• Managing Volunteers in Canadian Community Sport Organizations

      Mrak, Joel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-17)
      This study examined the use of human resource management (HRM) practices with volunteers in Canadian Community Sport Organizations (CSOs). Using the Volunteer Management Inventory (VMI; Cuskelly, Taylor, Hoye & Darcy, 2006), 219 leaders of associations in basketball, curling, ice hockey, skating, skiing, swimming, and volleyball participated in this study and identified current trends in HRM practices and perceived issues in the retention of volunteers. Data collected was analyzed using mean and descriptive statistics, T-tests, ANOVAs, and regression analyses. Results indicate that there is a varying use of HRM practices amongst the organizations, and also a significant correlation between the use of HRM practices and the retention of volunteers, particularly board members. Implications and future research directions are discussed regarding how HRM practices and principles may be applied to CSOs.
    • The meaning of multiple medication use in adults: A qualitative study

      Dyer, Carolyn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-11)
      Over half of prescribed medications are not taken as prescribed, resulting in health and economic consequences. Using constructivist grounded theory, 15 interviews were conducted to develop a theory on understanding the medication adherence choices of individuals, who were between the ages of 40 to 55, were diagnosed with a chronic condition, and taking three or more medications. The results indicate that participants are engaging in self-management strategies, with massive variance in adherence behaviours. Medications are sacrificed for personal and financial reasons, resonating with feelings of fear for the person’s current situation and future. Individuals are struggling with who they have become to who they once were, which becomes related to their medications. Finally, individuals are citing the impact of their physician; citing barriers to communication and Canada’s health care system. Participants’ experiences provided an understanding of the meanings individuals associate with their medications and how this impacts their decision-making.
    • The Meaning of the Virtual YMCA After School Program for Former Participants: An Exploratory Study

      Kerr, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-14)
      Research has shown that after school programs can provide children with opportunities that help foster positive development and adaptation. Current research meets the need for identifying short term outcomes, program standards, and short term evaluation techniques, however less understood is the lasting meaning of participation for previous participants after their participation. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and perceived impacts of participation in a preventative, skill-building after school program for former participants. Using an exploratory case study approach, interviews were conducted with six previous participants of the Virtual YMCA and a former school principal. Reconstructed narratives and analyzed transcripts show that participants do still derive meaning and significance from their participation in the program, although highly individualized. Significant aspects of the program are identified, as well as the participant’s perceived impacts which are still present today. Discussion for practitioners, researchers, and funders is provided.
    • Métis or Moniyâw: Explorative stories of decolonizing my Métis identity

      Montgomery, Bob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This thesis explores my emergent processes of identifying as a Métis person through autoethnographic narratives. I provide an overview of Métis history, identification, and decolonization, especially written by and for Aboriginal peoples. Using a decolonizing framework of Indigenous métissage (Donald, 2012) – which brings together complex, and nuanced influences to build knowledge – and an autoethnographic methodology, I explore cultural knowledges through critical self-reflection. I collected autoethnographic data in the form of personal journals and family artifacts; additionally, I shared conversations with other Métis peoples, which I used to further inform my own processes of identification and decolonization. The study results are presented as narrative vignettes, offering conclusions about: a) cultural ambivalence; b) privilege; c) language and music reclamation; and d) building relationships with both people and land. This research builds upon literature by, about, and for the benefit of Aboriginal peoples and settlers and offers considerations relevant to decolonization and identification.
    • Mindfully Making Our Way in the World: The Exploration of Mindfulness Among Post-Secondary Students

      Kerridge, Kaitlyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Abstract Students across North America are facing new challenges due to the competitive economic climate, increased debt from student loans, and infinite access to technology. The practice of mindfulness shows great promise as an intervention to aid young people to cope with the daily challenges of student life. The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore mindfulness among post-secondary students. The major research question guiding this inquiry was What is the meaning of mindfulness among post-secondary students? The design of the study followed a narrative methodology. Data consisted of interview transcripts and journal entries. Six participants were interviewed in the first round and three were selected for a second storytelling interview. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematic techniques and followed narrative principles of re-storying. The central finding of the study is that mindfulness is experiential and comprised of three core elements: the practice, the journey and the impact. Analysis highlighted a) the journey is extremely unique, includes some kind of pivotal moment, and is transformative in nature on the individual’s life, b) the practice can be divided into two types of mindfulness: “state mindfulness” or “situational mindfulness” and, c) mindfulness has a positive impact on mental health, perspective, and happiness. Findings suggest post-secondary students who adopt a mindfulness practice find purpose and meaning in their lives and have positive mental health. Building on this study, future research should continue to collect rich qualitative data on the lived experience of students in order to empower them and give meaning to their experience. This research can be used to inform the development of curriculum and programing and community health interventions.
    • The Mirror Room Project: A Critical Ethnographic Program Evaluation of a Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Based Youth Development Program

