• The Perceptions of Kinesiologists of Ethics and Professionalism as Established by the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario

      Denyes, Chad; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-02)
      As of April 1, 2013 kinesiology became a regulated health profession in Ontario. With its own governing body, the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario (CKO), there are new ethical and professional standards to which kinesiologists must adhere. The purpose of this study is to investigate kinesiologists’ thoughts and perceptions regarding the CKO’s Practice Standards, Guidelines and Code of Ethics, and their level of ethical knowledge and training. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with kinesiologists. Interview data was analyzed through the development of general themes. Findings revealed that kinesiologists are confident of their ethical decision making skills but are in need of more ethical and professional education and training in order to become respected healthcare professionals in the healthcare community and in the eyes of the public. Furthermore, there were key areas identified in need of improvement regarding the quality of the Practice Standards, Guidelines and Code of Ethics. Additional findings, implications and recommendations for future research were also discussed.
    • Personal Support Workers' Experience of Collaboration in a Long-Term Care Facility in Rural Ontario

      Hoogeveen, Kathryn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The growing complexity of healthcare needs of residents living in long-term care necessitates a high level of professional interdependence to deliver quality, individualized care. Personal support workers (PSWs) are the most likely to observe, interpret and respond to resident care plans, yet little is known about how they experience collaboration. This study aimed to describe PSWs’ current experiences with collaboration in long-term care and to understand the factors that influenced their involvement in collaboration. A qualitative approach was used to interview eight PSWs from one long-term care facility in rural Ontario. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: valuing PSWs’ contributions, organizational structure, and individual characteristics and relationships. Collaboration was a difficult process for PSWs who felt largely undervalued and excluded. To improve collaboration, management needs to provide opportunities for PSWs to contribute and support the development of relationships required to collaborate.
    • A Phenomenological Analysis of Chronic Pain Self-Management

      Richmond, Rachel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-management is a poorly understood concept from both the academic and patient perspectives. Within the literature it is known as a vague concept which is often mistaken for other terms such as self-care and self-help. The ambiguity surrounding self-management in academia is then transferred to patients through their physicians. Living with a debilitating, invisible condition, such as chronic pain, can force patients to self-manage their conditions. This study set out to not only to define this concept and those related to it, but also to understand the meanings persons with chronic pain ascribe to their self-management. A literature search as well as qualitative interviews were conducted to explore, with more depth, the meanings that participants associate with the phenomenon of self-managing their chronic pain. Five themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: Doctors, Getting Through the Day, Being Limited, My Hidden Burden, and What’s Next. Chronic pain proved to be a controlling factor in the lives and decisions of all participants. Overall the self-management behaviours that participants found the most useful, other than medication, were relaxing behaviours that reminded them of their childhood and families.
    • A phenomenological approach to understanding the psychological response to chronic low back pain

      Aymar, Matthew; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex health problem of psychological manifestations not fully understood. Using interpretive phenomenological analysis, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted to help understand the meaning of the lived experience of CLBP; focusing on the psychological response to pain and the role of depression, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance behavior, anxiety and somatization. Participants characterized CLBP as persistent tolerable low back pain (TLBP) interrupted by periods of intolerable low back pain (ILBP). ILBP contributed to recurring bouts of helplessness, depression, frustration with the medical system and increased fear based on the perceived consequences of anticipated recurrences, all of which were mediated by the uncertainty of such pain. During times of TLBP all participants pursued a permanent pain consciousness as they felt susceptible to experience a recurrence. As CLBP progressed, participants felt they were living with a weakness, became isolated from those without CLBP and integrated pain into their self-concept.
    • A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Experiences of Men Who Work in Maternal-Newborn Nursing Positions

