• Motivation among reluctant readers: Capturing the goal setting experience in the 'Reading Rocks' program

      Sendzik, Samantha; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      This study explored goal setting among children with reading disabilities. Of particular focus was the goal setting experience of participants in a literacy-based program, titled “Reading Rocks”. Reading Rocks, offered by the Learning Disabilities Association of Niagara Region (LDANR), supports children with reading disabilities to become more confident readers. The program aims to strengthen literacy skills among vulnerable readers. Another essential component of the program targets children’s reading motivation through goal setting, a recognized strategy for increasing motivation. I outline the importance of reading, followed by exploring children’s reluctance to read. Goal setting is examined as an opportunity to increase motivation among reluctant readers. My research included a qualitative case study of one child-tutor pair in the program. I utilized a think-aloud protocol, a photo elicitation interview, and researcher observations to collect my data. Lastly, I triangulated the data to analyze how children in Reading Rocks experience goal setting.
    • Motivation and psychological need salience in the experiences of initiating and maintaining exercise as an older female adult

      LeBlanc, Meghan E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Objectives: The primary objective ofthis study was to explore motivation and psychological need salience in the initiatory and maintenance experiences of older female exercIsers. Methods: Female initiates (n = 3) and reflective maintainers (n = 3) 65 years of age or older (M = 76 years; SD = 5.37) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed holistically and categorically, following a hermeneutic approach to inquiry. Results: Perceived importance of exercise benefits appeared to be the strongest motive for initiates at this stage of life and connections to others were perceived as valued, but less important in exercise contexts. Also, listening to one's body over instructions from the exercise leader emerged as a key factor to success. Conclusions: Overall, the results ofthis study implicate more self-determined than controlled motives as sources of regulation in older females' exercise initiation experiences. Evidence for psychological needs was more heterogeneous and less conclusive.
    • Motivation and Reading Achievement: Understanding the Needs and Motivation Processes of Adult Literacy Learners

      Tsujimoto, Kimberley; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Adult struggling readers are understudied and most evidence-based remedial approaches target youth. This thesis examined relationships among motivation constructs across typical and struggling adult readers. Age was also investigated as a moderator in these relationships. Participants included 198 adults in adult basic education and 138 undergraduate students. Examining the influence of self-efficacy on reading achievement, moderation analyses indicated there were stronger relationships for typical readers. Furthermore, stronger relationships were found for younger participants when moderated by age. Additional regression analyses identified positive relationships between two measures of intrinsic motivation and reading value. This relationship was replicated for avoidance and value. Though age was not uniformly sampled across ability grouping, age did not account for these effects. Despite difficulties with reading, adults still exhibited motivation to engage with texts with equal to greater levels of reading value. Value and intrinsic motivation may have unique developmental courses associated with longstanding reading challenges.
    • Moving from values inaction to values-in-action : an exploration of how values can be managed intentionally by national sports organizations

      Bell-Laroche, Dina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      The study examined the intentional use of National Sport Organizations' (NSOs) stated values. Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) was applied to an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach of interviewing NSO senior leaders. One intention of this research was to foster a connection between academia and practitioners, and in so doing highlight the gap between values inaction and values-in-action. Data were collected from nine NSOs through multiple-case studies analysis of interview transcripts, websites, and constitutional statements. Results indicated that while the NSOs operated from a Management by Objectives (MBO) approach they were interested in exploring how Management by Values (MBV) might improve their organization's performance. Eleven themes from the case studies analysis contributed to the development of a framework. The 4-1 framework described how an NSO can progress through different stages by becoming more intentional in how they use their values. Another finding included deepening our understanding of how values are experienced within the NSO and then transferred across the entire sport. Participants also spoke about the tension that arises among their NSO' s values as well as the dominant values held by funding agents. This clash of values needs to be addressed before the tension escalates. Finally, participants expressed a desire to learn more about how values can be used more intentionally to further their organization's purpose. As such, strategies for intentionally leveraging values are also suggested. Further research should explore how helpful the 4-1 framework can be to NSOs leaders who are in the process of identifying or renewing their organization's values.
    • Music Lessons: Exploring the Role and Meaning of Music Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia

