• Physical Activity and the Entanglement of Meaning Making for Females

      Lovett, Jane; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      This research takes a phenomenological approach through narratives to investigate the meanings females attribute to their experiences with physical activity. Nine females across the age ranges of 10-80 were asked to share three meaningful physical activity stories. These experiences could be positive or negative in nature as long as they were reflective of a meaningful experience for the participant. The aim of the research was to explore the types of physical activity experiences that females find meaningful. The results indicate that participants perceived the following to be meaningful within their experience: social support, benefits to personal health and well-being, recognition and acknowledgment, empowerment, body control, early positive experience and identity formation. Participants’ stories offered an enlightened understanding of the meanings active females associate with physical activity across their lifespans that perhaps can assist in formulating and developing strategies to encourage and promote involvement in physical activity.
    • A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Inquiry on Transhuman Athletes and Gene Doping in Sport

      Meshki, Rand; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Gene doping is the most recent addition to the list of banned practices formulated by the World Anti-doping Agency. It is a subset of doping that utilizes the technology involved in gene therapy. The latter is still in the experimental phase but has the potential to be used as a type of medical treatment involving alterations of a patient‘s genes. I apply a pragmatic form of ethical inquiry to evaluate the application of this medical innovation in the context of sport for performance-enhancement purposes and how it will affect sport, the individual, society and humanity at large. I analyze the probable ethical implications that will emerge from such procedures in terms of values that lie at the heart of the major arguments offered by scholars on both affirmative and opposing sides of the debate on gene doping, namely fairness, autonomy and the conception of what it means to be human.
    • Profiling young carers' lives: An examination of individual, family, and social contexts

      Lakman, Yana; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Young carers (YCs) who provide prolonged care for ill, disabled, or addicted family member(s) face a tremendous risk for negative developmental trajectories when remaining hidden (Charles, Stainton, & Marshall, 2009; Charles, 2011; Cass, 2007). Despite a growing recognition of YCs, understanding how providing care impacts a young person is not fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate circumstantial, family, and individual factors which may be associated with YCs’ caregiving role. By comparing YCs to a normative sample, a comprehensive YC profile was formed. A secondary comparative analysis was conducted on 124 YCs (72 females and 52 males, Mage = 12) and a normative sample (n = 124) matched on YCs’ age, gender, and number of siblings within the family. Unique attributes of the YC population were discussed, thereby creating a YC profile. Future research may be able to use this profile to promote identification and recognition of YCs.
    • Psychographic characteristics of weekend wine tourists : a multiple case study of four wineries in the Niagara Region

      Dougan, Robert A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-11-04)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the psychographic (product attributes, motivation opinions, interest, lifestyle, values) characteristics of wine tourists along the Niagara wine r,~ute, located in Ontario, Canada, using a multiple case study method. Four wineries were selected, two wineries each on the East, and West sides of the wine route during the shoulder-season (January, February, 2004). Using a computer generated survey technique, tourists were approached to fill out a questionnaire on one of the available laptop computers, where a sample ofN=321 was obtained. The study findings revealed that there are three distinct wine tourist segments in the Niagara region. The segments were determined using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a K-means cluster analysis: Wine Lovers, Wine Interested, and Wine Curious wine tourists. These three segments displayed significant differences in their, motivation for visiting a winery, lifestyles, values, and wine purchasing behaviour. This study also examined differences between winery locations, on the East and West sides of the Niagara wine route, with respect to the aforementioned variables. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the regions with respect to these variables. The findings suggest that these differences present opportunities for more effective marketing strategies based on the uniqueness of each region. The results of this study provide insight for academia into a method of psychographic market segmentation of wine tourists and consumer behaviour. This study also contributes to the literature on wine tourism, and the identification of psychographic characteristics of wine tourists, an area where little research has taken place.
    • A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Causality Assessment in Early Phase Oncology Clinical Trials: A Phenomenological Study

      Torti, Jacqueline; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Research Question: What are the psychosocial factors that affect causality assessment in early phase oncology clinical trials? Methods: Thirty-two qualitative interviews were explicated with the aid of “Naturalistic Decision Making”. Data explication consisted of phenomenological reduction, delineating and clustering meaning units, forming themes, and creating a composite summary. Participants were members of the National Cancer Institute of Canada’s Clinical Trial Group Investigative New Drug committee. Results: The process of assigning causality is extremely subjective and full of uncertainty. Physicians had no formal training, nor a tool to assist them with this process. Physicians were apprehensive about their decisions and felt pressure from their patients, as well as the pharmaceutical companies sponsoring the trial. Conclusions: There are many problem areas when attributing causality, all of which have serious consequences, but clinicians used a variety of methods to cope with these problem areas.
    • A Quantitative Study of Social Capital Components, Self-Reported Health Status and Social Determinants of Health

