• Brand Associations of Minor Hockey Tournaments: Understanding the Rep Hockey Parents' Perspective

      Wigfield, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Tournaments and other hockey-related activities have been calculated to be a significant driver of tourist dollars for many regions across Canada. The competition to attract teams to participate in tournaments, which benefit the tournament organizers and the communities in which they reside, is significant. Consequently, the purpose of the study was to assess the brand associations that representative (rep) minor hockey parents from Ontario’s Greater Golden Horseshoe Region perceive as relevant when considering ideal tournaments for their child to participate in. Brand associations have been classified as the attributes, benefits, or attitudes one uses to develop a perception of a product or service. To investigate the current study, 30 interviews were conducted using a laddering interview technique. Findings indicate that there are seven attributes and nine benefits that impact a tournament’s brand association including: competition, tournament operations, accommodations, bonding, fun, parity, and time management. The interrelationship between the identified attributes and benefits is discussed while recommendations and directions for future research are presented.
    • Breaking down barriers: An analysis of pre-service health and physical education teachers’ beliefs and preparation for working with LGBTQ students

      McCaughey, Colin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In this research, I investigate the values, beliefs and preconceived notions teachers of health & physical education (H&PE) possess as they educate LGBTQ students. H&PE teachers hold a significant responsibility to create safe spaces for LGBTQ students, as PE and sport are contexts in whch LGBTQ students feel especially vulnerable, due to the pervasive cultures of hyper-masculinity and conservatism (Linghede & Larsson, 2017). Yet, little is known about how these teachers are prepared to work with LGBTQ students. In response, my research provides an opportunity for pre-service H&PE teachers to describe their feelings of preparedness and their values, beliefs and preconceived notions to working with this population. Information gathering and analysis was accomplished through a qualitative methodology. Four pre-service H&PE teachers where recruited to partake in three semi-structured interviews utilizing a past, present and future structure. Through this process, three main findings were generated. First, this group of pre-service H&PE teachers possessed varying beliefs in working with LGBTQ students. Secondly, many of the participants articulated a commitment to inclusionary practices. Third, the participants believe that their formal university experiences have not prepared them to teach issues relating to gender and sexuality. As such, participants have taken it upon themselves to learn effective strategies through their own research and personal experiences. Implications for school H&PE, teacher development and future avenues of research are discussed in light of these findings.
    • Bullying in physical education : its prevalence & impact on the intention to continue secondary school physical education

      Hurley, Vanessa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying in physical education and its influence on students' intention to participate in the class in the future. Additionally, the study researched the relationship between bullying and body image as well as bullying and physical competency in physical education. A survey was utilized that collected both quantitative and qualitative data about students' experiences in physical education. Two-hundred and thirty-four grade 10 students (144 female and 90 male) from 8 different secondary schools participated in the study. Data analyses were completed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results showed thaLapproximately 18.3% of respondents had .experienced physical bullying in physical education; 23.7% had experienced verbal bullying; and 20.4% experienced social bullying. Furthermore, those who experienced frequent bullying in physical education did not intend on taking the class in the future. The relationship between body image and bullying was not found to be significant. However, physical competence was found to significantly predict bullying in physical education. These results show how prevalent bullying is in physical education classes and how it negatively impacts future participation in the class.
    • Can a Manipulated Mind Alter Matter? : The Effects of Verbal Feedback on Self-Efficacy, Exercise Intention, and Exercise Behaviour among Low-Active College-Aged Women

      Oda, Christyn J. Y.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-11-05)
      Self-efficacy (SE), a person’s confidence in the ability to perform a task, is an important predictor of the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. The present study examined the effects of SE manipulated through verbal persuasion on exercise intentions and behaviour during a 4-week follow-up period and investigated the role of social physique anxiety (SPA) as a moderator. Female college infrequent exercisers (n = 66) were randomly assigned into one of three groups (high-efficacy [HE], low-efficacy [LE], or control) and asked to complete several questionnaires at baseline. The HE and LE groups were provided with positive and negative exercise adherence feedback, respectively. The HE group reported higher SE from pre- to post-feedback. Both the HE and LE groups reported increases in exercise behaviour at the 4-week follow-up. Pre- to post-feedback changes in SE, exercise intention, and exercise behaviour did not depend on level of SPA reported.
    • Can Mixed Martial Arts be Ethically Defended?: Autonomy, Paternalism and the Harm Principle