      Biletchi, Jeff; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-02-24)
      The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of men who choose to work in maternal-newborn nursing roles. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of six male nurses who worked in maternal-newborn settings using a semi-structured guide. Four themes emerged: Motivation and Influences in Career Choice, Barriers to Developing Caring Confidence as Maternal-Newborn Nurses, Surviving as Men in Maternal-Newborn Nursing, and The Invisible Norms Associated with Men in Maternal-Newborn Nursing. The study generated meaning surrounding career selection and addressed motivating factors such as role modeling, life experience, and passion for the area of specialization or convenience. There is importance in understanding the experiences of men who choose to work in maternal-newborn nursing roles. Thus, this research has implications for nursing, practice, education, and research, particularly with nursing leadership, policy makers, educators, guidance counselors, and men considering maternal-newborn nursing roles.
    • Physical Activity and the Entanglement of Meaning Making for Females

      Lovett, Jane; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      This research takes a phenomenological approach through narratives to investigate the meanings females attribute to their experiences with physical activity. Nine females across the age ranges of 10-80 were asked to share three meaningful physical activity stories. These experiences could be positive or negative in nature as long as they were reflective of a meaningful experience for the participant. The aim of the research was to explore the types of physical activity experiences that females find meaningful. The results indicate that participants perceived the following to be meaningful within their experience: social support, benefits to personal health and well-being, recognition and acknowledgment, empowerment, body control, early positive experience and identity formation. Participants’ stories offered an enlightened understanding of the meanings active females associate with physical activity across their lifespans that perhaps can assist in formulating and developing strategies to encourage and promote involvement in physical activity.
    • A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Inquiry on Transhuman Athletes and Gene Doping in Sport

      Meshki, Rand; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Gene doping is the most recent addition to the list of banned practices formulated by the World Anti-doping Agency. It is a subset of doping that utilizes the technology involved in gene therapy. The latter is still in the experimental phase but has the potential to be used as a type of medical treatment involving alterations of a patient‘s genes. I apply a pragmatic form of ethical inquiry to evaluate the application of this medical innovation in the context of sport for performance-enhancement purposes and how it will affect sport, the individual, society and humanity at large. I analyze the probable ethical implications that will emerge from such procedures in terms of values that lie at the heart of the major arguments offered by scholars on both affirmative and opposing sides of the debate on gene doping, namely fairness, autonomy and the conception of what it means to be human.
    • Profiling young carers' lives: An examination of individual, family, and social contexts

      Lakman, Yana; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Young carers (YCs) who provide prolonged care for ill, disabled, or addicted family member(s) face a tremendous risk for negative developmental trajectories when remaining hidden (Charles, Stainton, & Marshall, 2009; Charles, 2011; Cass, 2007). Despite a growing recognition of YCs, understanding how providing care impacts a young person is not fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate circumstantial, family, and individual factors which may be associated with YCs’ caregiving role. By comparing YCs to a normative sample, a comprehensive YC profile was formed. A secondary comparative analysis was conducted on 124 YCs (72 females and 52 males, Mage = 12) and a normative sample (n = 124) matched on YCs’ age, gender, and number of siblings within the family. Unique attributes of the YC population were discussed, thereby creating a YC profile. Future research may be able to use this profile to promote identification and recognition of YCs.
    • Promoting father involvement in breastfeeding

      Hansen, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Fathers influence mothers’ decisions to breastfeed and for how long they intend to breastfeed. Previous studies have found that positive breastfeeding outcomes are associated with fathers providing any type of supportive behavior. Above other types of support, responsive behaviours sensitive to the mother’s needs are more likely to increase exclusive breastfeeding significantly longer. This study tested the feasibility of an intervention that provided a one-time 60-minute session to an all-fathers group about the breastfeeding team and the effect of the fathers’ satisfaction with the education in terms of fathers’ breastfeeding support behaviours. This study was carried out in a maternity hospital in Canada where an average of 1,500 infants are born each year. Twenty fathers from a variety of ethnic backgrounds received this learning. The group was led by a male facilitator as some research suggests that men prefer to learn from their male peers. The facilitator was trained using the Father Breastfeeding Involvement Group: Facilitator Manual. The average session lasted approximately 60 minutes with an average group of two participants. The fathers discussed ways they could practice responsive behaviours unique to their partner and infant as an active member in the breastfeeding team. The fathers reported high satisfaction rates of attending the session and that the session created a comfortable atmosphere to share their thoughts openly. Second time fathers highly enjoyed the session finding it a valuable, informative refresher. The fathers liked the convenience of attending a session in hospital before their infant was discharged home. At one month, fathers completed the Partner Breastfeeding Influence Scale to determine the amount of specific involvement they practiced. There was a positive relationship between fathers’ overall satisfaction with the session and reports of greater father breastfeeding support behaviours. One limitation of this study is the small sample size. Data collection was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic because nonessential research was abruptly stopped within a few weeks of the program’s commencement. However, the fathers were interested and enjoyed the session, providing evidence that a larger number of participants was feasible. This knowledge can be used in planning future father involvement in breastfeeding interventions.
    • Psychographic characteristics of weekend wine tourists : a multiple case study of four wineries in the Niagara Region