      Elliott, Melanie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      An aging population and increasing rates of dementia point to the need for alternative strategies to allow individuals to age in place. The purpose of this multiple case study is to explore, from an insider’s perspective, the role and meaning of music in the lives of individuals with dementia who are aging in place. The following three questions guide this exploration: What does music mean to someone with dementia and if/how has this changed, over time? How does music influence the health and wellbeing of individuals with dementia? How is music integrated into the day-to-day lives of individuals with dementia aging in place? Critical qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured interviews, observations, and videos. All three participants were in the early stages of dementia, living in the community (not in an institution), residing in Ontario, using music in their lives in a routine capacity, and not enrolled in music therapy. The partners of each of the participants were also included in the data collection process. The qualitative data was analyzed following a 10-step process that integrated the textual, auditory, and visual data. Analysis revealed that music plays a beneficial, yet complicated, role in these individuals’ lives. Analysis highlighted ‘connection’ as the central theme of the study with the various ‘connectors’ - self, partner, music and the study itself - as subthemes. Connection to self is discussed through present moment awareness, accessing memories, and self-expression. Connection to partner is explained in light of self-connection and spending time together. The connection to music acknowledges the self and partner as well as the need to keep things “ordinary”. Lastly, connection to the research is a methodological finding that speaks to the transformative nature of qualitative research. Findings from each sub-theme are described using examples from the data and discussed in relation to the literature. This study provides insight into the growing body of interdisciplinary literature dedicated to dementia, music, aging in place, and contemplative practices, as well as makes suggestions for future areas of research.
    • The National Hockey League (NHL) Entry Draft: An Examination of the Impact of Brand Associations Attached to the Russian Hockey Players

      Mansurov, Adel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research was conducted to investigate whether negative brand associations attached to Russian hockey players impact their draft rankings during the National Hockey League (NHL) Entry Draft. A quantitative analysis based on various regression model specifications was used to test whether Russian players were drafted relatively equally to their counterparts in the NHL Entry Draft. The data consisted of the NHL draft picks between 1993 and 2013 and their performance statistics and physical characteristics. The results suggested that Russian players were drafted relatively equal to their counterparts from other countries. Meanwhile, Russian players who played in the CHL before the draft are actually drafted better than Canadians who played in the same league. Hence, the negative brand associations attached to Russians were unlikely to impact their draft rankings. This study redefined the so-called “Russian Factor” from a notion that allegedly damages Russian players’ rankings to one that enhances their rankings.
    • Nationalism and Sporting Culture: A Media Analysis of Croatia’s Participation in the 1998 World Cup

      Milasincic, Andreja; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-12-16)
      The past two centuries have witnessed the rise of nationalist movements and widespread nationalism. As these movements gained strength in Europe, sport played a role in their development. Media representations of sport recount events in a way that reinforces cultural values and this research investigates media representations of Croatian nationalism in the weeks surrounding the country’s third place victory in the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Sociological theories alongside more contemporary theories of sport and nation construction are considered. Croatian newspapers were analyzed for elements of national identity construction. The study concludes that the 1998 World Cup played an important role in Croatia’s on-going construction of nationhood and invention of nationalist traditions. This research further demonstrates sport’s ability to evoke strong emotions that are difficult to witness in other areas of social life and the direct role of sport in garnering nationalism.
    • NCAA Recruiting in the Age of Social Media

      Hanson, Marcus; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study is to determine the various impacts Social Networking Sites (SNS) have on Canadian full scholarship National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division 1 athletes’ recruitment processes. The study employs a qualitative, interview-based methodology. Six Canadian athletes who received full NCAA division 1 scholarships in football, men’s basketball, and women’s basketball were interviewed, as well as three NCAA coaches involved in recruiting processes. It is evident from the findings that SNS have important roles to play in NCAA Division 1 athletes’ recruitment process and there are various aspects of SNS use that determine recruiting effectiveness. All of the athletes who took part in the study along with the coaches were actively involved in SNS during recruiting processes. Twitter was the most preferred SNS platform that is used for recruiting purposes by both athletes and coaches in the study. A primary reason that the athletes gave for using certain SNS platforms is the ability to control the content of the platform and manage how others view them, aligning with Erving Goffman’s self-presentation theory. However, coaches also shared the view that SNS, when not used appropriately, can lead to negative self-presentation, limiting the chances of getting recruited or receiving a full scholarship. This study provides key insights into the role of social media in Canadian high-performance athletes lives and how it impacts their recruitment in NCAA sport.
    • A needs assessment of public health professionals: supporting the implementation of Ontario 2010 revised elementary health and physical education curriculum