      Kent, Cody; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      Abstract Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) founded in 1993 have been under scrutiny for the past two decades. Unlike boxing, the ethical status of MMA and whether it is morally defensible have rarely been analyzed in the academic literature. I argue that MMA requires such an analysis because it is inherently violent. The purpose of this study was to examine elite-level MMA by referring to the ethical concepts of autonomy, paternalism and the Harm Principle. Findings from interviews with MMA athletes as well as my personal experience of MMA were presented to establish a deeper understanding of the sport and what it means to train and compete in a sport defined as violent. The conceptual analysis and findings of MMA athletes' experiences in this investigation resulted in the conclusion that MMA is ethically defensible. Additional findings, implications and recommendations for further research were also discussed.
    • The Canada Not For Profit Corporations Act: Perceived impact on the governance of federal sport organizations

      Jacobs, Benjamin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This thesis examined the impact of the Canada Not-for-Profit Corporations Act (2009) on the governance of national sport organizations (NSO). The impact of the legislation was explored through the perceptions of NSO executive leaders and by analyzing the by-laws in effect before the legislation. The legislation was perceived to have the greatest impact on enhancing accountability, specifically affecting membership categories and director selection. The interview data showed that the legislation was necessary to enhance accountability in many NSOs. The Respondents also demonstrated that they understood the goals sought through the legislation. The data also showed that the boards of NSOs were already in alignment with the goals of the legislation. With respect to governance, the data indicated that NSOs rely almost exclusively on their regional sport associations as voting stakeholders. An emerging issue that came out of the results was the role of athletes in the governance of sport organizations.
    • Canadian curling coaches' use of psychological skills training

      Paquette, Kyle J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Hom's (2008) model of coaching effectiveness proposes a series of direct relationships between the beliefs and values of coaches, their behaviours, and the perceptions of their athletes. One specific area of coaching behaviour that is in need of more research is their use of psychological skills training (PSn. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the beliefs and behaviours of curling coaches with respect to PST, and the perceptions of their athletes. In collaboration with the Canadian Curling Association, data was collected from a national sample of 115 curling teams with varying levels of competition and experience. One hundred and fifteen coaches completed PST attitude (SPA-RC-revised) and behaviour (MSQ-revised) measures, while 403 athletes completed two perception measures (CCS and S-CI). Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to ensure intra-team consistency. All ICCs were positive, ranging from r =.39 to .56, and significant at the p < .01 level. A series of multiple regressions were performed. Three of the four regression models were significant, with coaches' PST behaviours accounting for 16% of the variance in athletes' evaluation of their coaches' competencies (GeC). The models for athletes' PhysicalSport Confidence (P-SC) and Cognitive-Sport Confidence (C-SC) accounted for 15% and 36% of the variation, with GCC and coaches' PST behaviours both being significant predictors of the models. After statistically controlling the influence of GCC, coaches' PST behaviours accounted for 3% and 26% of the variation in athletes P-SC and C-SC. These results provide partial support for Hom's (2008) model of coaching effectiveness, and offer new insight into the benefits of coaches' use of sport psychology-related training behaviours.
    • A Canadian Perspective on the ‘NCLEX-RN World’: Pragmatism When the Stakes are High

      Podwinski, Kerri Ann; Applied Health Sciences Program
      According to the Ontario nursing regulatory body, the American-designed high stakes nursing licensure examination, the NCLEX-RN, is a valid measure to assess the Canadian entry-to-practice competencies requisite of each new graduate registered nurse. This examination is used to “…ensure that it grants registration only to those who demonstrate the nursing knowledge to provide safe care” (para. 1). However, limited research exists that explores, examines and evaluates the impact of the NCLEX-RN in Canada since adoption from the United States of America in January 2015. Particularly, no studies existed that explored the experiences and perceptions of practicing Registered Nurses (RNs) who have written the NCLEX-RN, outside of the first-year test-takers. This thesis document describes the findings of a collective case study to better understand the NCLEX-RN, as experienced by six Canadian RNs from both acute and non-acute healthcare environments in Ontario, Canada. A within-case, document, and cross-case thematic analysis was used. The participants described their experiences with, and perceptions about, the NCLEX-RN within four main themes – influencing preparedness; examining the Canadian RN; becoming ready for safe practice; and reflecting as a practicing RN. The findings of this study support existing literature that a lack of content reflective of Canadian healthcare values exists in the NCLEX-RN. The educational impact and consequences of high stakes testing such as, curricular molding to external evaluation and concerns related to exam validity, are also highlighted. Presently, Canadian nurse educators and future test-takers must approach the NCLEX-RN pragmatically to ensure licensure of graduates with minimal disruption to the Canadian baccalaureate nursing education.
    • A Case Study of Disengaged Students' Experiences with Teaching Games for Understanding