      Baker, Carrie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-10-11)
      Amongst a host of other benefits, proper physical education has the possibility to create a safe place where responsibility can be transferred from the teacher/facilitator, to the student. This is especially true with an underserved population. This critical program evaluation of the program CHARM was done for the purpose of program improvement. This research was a place for participants to share their experiences of the program. The participants were 5 underserved youth, 5 undergraduate students, 3 teachers and 1 graduate student. Observations, interviews, and document analysis were used to gather data. Data was analyzed using a first level read-through, and two second-level analyses. Summaries were written, and cross-case analyses were completed. The main finding of the research was the development of a Handbook, which is a guide to running the program. Secondary findings include issues of program structure, goal setting, meaningful relationships, roles, SNAP, and an outlier in the data.
    • The Moderating Effects of Appearance Commentary on the Relationship Between Weight Status and Physical Activity Participation in Female College Students

      Cline, Lindsay; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-08-24)
      When looked at individually, overweight status and a higher frequency of negative appearance commentary (AC) are associated with lower physical activity (PA) levels. However, the combined effect has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency of AC moderated the relationship between weight status and PA in college-aged females. No significant differences in PA levels (F(1,99)=2.41, p=.12) were found between the Never Overweight and Previously/Presently Overweight groups. Significant correlations existed for both negative AC (r=-.30, p=.00) and positive AC (r=.20, p=.05) with PA participation. AC did not significantly moderate the relationship between weight status and PA (F(2,95)=.65, p=.52, R2 adjusted=.13) as the interaction term did not account for any additional increase in variance (ΔR2=.01). Overall, AC frequency does not moderate the relationship between weight status and PA; other predictor variables should be explored.
    • Moderators of the Relationship between Family Caregiver Proxy-Ratings and Person with Dementia Self-Ratings of Quality of Life

      Amirthavasagam, Sathya; Applied Health Sciences Program
      As the dementia spectrum lacks any viable cure, quality of life is typically regarded as an essential measure of assessing the clinical course and evaluating interventions. With caregivers typically providing this rating to health professionals, the literature has noted inconsistencies between caregiver and person with dementia (PwD) ratings of quality of life and suggested several factors may moderate the rating relationship. To investigate this, an intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to observe rating agreement and moderator regression analysis was conducted to explore potential moderators. Potential moderators of caregiver burden, caregiver age, caregiver income, PwD IADLs/ADLs, PwD education, PwD cognitive impairment, PwD depressive symptom severity, PwD behavioural symptom severity, as well as relationship between caregiver and PwD. Utilizing secondary data from 107 recruited dyads, analyses conducted found fair agreement between caregivers and those with dementia while none of the hypothesized factors were found to moderate the rating relationship.
    • Motivation among reluctant readers: Capturing the goal setting experience in the 'Reading Rocks' program

      Sendzik, Samantha; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      This study explored goal setting among children with reading disabilities. Of particular focus was the goal setting experience of participants in a literacy-based program, titled “Reading Rocks”. Reading Rocks, offered by the Learning Disabilities Association of Niagara Region (LDANR), supports children with reading disabilities to become more confident readers. The program aims to strengthen literacy skills among vulnerable readers. Another essential component of the program targets children’s reading motivation through goal setting, a recognized strategy for increasing motivation. I outline the importance of reading, followed by exploring children’s reluctance to read. Goal setting is examined as an opportunity to increase motivation among reluctant readers. My research included a qualitative case study of one child-tutor pair in the program. I utilized a think-aloud protocol, a photo elicitation interview, and researcher observations to collect my data. Lastly, I triangulated the data to analyze how children in Reading Rocks experience goal setting.
    • Motivation and psychological need salience in the experiences of initiating and maintaining exercise as an older female adult

      LeBlanc, Meghan E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Objectives: The primary objective ofthis study was to explore motivation and psychological need salience in the initiatory and maintenance experiences of older female exercIsers. Methods: Female initiates (n = 3) and reflective maintainers (n = 3) 65 years of age or older (M = 76 years; SD = 5.37) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed holistically and categorically, following a hermeneutic approach to inquiry. Results: Perceived importance of exercise benefits appeared to be the strongest motive for initiates at this stage of life and connections to others were perceived as valued, but less important in exercise contexts. Also, listening to one's body over instructions from the exercise leader emerged as a key factor to success. Conclusions: Overall, the results ofthis study implicate more self-determined than controlled motives as sources of regulation in older females' exercise initiation experiences. Evidence for psychological needs was more heterogeneous and less conclusive.
    • Motivation and Reading Achievement: Understanding the Needs and Motivation Processes of Adult Literacy Learners

      Tsujimoto, Kimberley; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Adult struggling readers are understudied and most evidence-based remedial approaches target youth. This thesis examined relationships among motivation constructs across typical and struggling adult readers. Age was also investigated as a moderator in these relationships. Participants included 198 adults in adult basic education and 138 undergraduate students. Examining the influence of self-efficacy on reading achievement, moderation analyses indicated there were stronger relationships for typical readers. Furthermore, stronger relationships were found for younger participants when moderated by age. Additional regression analyses identified positive relationships between two measures of intrinsic motivation and reading value. This relationship was replicated for avoidance and value. Though age was not uniformly sampled across ability grouping, age did not account for these effects. Despite difficulties with reading, adults still exhibited motivation to engage with texts with equal to greater levels of reading value. Value and intrinsic motivation may have unique developmental courses associated with longstanding reading challenges.
    • Moving from values inaction to values-in-action : an exploration of how values can be managed intentionally by national sports organizations