      Cudmore, Karen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-09-18)
      This quantitative descriptive co-relational study used telephone survey interviews and stratified random sampling to collect data related to Social Capital (SC) and its components (trust and safety, reciprocity, civic engagement and collective action) and selected determinants of health variables in Niagara Region, Canada. Among the four components of social capital, trust and safety levels were highest among all participants (m=5.42, SD=1.0), with community engagement yielding the lowest mean score for the sample (m=1.93, SD=.8). Reciprocity had the strongest association with all other components of SC (r=0.51). Those most likely to report low levels of SC and health were unattached and low-income females. Males were more likely to report higher trust and safety levels and higher levels of self-rated health. In this study, a linear relationship between self-reported health status and SC was not found. Marital and employment status were associated with differences in mean scores of SC and self-reported health.
    • Registered Nurses' Perceptions about Facilitators and Barriers to Maternal Skin to Skin Contact in the Operating Room

      Dobosiewicz, Magdalena; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Abstract It is recommended that all new mothers experience skin-to-skin contact (SSC) with their newborns immediately after birth. However, SSC is not commonly practiced after cesarean deliveries. To understand facilitators and barriers regarding SSC in the operating room (OR), a descriptive online and paper survey was conducted with 68 Registered Nurses from four hospitals in Ontario. The theory of planned behavior framed the study. Nurses had positive attitudes, and believed most health care team members supported SSC in the OR, but were uncertain about their control over the behavior. Nurses who had practiced the behavior in the past had more positive attitudinal and normative beliefs, and perceived some barriers as less difficult. Attitude and past behavior were the only significant multivariate predictors of intention to practice SSC in the future. Results suggest that shifting attitude and supporting more experience with the practice may increase nurses’ implementation of SSC in the OR.
    • The Relationship between athlete motivation, strategies used to cope with stress and affective outcomes in Canadian University athletes

      Rimmer, Samuel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Motivation to perform and coping with stress during performance are key factors in determining numerous outcomes of sporting performance. However, less evidence is in place assessing their relationship. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between athlete motivation and the coping strategies used to deal with stress during their sporting performance, as well as the relationship between motivation and affect and coping and affect. One hundred and forty five university athletes completed questionnaires. Regressions revealed that two of the three self determined levels of motivation, identified and integrated regulation, predicted increased task-oriented coping strategies. Two of the three non-self determined levels of motivation, amotivation and external regulation, significantly predicted disengagement-oriented coping. Additionally, intrinsic motivation and task-oriented coping predicted increase positive affect. Increased disengagement-oriented coping predicted decreased positive affect. Disengagement-oriented coping significantly predicted increased negative affect. These findings increase understanding of motivations role in predicting athletes coping.
    • The Relationship between Dementia Family Caregivers' Traditional Values and Beliefs about Caregiving and Well-being

      Blain, Julie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-23)
      Introduction: Canada’s aging population is diverse and this diversity will continue to grow for the next two decades (Government of Canada, 2002; Katz, 2005; Statistics Canada, 2010). Objective: to examine the relationship between dementia family caregivers’ traditionally-based beliefs about caregiving, their caregiving experience, and their well-being. Method: exploratory secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 76 community caregivers of persons with dementia in Ontario. Results: traditional values for caregiving was independently associated with coping resources and health status but not depression symptoms. Caregiver self-efficacy and social support both partially mediated the relationship between beliefs about caregiving and caregiver health status. Discussion: Findings from this exploratory study are consistent with stress process models of culture and caregiving. The finding that self-efficacy was associated with traditional values and that it mediated the relationship between traditional values and caregiver well-being is new to the literature.
    • The relationship between early age of first sexual intercourse and vulnerability to depression among adolescents

      Jamieson, Luanne K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Past empirical literature has provided conflicted results regarding the association between adolescent coitus and depression. While some studies conclude that those youth who are sexually active may be at risk for depression, others provide contrary results, or findings that are only representative of high-risk sexual behaviors such as intercourse without a condom. Thus, the results are unclear as to whether depression results directly from coitus, or if this relationship is spurious; that is, there may be biological, psychological, or sociological variables that may predict both depression and early sexual intercourse. Using the Add Health restricted dataset, I analyzed the depressive symptomatology of adolescents over a seven-year time period. The final sample (n=6,51O) was comprised of 49.35% male (n=3,213) and 50.65% female (n=3,297) participants. Results indicated that the relationship between earlier adolescent sexual intercourse and later depressive symptomatology is spurious. Although an earlier age of first coitus is predictive of later depressive symptomatology, both variables appear to be concomitant outcomes of the biopsychosocial process. Thus, while one may be able to use early coitus as a marker for subsequent depressive symptomatology, it does not occur because of early coitus. Furthermore, the reverse relationship was not found to be significant in this study. That is, higher levels of depressive symptomatology do not predict an earlier age of first sexual intercourse in adolescents.
    • The Relationship between Intramural Sport Participation, Social Integration, and Institutional Commitment