      Dougan, Robert A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-11-04)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the psychographic (product attributes, motivation opinions, interest, lifestyle, values) characteristics of wine tourists along the Niagara wine r,~ute, located in Ontario, Canada, using a multiple case study method. Four wineries were selected, two wineries each on the East, and West sides of the wine route during the shoulder-season (January, February, 2004). Using a computer generated survey technique, tourists were approached to fill out a questionnaire on one of the available laptop computers, where a sample ofN=321 was obtained. The study findings revealed that there are three distinct wine tourist segments in the Niagara region. The segments were determined using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a K-means cluster analysis: Wine Lovers, Wine Interested, and Wine Curious wine tourists. These three segments displayed significant differences in their, motivation for visiting a winery, lifestyles, values, and wine purchasing behaviour. This study also examined differences between winery locations, on the East and West sides of the Niagara wine route, with respect to the aforementioned variables. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the regions with respect to these variables. The findings suggest that these differences present opportunities for more effective marketing strategies based on the uniqueness of each region. The results of this study provide insight for academia into a method of psychographic market segmentation of wine tourists and consumer behaviour. This study also contributes to the literature on wine tourism, and the identification of psychographic characteristics of wine tourists, an area where little research has taken place.
    • A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Causality Assessment in Early Phase Oncology Clinical Trials: A Phenomenological Study

      Torti, Jacqueline; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Research Question: What are the psychosocial factors that affect causality assessment in early phase oncology clinical trials? Methods: Thirty-two qualitative interviews were explicated with the aid of “Naturalistic Decision Making”. Data explication consisted of phenomenological reduction, delineating and clustering meaning units, forming themes, and creating a composite summary. Participants were members of the National Cancer Institute of Canada’s Clinical Trial Group Investigative New Drug committee. Results: The process of assigning causality is extremely subjective and full of uncertainty. Physicians had no formal training, nor a tool to assist them with this process. Physicians were apprehensive about their decisions and felt pressure from their patients, as well as the pharmaceutical companies sponsoring the trial. Conclusions: There are many problem areas when attributing causality, all of which have serious consequences, but clinicians used a variety of methods to cope with these problem areas.
    • A Quantitative Study of Social Capital Components, Self-Reported Health Status and Social Determinants of Health

      Cudmore, Karen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-09-18)
      This quantitative descriptive co-relational study used telephone survey interviews and stratified random sampling to collect data related to Social Capital (SC) and its components (trust and safety, reciprocity, civic engagement and collective action) and selected determinants of health variables in Niagara Region, Canada. Among the four components of social capital, trust and safety levels were highest among all participants (m=5.42, SD=1.0), with community engagement yielding the lowest mean score for the sample (m=1.93, SD=.8). Reciprocity had the strongest association with all other components of SC (r=0.51). Those most likely to report low levels of SC and health were unattached and low-income females. Males were more likely to report higher trust and safety levels and higher levels of self-rated health. In this study, a linear relationship between self-reported health status and SC was not found. Marital and employment status were associated with differences in mean scores of SC and self-reported health.
    • Registered Nurses' Perceptions about Facilitators and Barriers to Maternal Skin to Skin Contact in the Operating Room