      Angra, Ishan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Based on the Comprehensive School Health framework, Ontario's Foundations for a Healthy School (2009) outlines an integrated approach to school health promotion. In this approach the school, community and partners (including public health) are fully engaged With a common goal of youth health. With the recent introductions of the Ontario Public Health Standards (2009) and the revised elementary health and physical education curriculum (2010), the timing for a greater integration of public health with schools is ideal. A needs assessment was conducted to identify the perceived support required by public health professionals to implement the mandates of both policy documents in Ontario. Data was collected for the needs assessment through facilitated discussions at a provincial roundtable event, regional focus groups and individual interviews with public health professionals representing Ontario's 36 public health units. Findings suggest that public health professionals perceive that they require increased resources, greater communication, a clear vision of public health and a suitable understanding of the professional cultures in which they are surrounded in order to effectively support schools. This study expands upon these four categories and the corresponding seventeen themes that were uncovered during the research process.
    • Opioid poisoning and availability of specialized medical care in Ontario, 2002-2006

      Veldhuizen, Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      The prescription of opioid analgesics has risen sharply in North America over the past two decades. This increase has been accompanied by a rise in overdoses. The present study draws on administrative data collected from emergency department contacts to describe the epidemiology of opioid overdose in Ontario b~tween 2002 and 2006 and to examine the role of regional variation in availability of specialist care. The number of poisonings increased from 1250 (10.9 per 100,000) in FY2002 to 1816 (15.2 per 100,000) in FY2005. Local concentration of specialist physicians was significantly associated with the incidence of opioid overdose, inversely at most levels of availability, but positively at very high levels. Regional variation in incidence was also associated with demographics, median family income, and the rate of other drug poisonings. Policy options for limiting opioid-related harms are limited, but improvements in monitoring and clinical management may prove valuable.
    • Organizational capacity and knowledge transfer : a qualitative case study of the 2007 Canada Winter Games host society

      Rioux, Melody; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Understanding and managing the knowledge transfer process in sport organizations is an essential component to enhance organizational capacity. Very little research on either capacity or knowledge transfer within a sport organization exists. Consequently, the purpos e of this qualitative case study was to, examine the transfer of knowledge process within a major games host society. Specifically, two research goals guided the study: 1) To develop a model to explain a knowledge t r ans f e r process in a non-profit ma jor games hos t organization and 2) To examine the relevance of the model to a Canada Games Hos t Society. Data we r e collected from interviews with middle and senior level volunteers as well as senior s t a f f members (n= 27), document s and observations. The findings indicated three barriers to knowledge transfer: structural, systemic, and cultural. As a result of the findings a revised model for knowledge transfer wa s proposed that included modifications related to the direction of knowledge flow, timing of the knowledge transfer process, and group inter-relations. Implications identified the importance of intuition managers, time and organizational levels for successful knowledge transfer. Recommendations for future host societies and the Canada Games Council are presented.
    • Outcome Evaluation of a Campus-Based Quit and Win Contest

      Taylor, Lindsay; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-11)
      This study examined abstinence outcomes of a provincial, campus-based Quit and Win contest relative to contestants’ assessments of the prize, buddy support, social support network, and emails. Of the 288 participants providing baseline data, 201 self-reported their smoking and quitting behaviours, use of quit aides, and perceptions of contest components. On 5-point scales, perceived values of the contest prize, buddy support, social support network and email were 4.42, 3.95, 3.89, and 3.46 respectively. Intention to treat analysis showed 27.8% of participants achieved 6-week contest-period abstinence; 19.8% achieved 3-month sustained abstinence. Odds of achieving 3-month abstinence were influenced by age (OR = 1.10, CI =1.03, 1.18) and use of pharmacological quit aides (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.20, 0.88), but not smoking behaviours or contest components. Contest prizes and support were valued, but played an uncertain role in quitting success. Future research might examine their roles in contestant recruitment or retention.
    • Own the Podium Funding and Support: The Athletes' Perspective