      Bracco, Elizabeth Marie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this research study was to determine if the instructional model, Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), would allow for the successful teaching of sport to disengaged female students in Physical Education (PE) classes. An instrumental case study research design was used to determine grade nine female students’ experiences with TGfU, the factors of TGfU that facilitated their engagement, and the ways in which these students resisted engaging in TGfU. Data was collected through a pre and post TGfU unit focus group, participant observation, in-depth interviews, and researcher reflections. Results showed that TGfU caused an increase in the participants’ engagement in PE physically, mentally, and socially/emotionally. Future researchers could structure their entire study holistically and should examine TGfU’s impact on student engagement over the course of an entire semester. Subsequent studies should moreover examine the presence of disengagement within physically skilled students in PE.
    • A Case Study of the Implementation of Experiential Education in Yukon K-12 Schools

      Chinnick, Jarod; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-06)
      This qualitative case study explored the process of implementing Experiential Education (EXED) in Yukon Territory Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) schools with a particular focus on investigating: (a) understandings of EXED and the drivers behind its implementation, (b) factors contributing to EXED’s suitability for Yukon schools, and (c) factors supporting and challenging the implementation of EXED in Yukon schools. Data collection involved interviews with Yukon Department of Education (YDE) staff members, principals and teachers, document collection, and reflective note collection. Findings indicated that EXED was understood as more of a methodology than a philosophy for teaching and learning. EXED implementation was primarily driven by bottom-up (school/ teacher) initiatives and was secondarily supported by top-down (YDE) efforts. The process of implementation was supported by three main factors and was challenged primarily by six factors. The results also pointed to three factors that made EXED suitable for implementation in Yukon schools.
    • A case study of the implementation of experiential education in Yukon K-12 schools

      Chinnick, Jarod R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (2012-07-05)
      This qualitative case study explored the process of implementing Experiential Education (EXED) in Yukon Territory Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) schools with a particular focus on investigating: (a) understandings of EXED and the drivers behind its implementation, (b) factors contributing to EXED's suitability for Yukon schools, and (c) factors supporting and challenging the implementation of EXED in Yukon schools. Data collection involved interviews with Yukon Department of Education (YDE) staff members, principals and teachers, document collection, and reflective note collection. Findings indicated that EXED was understood as more of a me~odology than a philosophy for teaching and learning. EXED implementation was primarily driven by bottom-up (school! teacher) initiatives and was secondarily supported by top-down (YDE) efforts. The process of implementation was supported by three main factors and was challenged primarily by six factors. The results also pointed to three factors that made EXED suitable for implementation in Yukon schools.
    • A case study of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry : standards and risks

      Howard, Ryan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This qualitative case study identifies and discusses the standards and risk management practices of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry and the impacts of the government enforced Special-purpose Vessels Regulations are discussed. Data collection occurred using a single case study design, which included interviews and document analysis. This study found that internal, industry, and actual standards are influenced through a variety of sources. These standards were found to affect the risk management practices of commercial whitewater rafting providers. In general, these standards promoted a high level of risk management within the Ottawa Valley rafting industry. The Special-purpose Vessels Regulations were found to be non-influential in raising the risk management standards of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry.
    • Challenging Weight Loss: The Effectiveness of a 12 Week Weight Loss Challenge on Weight Loss, Physical Activity and Motivation