      Dobosiewicz, Magdalena; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Abstract It is recommended that all new mothers experience skin-to-skin contact (SSC) with their newborns immediately after birth. However, SSC is not commonly practiced after cesarean deliveries. To understand facilitators and barriers regarding SSC in the operating room (OR), a descriptive online and paper survey was conducted with 68 Registered Nurses from four hospitals in Ontario. The theory of planned behavior framed the study. Nurses had positive attitudes, and believed most health care team members supported SSC in the OR, but were uncertain about their control over the behavior. Nurses who had practiced the behavior in the past had more positive attitudinal and normative beliefs, and perceived some barriers as less difficult. Attitude and past behavior were the only significant multivariate predictors of intention to practice SSC in the future. Results suggest that shifting attitude and supporting more experience with the practice may increase nurses’ implementation of SSC in the OR.
    • The Relationship between athlete motivation, strategies used to cope with stress and affective outcomes in Canadian University athletes

      Rimmer, Samuel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Motivation to perform and coping with stress during performance are key factors in determining numerous outcomes of sporting performance. However, less evidence is in place assessing their relationship. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between athlete motivation and the coping strategies used to deal with stress during their sporting performance, as well as the relationship between motivation and affect and coping and affect. One hundred and forty five university athletes completed questionnaires. Regressions revealed that two of the three self determined levels of motivation, identified and integrated regulation, predicted increased task-oriented coping strategies. Two of the three non-self determined levels of motivation, amotivation and external regulation, significantly predicted disengagement-oriented coping. Additionally, intrinsic motivation and task-oriented coping predicted increase positive affect. Increased disengagement-oriented coping predicted decreased positive affect. Disengagement-oriented coping significantly predicted increased negative affect. These findings increase understanding of motivations role in predicting athletes coping.
    • The Relationship between Dementia Family Caregivers' Traditional Values and Beliefs about Caregiving and Well-being

      Blain, Julie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-23)
      Introduction: Canada’s aging population is diverse and this diversity will continue to grow for the next two decades (Government of Canada, 2002; Katz, 2005; Statistics Canada, 2010). Objective: to examine the relationship between dementia family caregivers’ traditionally-based beliefs about caregiving, their caregiving experience, and their well-being. Method: exploratory secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 76 community caregivers of persons with dementia in Ontario. Results: traditional values for caregiving was independently associated with coping resources and health status but not depression symptoms. Caregiver self-efficacy and social support both partially mediated the relationship between beliefs about caregiving and caregiver health status. Discussion: Findings from this exploratory study are consistent with stress process models of culture and caregiving. The finding that self-efficacy was associated with traditional values and that it mediated the relationship between traditional values and caregiver well-being is new to the literature.
    • The relationship between early age of first sexual intercourse and vulnerability to depression among adolescents

      Jamieson, Luanne K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Past empirical literature has provided conflicted results regarding the association between adolescent coitus and depression. While some studies conclude that those youth who are sexually active may be at risk for depression, others provide contrary results, or findings that are only representative of high-risk sexual behaviors such as intercourse without a condom. Thus, the results are unclear as to whether depression results directly from coitus, or if this relationship is spurious; that is, there may be biological, psychological, or sociological variables that may predict both depression and early sexual intercourse. Using the Add Health restricted dataset, I analyzed the depressive symptomatology of adolescents over a seven-year time period. The final sample (n=6,51O) was comprised of 49.35% male (n=3,213) and 50.65% female (n=3,297) participants. Results indicated that the relationship between earlier adolescent sexual intercourse and later depressive symptomatology is spurious. Although an earlier age of first coitus is predictive of later depressive symptomatology, both variables appear to be concomitant outcomes of the biopsychosocial process. Thus, while one may be able to use early coitus as a marker for subsequent depressive symptomatology, it does not occur because of early coitus. Furthermore, the reverse relationship was not found to be significant in this study. That is, higher levels of depressive symptomatology do not predict an earlier age of first sexual intercourse in adolescents.
    • The Relationship between Intramural Sport Participation, Social Integration, and Institutional Commitment

