results indicated that while the NSOs operated from a Management by Objectives (MBO) approach they were interested in exploring how Management by Values (MBV) might improve their organization's performance. Eleven themes from the case studies analysis contributed to the development of a framework. The 4-1 framework described how an NSO can progress through different stages by becoming more intentional in how they use their values. Another finding included deepening our understanding of how values are experienced within the NSO and then transferred across the entire sport. Participants also spoke about the tension that arises among their NSO' s values as well as the dominant values held by funding agents. This clash of values needs to be addressed before the tension escalates. Finally, participants expressed a desire to learn more about how values can be used more intentionally to further their organization's purpose. As such, strategies for intentionally leveraging values are also suggested. Further research should explore how helpful the 4-1 framework can be to NSOs leaders who are in the process of identifying or renewing their organization's values.
    • A phenomenological approach to understanding the psychological response to chronic low back pain

      Aymar, Matthew; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex health problem of psychological manifestations not fully understood. Using interpretive phenomenological analysis, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted to help understand the meaning of the lived experience of CLBP; focusing on the psychological response to pain and the role of depression, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance behavior, anxiety and somatization. Participants characterized CLBP as persistent tolerable low back pain (TLBP) interrupted by periods of intolerable low back pain (ILBP). ILBP contributed to recurring bouts of helplessness, depression, frustration with the medical system and increased fear based on the perceived consequences of anticipated recurrences, all of which were mediated by the uncertainty of such pain. During times of TLBP all participants pursued a permanent pain consciousness as they felt susceptible to experience a recurrence. As CLBP progressed, participants felt they were living with a weakness, became isolated from those without CLBP and integrated pain into their self-concept.
    • Opioid poisoning and availability of specialized medical care in Ontario, 2002-2006

      Veldhuizen, Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      The prescription of opioid analgesics has risen sharply in North America over the past two decades. This increase has been accompanied by a rise in overdoses. The present study draws on administrative data collected from emergency department contacts to describe the epidemiology of opioid overdose in Ontario b~tween 2002 and 2006 and to examine the role of regional variation in availability of specialist care. The number of poisonings increased from 1250 (10.9 per 100,000) in FY2002 to 1816 (15.2 per 100,000) in FY2005. Local concentration of specialist physicians was significantly associated with the incidence of opioid overdose, inversely at most levels of availability, but positively at very high levels. Regional variation in incidence was also associated with demographics, median family income, and the rate of other drug poisonings. Policy options for limiting opioid-related harms are limited, but improvements in monitoring and clinical management may prove valuable.
    • Association between adolescent leisure, peer social capital and academic performance among Canadian youth

      Szybla, Barbara; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      Previous research shows discrepant findings between youth leisure programming (before and after school programs, structured summer program, day camp, overnight camp), academic performance and other youth developmental outcomes. Studies underscores the importance of family, community and school social capital in educational success of youth, investigation of peer social capital in the leisure context and academic performance outcomes is limited. This study uses a sample of 10 and 11 year olds (N=1764) from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) Cycle 6, to study the association between youth leisure programming, peer social capital and academic performance. Ordinal logistic regression models consistently showed a positive association between overnight camp and academic performance even after controlling for determinants of health, and measures of family, school and community social capital. Similarly, the measure of peer social capital was positively associated with academic performance. Most importantly, the interaction between overnight camp participation and peer social capital was significantly associated with academic performance. Study findings, highlight overnight camp opportunities and peer social
    • A Study of Nonfans and Fans of the National Lacrosse League's Edmonton Rush

      Smith, Danielle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-01-27)
      The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is floundering. In an attempt to understand why NLL fans attend games and other sport fans do not, the NLL’s Edmonton Rush were studied. To best address the NLL’s attendance woes, two primary research questions were developed: 1) Why do fans of the Oilers and Oil Kings choose not to attend Edmonton Rush games? 2) Why do fans of the Edmonton Rush attend games? To answer these questions an online focus group along with a document analysis of Rush media, and a telephone interview were used to collect data. The data collection methods mentioned above assisted in answering the primary and secondary research questions, which allowed three major themes along with sub-themes to inductively emerge. The nonfans of the Rush do not attend Rush games because of the connection they have with hockey and the disconnection they have with lacrosse, some are simply not interested or were not entertained, as well as the lack of exposure the Rush receive. The Rush fan participants attend Rush games because of Edmonton community pride, the entertainment value they get out of attending a game, it is a great alternative new sport experience and it either is a substitute or a compliment to hockey. Both the nonfan and fan participants of this study believe that different marketing approaches can be utilized in order to attract nonfans to attend games.
    • Deception in Sport: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis

      Pfleegor, Adam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-03)
      In 1973, Kathleen Pearson offered a pivotal first step into understanding deception in competitive sport and its many intricacies. However, the analysis falls short of truly deciphering this widespread phenomenon. By creating a taxonomy based on Torres (2000) understanding of various types of skills in an athletic contest, a wider array of deceptive practices are encompassed. Once the taxonomy is put forth, weighing the categories against the three-pronged ethical permissibility test established utilizing elements from formalism, conventionalism and broad internalism sheds lights on what deceptive practices should be deemed ethically permissible for use and which tactics should not be a part of an athlete’s repertoire. By understanding which categories of deception are permissible, the most fair and athletically excellent contest can be created between the opposing players of teams.
    • Managing Volunteers in Canadian Community Sport Organizations

      Mrak, Joel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-17)
      This study examined the use of human resource management (HRM) practices with volunteers in Canadian Community Sport Organizations (CSOs). Using the Volunteer Management Inventory (VMI; Cuskelly, Taylor, Hoye & Darcy, 2006), 219 leaders of associations in basketball, curling, ice hockey, skating, skiing, swimming, and volleyball participated in this study and identified current trends in HRM practices and perceived issues in the retention of volunteers. Data collected was analyzed using mean and descriptive statistics, T-tests, ANOVAs, and regression analyses. Results indicate that there is a varying use of HRM practices amongst the organizations, and also a significant correlation between the use of HRM practices and the retention of volunteers, particularly board members. Implications and future research directions are discussed regarding how HRM practices and principles may be applied to CSOs.
    • The Development of a Survey to Assess the Type of Capacity within Nonprofit Sport Organizations

      Morrison, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The topic of organizational capacity and organizational capacity-building has gained importance among Canadian nonprofit sport organizations. This is illustrated by practitioners calling for increased attention to the capacity-building matters of nonprofit organizations, and two critical Canadian federal government documents outlining strategic direction for the nonprofit sport sector. Consequently, the purpose of this quantitative research study was to develop a valid and reliable survey to categorize nonprofit sport organizations into capacity types identified by Stevens (Stevens, 2006). This quantitative research study offers a preliminary development towards achieving a reliable and valid tool for assessing types of nonprofit sport organizational capacity. This research provides interesting insight into what capacity means by organizing the all-encompassing literature into an easy to understand framework. In addition, it sets the stage for future researchers to build upon this survey development process to achieve a reliable and valid capacity measuring tool.
    • The Relationship between Participation in an Exercise Program and Body Image in Post-Menopausal Women Self-Reporting Osteoporosis

      Willmott, Karlene; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The current study investigated body image differences in post-menopausal women who self-reported having (SRO) or not having (SRN) osteoporosis and the impact of a 16-week exercise program on body image in these groups. Participants completed a measure of body image, and were randomly assigned to a 16-week exercise program or control group, stratified by self-reported osteoporosis status. After 16 weeks, they completed the same body image measure. There were no differences in body image between the two osteoporosis groups. The exercise intervention had a positive impact on body image for both the SRO and SRN groups. The exercise groups showed increases in fitness and health orientation and body areas satisfaction from baseline to 16-weeks, while the non-exercise group showed decreases in appearance and health evaluation, health orientation and body areas satisfaction. The results suggest an exercise program for post-menopausal women can lead to improvements in body image, regardless of osteoporosis status.
    • Patterns and correlates of tobacco use among young adults at college and university

      Kirkwood, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      This thesis describes college and university students' smoking behaviours and examines whether socioenvironmental and personal characteristics experienced during adolescence are differentially associated with their smoking participation. Results show more college students than university students currently smoke (37% and 21 % respectively) and more began smoking prior to post-secondary school (93% and 84% respectively). Early age of onset of alcohol use increased the odds of current smoking (main effect model, OR = 8.56 CI = 6.47, 11.33), especially for university students (interaction effect model, b = 2.35 CI = 7.50, 14.64). Lower levels of high school connectedness were associated with increased odds of current smoking but for university students only (interaction effect model, b = -0.15 CI = 0.84, 0.88). While limitations associated with convenience sampling and low response rate exist, this is the first Canadian study to examine college and university students separately. I t reveals that tobacco control programming needs to differ for college and university students, and early alcohol prevention and school engagement programs for adolescents may influence tobacco use. Given that both educational pathway and use of tobacco are associated with SES, future research may consider examining in more detail, SES-related socioenvironmental variables.