      Blais, Louise; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12 week weight loss intervention in a commercial fitness centre on body mass index (BMI), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and behavioural regulations consistent with Organismic Integration Theory (OIT, Deci & Ryan, 2002). The intervention group received weekly coaching sessions and bi-weekly seminars designed to increase MVPA and improve dietary intake. The results of the mixed model analyses of variance showed a significant within-subjects main effect for BMI (F = 3.57, p = .04). Changes in MVPA were not observed over time or between conditions. Changes in behavioural regulations congruent with OIT (Deci & Ryan, 2002) favoured the intervention condition. Study results indicate that 12 week weight loss challenges in commercial fitness centres may be effective to support the internalization process of exercise behavioural regulations but ineffective at producing sustainable weight loss or behavioural changes.
    • Climbers' perceptions toward sustainable bouldering at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

      Thompson, Jeremy; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Currently, there are a variety of concerns about the future of bouldering, a form of rock climbing, a t the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve near Niagara Falls, Ontario due to environmental impacts at the site. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions ofbouldering participants toward sustainable bouldering practices at the Niagara Glen. The methodological framework for this study was based on action research, which attempts to solve specific problems through having people in a community study, discuss, and act on those problems. Five separate focus group interviews elicited data from nineteen men and seven women, while there were twenty one men and ten women observed through participant observations at the Niagara Glen. Analysis was conducted through coding processes where data were compared repeatedly and then organized into themes. From the open coding process, two main themes were identified and interpreted as 1) Barriers to Sustainable Bouldering at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve, and 2) Environmental and Social Role and Responsibility ofBoulde r ing Participants at the Niagara Glen. The implications of the findings include a variety of recommendations for the bouldering community and the Niagara Parks Commission to consider for future collaborative planning. Some of these recommendations include more open communication between all stakeholders at the Glen, additional leadership from local climbing access coalitions and the Niagara Parks Commission, and greater implementation of minimum impact practices from the bouldering community. Additionally, these implications are discussed through a three-part framework based on a conceptual intersection of sense of place, community empowerment, and sustainable recreational use as a way to potentially unify the bouldering community's voice and vision toward sustainable practice.
    • Coaching Abuse Experiences in Young Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: An Ethical Appraisal

      Clark, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Artistic gymnastics coaches continue to face criticism stemming from the training requirements they place on their young gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to discover and examine coaching abuse experiences of young elite female artistic gymnasts, and provide an ethical appraisal of such abuse using two distinct moral frameworks. Six semi-structured interviews were conducted with former elite artistic gymnasts. Data analysis was guided by phenomenological methods and a textural description of the phenomenon was created. Findings revealed that gymnasts’ experienced forms of physical, sexual and emotional abuse from their coaches, and attributed these experiences in part to a lack of coaching education. Furthermore, the shared experiences of the gymnasts were not consistent when two moral frameworks were applied to the data. Based on the ethical implications of coaching abuse in elite female gymnastics, recommendations for mitigating coaching abuse toward young female gymnasts and future research were also discussed.
    • Collegiate volleyball players' need fulfillment, balance and well-being

      Oster, Kristin G.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Proponents of Basic Needs Theory (BNT; Deci & Ryan, 2002) contend that the mechanism underpinning psychological well-being is the fulfillment of basic psychological needs with their fulfillment addressed in an independent (Deci & Ryan, 2002) or balanced manner (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006). The purpose of this investigation was to explore the associations between the fulfillment of basic psychological needs and two forms of psychological well-being, namely hedonic and eudaimonic indices. Employing purposive sampling and a cross-sectional design, collegiate volleyball players (N = 219; nfemales = 127) completed a battery of self-report instruments assessing psychological need satisfaction and well-being toward the mid-to-end portion oftheir competitive season. Aligned with BNT (Deci & Ryan, 2002) tenets and study hypotheses, results demonstrated that basic psychological need fulfillment was associated with psychological well-being in the context of volleyball. Albeit minimal, balanced need fulfillment was generally predictive of well-being indices beyond independent need contributions with suppressor effects noted. In sum, the results of the present investigation generally coincide with previous sport based BNT (e.g., Reinboth & Duda, 2006) and balanced need satisfaction (e.g., Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006) literature. Additional BNT support has been garnished and suggests that the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness may be targeted as the mechanisms to facilitate athletes' psychological well-being. Along with Ryan and Deci's (2007) recommendations, the outcomes of this investigation highlight the need for further empirical study ofBNT's tenets in the realm of sport including assessments of balanced need satisfaction as well as varied hedonic and eudaimonic indices.
    • Community and the Recognition of the Other: A Levinasian Examination of The City, Inc. 1987-1992