      Power, Shenise; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Higher education administrators are increasingly scrutinizing budgets and limited resources for the allocation of financial support to all academic and non-academic services, including campus recreational sports. With the current fiscal climate the benefits of campus recreation programs need to be examined and identified in order to remain relevant within post-secondary institutions. The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between students’ participation in intramural sports, social integration into the campus community, and institutional commitment. Three hundred and twenty-four intramural participants (N=324) at a Canadian University completed a questionnaire before or after participating in their chosen intramural sport. MANOVA’s, Correlation Matrices, and Hierarchical Regression analyses were conducted, revealing that the quality of intramural participation, consisting of the effort, energy, time, and money a student invests, is a significant predictor of Social Integration into the campus community. Students who are personally invested in their intramural sport participation are more socially integrated into the campus community at their institution. Social integration was not found to be a significant predictor of Institutional Commitment as suggested by Tinto (1993). Future research should explore the relationship between social integration and institutional commitment as identified in Tinto’s (1993) Model of Departure, through the investigation of other contributing factors that lead to institutional commitment.
    • The Relationship between Participation in an Exercise Program and Body Image in Post-Menopausal Women Self-Reporting Osteoporosis

      Willmott, Karlene; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The current study investigated body image differences in post-menopausal women who self-reported having (SRO) or not having (SRN) osteoporosis and the impact of a 16-week exercise program on body image in these groups. Participants completed a measure of body image, and were randomly assigned to a 16-week exercise program or control group, stratified by self-reported osteoporosis status. After 16 weeks, they completed the same body image measure. There were no differences in body image between the two osteoporosis groups. The exercise intervention had a positive impact on body image for both the SRO and SRN groups. The exercise groups showed increases in fitness and health orientation and body areas satisfaction from baseline to 16-weeks, while the non-exercise group showed decreases in appearance and health evaluation, health orientation and body areas satisfaction. The results suggest an exercise program for post-menopausal women can lead to improvements in body image, regardless of osteoporosis status.
    • The relationship between self-efficacy, collective efficacy and sport performance in men’s and women’s ice hockey goaltender teams

      Ditmars, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      Past research has shown a positive relationship between efficacy and performance (Feltz & Lirgg, 1998). Feltz and Lirgg (1998) found a positive relationship between efficacy and sport performance in hockey players, however they excluded goaltenders due to their unique position. The present study replicated Feltz and Lirgg (1998) with only goaltenders. Data was collected from 12 goaltenders from three Ontario hockey leagues. Efficacy was measured through an online questionnaire and official game statistics provided the performance measures. Data was collected for 70 games to total of 112 responses. Results of this study revealed non-significant relationships between both self- and collective efficacy and all performance indicators. Results of the present study are not consistent with Feltz and Lirgg’s (1998), however other published research has found a non-significant relationship between efficacy and sport performance (Sitzmann & Yeo, 2013). Therefore, it is possible that goaltender efficacy is not the most influential psychological construct.
    • The Relationship Between Sport Participation, Perceived Athletic Competence and Performance in University Sprinters

      Moore, Trevor; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Purpose: There is a need for research that investigates confidence, performance, and previous sports involvement among particular sports such as in track and field sprinters. The objective of this study was to investigate relations between previous sport participation, perceived athletic competence, and performance results in university track and field sprinters. Methods: The perceived athletic competence scale and previous sport participation questionnaire were implemented in the form of an online survey. The best performance times were collected from an online results database. All of the participants were enrolled in university and were members of their respective school’s track and field team. Measures of variability and descriptive statistics were calculated, and Analysis of Variance and t-tests were implemented to analyze potential differences amongst the variables of this study. Results: There were a total of 42 university track and field sprinters between the age of 18 and 23. The highest participated sports (sum) were track and field sprints (624), soccer (234), hockey (189), and basketball (164). A repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in sports participation across all and between each of the three age groups (ages 8 to 13, 14 to 17, and 18+). Sports participation was the highest in the 8 to 13 age group. A bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses showed statistical insignificance between sport participation and perceived athletic competence. There was a low positive, but not statistically significant relationship from the 8 to 13 age group. Lastly, there was a statistically non-significant positive correlation for the first age (8 to 13) group and sprint performance times. Conclusion: The findings of the study contribute to the areas of sport participation, sport specialization, and athlete development by confirming what is already presently known while adding new support for track and field sprinting as a late specialization sport and the need for further analysis and investigation in the future with a more diverse sample and a larger sample size.