      Power, Shenise; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Higher education administrators are increasingly scrutinizing budgets and limited resources for the allocation of financial support to all academic and non-academic services, including campus recreational sports. With the current fiscal climate the benefits of campus recreation programs need to be examined and identified in order to remain relevant within post-secondary institutions. The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between students’ participation in intramural sports, social integration into the campus community, and institutional commitment. Three hundred and twenty-four intramural participants (N=324) at a Canadian University completed a questionnaire before or after participating in their chosen intramural sport. MANOVA’s, Correlation Matrices, and Hierarchical Regression analyses were conducted, revealing that the quality of intramural participation, consisting of the effort, energy, time, and money a student invests, is a significant predictor of Social Integration into the campus community. Students who are personally invested in their intramural sport participation are more socially integrated into the campus community at their institution. Social integration was not found to be a significant predictor of Institutional Commitment as suggested by Tinto (1993). Future research should explore the relationship between social integration and institutional commitment as identified in Tinto’s (1993) Model of Departure, through the investigation of other contributing factors that lead to institutional commitment.
    • The Relationship between Participation in an Exercise Program and Body Image in Post-Menopausal Women Self-Reporting Osteoporosis

      Willmott, Karlene; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The current study investigated body image differences in post-menopausal women who self-reported having (SRO) or not having (SRN) osteoporosis and the impact of a 16-week exercise program on body image in these groups. Participants completed a measure of body image, and were randomly assigned to a 16-week exercise program or control group, stratified by self-reported osteoporosis status. After 16 weeks, they completed the same body image measure. There were no differences in body image between the two osteoporosis groups. The exercise intervention had a positive impact on body image for both the SRO and SRN groups. The exercise groups showed increases in fitness and health orientation and body areas satisfaction from baseline to 16-weeks, while the non-exercise group showed decreases in appearance and health evaluation, health orientation and body areas satisfaction. The results suggest an exercise program for post-menopausal women can lead to improvements in body image, regardless of osteoporosis status.
    • The relationship between self-efficacy, collective efficacy and sport performance in men’s and women’s ice hockey goaltender teams

      Ditmars, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      Past research has shown a positive relationship between efficacy and performance (Feltz & Lirgg, 1998). Feltz and Lirgg (1998) found a positive relationship between efficacy and sport performance in hockey players, however they excluded goaltenders due to their unique position. The present study replicated Feltz and Lirgg (1998) with only goaltenders. Data was collected from 12 goaltenders from three Ontario hockey leagues. Efficacy was measured through an online questionnaire and official game statistics provided the performance measures. Data was collected for 70 games to total of 112 responses. Results of this study revealed non-significant relationships between both self- and collective efficacy and all performance indicators. Results of the present study are not consistent with Feltz and Lirgg’s (1998), however other published research has found a non-significant relationship between efficacy and sport performance (Sitzmann & Yeo, 2013). Therefore, it is possible that goaltender efficacy is not the most influential psychological construct.
    • Relationships Between Sleep Quality, Sleep Hygiene, and Psychological Distress In University Student-Athletes

      Gladney, Chris; Gladney, Chris; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Post-secondary student-athletes are one of the most vulnerable populations that experience poor sleep quality, which has detrimental effects on psychological distress due to the strong relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress. Research suggests that by improving sleep hygiene behaviours an individual can improve sleep quality, which will improve psychological distress. Few studies have examined sleep quality, sleep hygiene and psychological distress together among a post-secondary population and none have investigated a student-athlete population. The present study examined if sleep hygiene mediates the relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress among post-secondary student-athletes. A sample of 94 student-athletes completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (Buyess et al., 1989; Kessler et al., 2002; Lin, Cheng, Yang, & Hsu, 2007). A mediation model was used to examine the relationships between the variables using the global scores. Bootstrapping was conducted to increase power of the model, which resulted in confidence interval levels that did not include zero indicating the indirect effect is significant and sleep hygiene mediates the relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress. This study can implicate future studies regarding sleep hygiene interventions changing the lifestyle habits and behaviours affecting their sleep hygiene, which is shown to impact sleep quality and psychological distress. In conclusion, Sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress.
    • Removing Oneself from the Shadows: A Heuristic Inquiry to Understand the Lived Experience of Epilepsy in Young Adult Women and their Epilepsy Disclosure