      Saray, Nicholas; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      This case study examines how The City, Inc.’s work within North and South Minneapolis, Minnesota neighborhoods from 1987 and 1992 was framed within a compilation of articles drawn from prominent Twin Cities’ daily newspapers. Positioned within a conceptual framework based on the ethical philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas, this study explores how the idea of community, as constructed and reinforced through organizational initiatives and local print media, impacts the everyday relationships of those within and between communities. Framed within a discourse analysis, Levinasian ethics considers what aspects of community discourse restrict and oppress the relation with the other. The study concludes by suggesting how the identified aspects of conditional belonging, finding the trace, and building community can be valuable in offering an alternative to assessment-style research by considering the relationship and responsibility of the one for the other.
    • Community, School and Sport: Experiences of Male Youth from Rexdale

      Girdler, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-03-02)
      This research study used an interview-based methodology to examine the schooling and sport experiences of racialized male youth from Toronto’s Rexdale community. Situated in the city’s northwest end, this marginal space is home to a highly racialized, economically disadvantaged and inordinately criminalized populace. Although the media continues to essentialize members of the community by propagating a prejudiced, homogenous, predictable, and largely taken-for-granted discourse that constructs the community as ‘other’, Rexdale exhibits vast diversity and offers its male youth a variety of opportunities and experiences. In discussions with participants it was revealed that the intersections of race, class and gender have substantial impacts on the ways in which Rexdale’s male youth experience their community, schools and sport. More specifically, Rexdale’s Black male youth regularly exhibit great resistance against oppression within their community and schools. As a result of these experiences their participation in sport can carry heightened significance.
    • A comparison of self-determined motivational experiences between participants and non-participants following the physical activity component of the CATCH Kid Club

      Depner, Andrew; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The CATCH Kids Club (CKC) is an after-school intervention that has attempted to address the growing obesity and physical inactivity concerns publicized in current literature. Using Self-Determination Theory (SDT: Deci & Ryan, 1985) perspective, this study's main research objective was to assess, while controlling for gender and age, i f there were significant differences between the treatment (CKC program participants) and control (non- eKC) groups on their perceptions of need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and optimal challenge after four months of participation and after eight months of participation. For this study, data were collected from 79 participants with a mean age of9.3, using the Situational Affective State Questionnaire (SASQ: Mandigo et aI., 2008). In order to determine the common factors present in the data, a principal component analysis was conducted. The analysis resulted in an appropriate three-factor solution, with 14 items loading onto the three factors identified as autonomy, competence and intrinsic motivation. Initially, a multiple analysis of co-variance (MANCOY A) was conducted and found no significant differences or effects (p> 0.05). To further assess the differences between groups, six analyses of co-variance (ANeOY As) were conducted, which also found no significant differences (p >0 .025). These findings suggest that the eKC program is able to maintain the se1fdetermined motivational experiences of its participants, and does not thwart need satisfaction or self-determined motivation through its programming. However, the literature suggests that the CKe program and other P A interventions could be further improved by fostering participants' self-determined motivational experiences, which can lead to the persistence of healthy PA behaviours (Kilpatrick, Hebert & Jacobsen, 2002).
    • CONFIDENT HEALTHY ACTIVE ROLE MODELS: Blending Teaching Personal & Social Responsibility (TPSR) and Arts-based education with Underserved Youth

      Petrachenko, Julian; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The Teaching Personal & Social Responsibility model espoused by Hellison (2011) has immense fluidity in its applications and methods. This suggests that it would have potential as a partner with an equally fluid approach, Artography informed arts-based education. It is this partnership that animates this project. Using a qualitative, hermeneutic, constructivistic lens and a case study approach, this study’s multiple levels of analysis across several data sets yielded findings suggesting synergies between the life skills framework TPSR and Artography-informed arts-based education and how these synergies are used effectively when teaching a blend of TPSR and arts-based approaches in the context of the Confident Healthy Active Role Models (CHARM) program. The findings demonstrate that the synergies between the two frameworks can be used effectively in the CHARM program to support participants and students in learning and thriving in an environment that values the needs of the individual balanced with the needs of the collective.