      Pattenden, Hillary; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of Canada’s high performance athletes who have benefitted from Own the Podium (OTP)-recommended funding and support leading up to an Olympic or Paralympic Games. OTP, a nonprofit agency, is responsible for determining the overall investment strategy for high performance sport in Canada through recommendations to support national sport organizations (NSOs) with the aim to improve Canadian performances at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. For this study, data were collected through in-depth interviews with eleven Canadian high performance athletes (i.e., single-sport Summer/Winter Olympians and Paralympians and recently retired athletes). Analysis of the data resulted in twelve overarching themes; resources, pressure, missing gap, results, targeting, stress, expectations, boost in confidence, OTP relationship, OTP name, pre/post OTP, and lost funding. Overall, results from this exploratory research indicate that athletes generally had a favourable perception regarding OTP-recommended funding and support.
    • Participation factors in optional high school health and physical education

      Pybus, Colin M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Student enrolment rates in optional health and physical education (HPE) classes have been steadily declining, to the point where most Ontario students stop taking HPE after completion of their one required credit, typically taken in grade nine. This study looked at factors that could contribute to HPE enrolment, sampling 227 grade ten students from five schools. These factors included selfefficacy (SE), perceived autonomy support (PAS), task value (TV), motivational regulation (autonomous, AR; controlled, CR), HPE grade average and body size discrepancy (BSD). Qualitative information was also gathered from students regarding likes and dislikes ofHPE, as well as reasons for their HPE enrolment choice. Cronbach Alpha values of each scale fell within acceptable values. ANOVA analysis revealed differences between enrolment groups in SE, TV, AR, HPE grade average, and BSD (p < .05). Reasons students reported for not taking HPE included a dislike of health classes, scheduling challenges, not needing HPE for future endeavors, concerns about social self-presentation, and a dislike of sports and/or competition. This research shows important differences between students and their HPE class choices and calls for a re-evaluation of how HPE classes are structured, advertised and scheduled by high school practitioners. Future works should look toward what other factors could be at play in students' decisions for or against optional HPE and how those factors interact with the constructs that were found to be of significance in this study. Keywords: Health and physical education, high school students, participation.
    • Patterns and correlates of tobacco use among young adults at college and university

      Kirkwood, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      This thesis describes college and university students' smoking behaviours and examines whether socioenvironmental and personal characteristics experienced during adolescence are differentially associated with their smoking participation. Results show more college students than university students currently smoke (37% and 21 % respectively) and more began smoking prior to post-secondary school (93% and 84% respectively). Early age of onset of alcohol use increased the odds of current smoking (main effect model, OR = 8.56 CI = 6.47, 11.33), especially for university students (interaction effect model, b = 2.35 CI = 7.50, 14.64). Lower levels of high school connectedness were associated with increased odds of current smoking but for university students only (interaction effect model, b = -0.15 CI = 0.84, 0.88). While limitations associated with convenience sampling and low response rate exist, this is the first Canadian study to examine college and university students separately. I t reveals that tobacco control programming needs to differ for college and university students, and early alcohol prevention and school engagement programs for adolescents may influence tobacco use. Given that both educational pathway and use of tobacco are associated with SES, future research may consider examining in more detail, SES-related socioenvironmental variables.
    • Peer Motivational Climate and its Relationship with Positive and Negative Affect in Intramural Sports

      Webb, Evan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      The study of peers as an influence on sport participation has received minimal exploration. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how peer created motivational climates (task-involved and ego-involved) impact positive and negative affective states of intramural sport participants post-participation. Three hundred and fifteen intramural sport participants (N=315) at a Canadian university completed a questionnaire after participating in their intramural sport. Hierarchical regression analyses and MANCOVAs were used to examine the effects of peer motivational climates on positive and negative affect. Results revealed that task-involved peer climates are more conducive of positive affective states post-participation whereas ego-involved climates result in lesser positive affective states and more negative affective states. Teams that promote improvement and effort instead of intra-team competition and conflict will have more positive recreational sport experiences. Future research should explore other psychological outcomes that can result from peer created motivational climates in recreational sport team settings.
    • Peer Victimization and the Need to Belong within the Context of Recess