      McGuire, Suzanne; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures (Stein & Kanner, 2009). The purpose of this study was to understand the essence of being a young woman living with epilepsy using heuristic inquiry (Moustakas, 1990). The research was built upon the assumption that each experience is unique, yet commonalities exist. Five women aged 22 to 28 years living with epilepsy were interviewed. Additionally, the researcher described her life with epilepsy. Participants characterized life with epilepsy as a transformative journey. The act of meeting and interacting with another woman living with epilepsy provided an opportunity to remove themselves from the shadows and discuss epilepsy. Three major themes of seizures, medical treatment, and social relationships were developed revealing a complex view of an illness requiring engaged advocacy in the medical system. Respondents frequently make difficult adjustments to accommodate epilepsy. This study provides a complex in-depth view of life with epilepsy.
    • Resilience in environmental educators

      Henderson, Kelly; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Contemporary environmental issues (such as global warming) can present psychological stress, the effects of which are under-examined. The ability to "bounce back" from stress associated with increasing environmental adversity can be understood as resilience, and can be found in some environmental educators. The following paper examines how veteran environmental educators respond to psychological stress to increasing environmental adversity and describes the experience of resilience. Through in-depth interviews, this hermeneutical study sheds light on the environmental factors and internal competencies that contribute to resilience in seven environmental educators. Additionally, the interaction (known as the person/environment transactional process) between these factors and competencies is explored, providing insight into how the participants construct resilience. Kumpfer's (1999) Resilience Framework provided the organizational framework for the results of this study. Findings suggest ways in which resilience in environmental educators can be supported and offers directions for future research.
    • Retrospective on the Experience of Parental Pressure and Support by Male Participants that Withdrew from Competitive Youth Hockey: A Phenomenological Investigation

      Schonewille, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-12-22)
      The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of parental pressure and support for males who withdrew from competitive youth hockey. A phenomenological approach was used to explore this phenomenon and develop meaning from the participants' experiences. Data for this study was collected by conducting one in-depth interview with each of the seven participants. Fourteen themes emerged as a result of the data analysis. These themes were grouped into three clusters: (1) Description of parental involvement: “I want them to be there and help me”; (2) Perceived impacts of parental involvement: “I felt like he actually cared”; and (3) Impact of parental involvement on commitment: “I kind of miss hockey now”. The descriptions provided by the participants in this study, and the themes that emerged, offer insight into what it is like for young males to experience parental involvement in competitive youth hockey.
    • Returning from the Wild: Exploring Participant's Experiences of Re-entry from Extended Wilderness Trips

      Cooper, Lucas; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-22)
      The experience of a strong sense of community developed while participating in extended wilderness expeditions is one of the most significant and meaningful experiences associated with taking part in this form of outdoor recreation. The experience of returning to a home community from an extended wilderness expedition is explored through the impacts associated with psychological sense of community (McMillian & Chavis, 1986; McMillian, 1996). A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the re-entry experiences of six individuals through the use of semi-structured interviews. Twelve main themes and seventeen subthemes emerged within the findings and illustrate a lack of preparation for the difficulties associated with re-entry, negative impacts associated with the experience of sense of community, and problems transferring aspects of a wilderness community into participant’s post-expedition lives.
    • Returning to Play after Concussion: A Phenomenological Study

      Da Costa, Kathleen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This study examines and describes athletes’ felt sense of readiness returning to play following a concussion. Analyses of the interviews yielded a description of each participant’s experiences with concussions. Descriptions of this phenomenon generated by informants provide a detailed account of the unique issues athletes face when returning to play following a concussion. Participants’ descriptions highlight that in order to play, an athlete knows that he/she ought to be emotionally and physically ready to play. However, the athletes in this study believe that there is not an actual test that can “prove” this and that they can choose to lie and/or cheat the tests to return to play while they are still symptomatic. Athletes, parents, coaches, and trainers will benefit from learning to be better educated on the severity of concussions, concussion detection, assessment and the serious health consequences that can result from playing with a concussion.
    • Rucking into New Territory: A Case-Study on the Experiences of Pioneer Female Club Rugby Players in Ontario

      Kovacs, Nicole; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The gender hierarchy found within sport has been reinforced through the use of traditional interpretations of masculinity, making sport a well-suited arena to examine gender inequity in its many forms. My thesis explores the challenges experienced by female pioneer rugby players in Ontario and their participation in a traditionally masculine sport. In order to explore the experiences of the female pioneer club players in Ontario, I conducted interviews with eight women and did multiple forms of content analyses. The analyses allowed me to describe the type of support the participants had and the barriers these female players encountered relative to their male counterparts of the era. My findings indicated that gender inequity, in both blatant and habit based manifestations, was at the forefront of the challenges endured by the pioneer players. Further research should investigate women’s involvement with the political and policy development aspects of the sport of rugby.