      Franklin, Nicole; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Within the school setting, recess is often reported as a frequent context for bullying (Vaillancourt et al. 2010), but is currently understudied. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach in order to examine the frequency of peer victimization at recess and explore how the current context of recess relates to children’s sense of belonging. Participants included 464 students between grades 4 to 8 from nine Southern Ontario elementary schools. Self-report measures on peer victimization and belongingness were completed, along with open-ended questions regarding the recess context. Results demonstrated the frequencies of peer victimization at recess, the relationship between victimization and belonging, contextual factors that promote and impede belongingness at recess, and solutions to support children who feel left out.These findings provide further insight for educators and administrators in order to better support children who experience victimization within the recess context.
    • Perceived Competencies for Seniors Care in Long Term Care Homes: An Examination in Therapeutic Recreation Undergraduate Curricula

      Prentice, Kristin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Therapeutic recreation (TR) is an important contributor to the health and well-being of residents living in long term care (LTC). In order to enhance quality of life of residents, it is essential that Therapeutic Recreationists have gerontological competencies and knowledge relevant to LTC. The confidence levels of Therapeutic Recreationists (n = 130) and recreation staff (n = 357) in performing gerontological competencies in long term care, Therapeutic Recreationists’ perceived gaps in their gerontological competencies and TR educators’ perceptions on graduates’ competencies were examined. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted. A survey was distributed to long term care homes in Ontario. Results indicated that recreation staff (1) have the least amount of confidence in writing care plans and assessing spirituality; (2) they have the most confidence in implementing programs for residents with dementia and physical disabilities, and recognizing that resident behaviour is communication based on need; and (3) have higher confidence if they took in-service training and continuing education courses. TR graduates have the least amount of confidence in completing RAI-MDS, assessing spirituality, and assessing physical health and illness conditions. The recent TR graduates revealed that learning about aging topics in courses is associated with confidence levels in gerontological competencies and that internship/placement experience was not associated with confidence levels in gerontological competencies. Further research should examine gerontological competencies and gerontological content in TR curricula including practitioner perspectives of required competencies and gaps in the LTC setting. This study can assist educators in designing programs for TR candidates that may better prepare them for working with residents in LTC.
    • The perceptions of commune health workers about an education strategy received for counselling fathers about infant and breastfeeding involvement

      Pyke, Stephanie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Objective To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare workers in Vietnam about the efficacy of a continuing education strategy about father involvement and breastfeeding counselling. Design One group, post-test only, quasi-experimental design Method A questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT; Bandura, 2004) was disseminated to participants (N=28). This questionnaire measured self-efficacy, outcome expectations, socio-structural factors, goal setting and behaviour. Multiple regressions were analyzed predicting participants’ practice of client focused father involvement consulting. Results Bivariate correlations demonstrated the anticipated patterns of association between SCT-based constructs. Multiple regression analysis indicated that outcome expectations and barriers were significant predictors of client focused father involvement consulting. Conclusions Participants reported that the education increased their self-efficacy, outcome expectations and client focused father involvement consulting behaviour. Future education should be accessible, increase counselling confidence and address beliefs about the outcomes and challenges of father involvement consulting.
    • The Perceptions of Kinesiologists of Ethics and Professionalism as Established by the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario

      Denyes, Chad; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-02)
      As of April 1, 2013 kinesiology became a regulated health profession in Ontario. With its own governing body, the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario (CKO), there are new ethical and professional standards to which kinesiologists must adhere. The purpose of this study is to investigate kinesiologists’ thoughts and perceptions regarding the CKO’s Practice Standards, Guidelines and Code of Ethics, and their level of ethical knowledge and training. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with kinesiologists. Interview data was analyzed through the development of general themes. Findings revealed that kinesiologists are confident of their ethical decision making skills but are in need of more ethical and professional education and training in order to become respected healthcare professionals in the healthcare community and in the eyes of the public. Furthermore, there were key areas identified in need of improvement regarding the quality of the Practice Standards, Guidelines and Code of Ethics. Additional findings, implications and recommendations for future research were also discussed.