      Bell-Laroche, Dina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      The study examined the intentional use of National Sport Organizations' (NSOs) stated values. Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) was applied to an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach of interviewing NSO senior leaders. One intention of this research was to foster a connection between academia and practitioners, and in so doing highlight the gap between values inaction and values-in-action. Data were collected from nine NSOs through multiple-case studies analysis of interview transcripts, websites, and constitutional statements. Results indicated that while the NSOs operated from a Management by Objectives (MBO) approach they were interested in exploring how Management by Values (MBV) might improve their organization's performance. Eleven themes from the case studies analysis contributed to the development of a framework. The 4-1 framework described how an NSO can progress through different stages by becoming more intentional in how they use their values. Another finding included deepening our understanding of how values are experienced within the NSO and then transferred across the entire sport. Participants also spoke about the tension that arises among their NSO' s values as well as the dominant values held by funding agents. This clash of values needs to be addressed before the tension escalates. Finally, participants expressed a desire to learn more about how values can be used more intentionally to further their organization's purpose. As such, strategies for intentionally leveraging values are also suggested. Further research should explore how helpful the 4-1 framework can be to NSOs leaders who are in the process of identifying or renewing their organization's values.
    • Music Lessons: Exploring the Role and Meaning of Music Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia

      Elliott, Melanie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      An aging population and increasing rates of dementia point to the need for alternative strategies to allow individuals to age in place. The purpose of this multiple case study is to explore, from an insider’s perspective, the role and meaning of music in the lives of individuals with dementia who are aging in place. The following three questions guide this exploration: What does music mean to someone with dementia and if/how has this changed, over time? How does music influence the health and wellbeing of individuals with dementia? How is music integrated into the day-to-day lives of individuals with dementia aging in place? Critical qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured interviews, observations, and videos. All three participants were in the early stages of dementia, living in the community (not in an institution), residing in Ontario, using music in their lives in a routine capacity, and not enrolled in music therapy. The partners of each of the participants were also included in the data collection process. The qualitative data was analyzed following a 10-step process that integrated the textual, auditory, and visual data. Analysis revealed that music plays a beneficial, yet complicated, role in these individuals’ lives. Analysis highlighted ‘connection’ as the central theme of the study with the various ‘connectors’ - self, partner, music and the study itself - as subthemes. Connection to self is discussed through present moment awareness, accessing memories, and self-expression. Connection to partner is explained in light of self-connection and spending time together. The connection to music acknowledges the self and partner as well as the need to keep things “ordinary”. Lastly, connection to the research is a methodological finding that speaks to the transformative nature of qualitative research. Findings from each sub-theme are described using examples from the data and discussed in relation to the literature. This study provides insight into the growing body of interdisciplinary literature dedicated to dementia, music, aging in place, and contemplative practices, as well as makes suggestions for future areas of research.
    • The National Hockey League (NHL) Entry Draft: An Examination of the Impact of Brand Associations Attached to the Russian Hockey Players

      Mansurov, Adel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research was conducted to investigate whether negative brand associations attached to Russian hockey players impact their draft rankings during the National Hockey League (NHL) Entry Draft. A quantitative analysis based on various regression model specifications was used to test whether Russian players were drafted relatively equally to their counterparts in the NHL Entry Draft. The data consisted of the NHL draft picks between 1993 and 2013 and their performance statistics and physical characteristics. The results suggested that Russian players were drafted relatively equal to their counterparts from other countries. Meanwhile, Russian players who played in the CHL before the draft are actually drafted better than Canadians who played in the same league. Hence, the negative brand associations attached to Russians were unlikely to impact their draft rankings. This study redefined the so-called “Russian Factor” from a notion that allegedly damages Russian players’ rankings to one that enhances their rankings.
    • Nationalism and Sporting Culture: A Media Analysis of Croatia’s Participation in the 1998 World Cup

      Milasincic, Andreja; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-12-16)
      The past two centuries have witnessed the rise of nationalist movements and widespread nationalism. As these movements gained strength in Europe, sport played a role in their development. Media representations of sport recount events in a way that reinforces cultural values and this research investigates media representations of Croatian nationalism in the weeks surrounding the country’s third place victory in the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Sociological theories alongside more contemporary theories of sport and nation construction are considered. Croatian newspapers were analyzed for elements of national identity construction. The study concludes that the 1998 World Cup played an important role in Croatia’s on-going construction of nationhood and invention of nationalist traditions. This research further demonstrates sport’s ability to evoke strong emotions that are difficult to witness in other areas of social life and the direct role of sport in garnering nationalism.
    • NCAA Recruiting in the Age of Social Media

      Hanson, Marcus; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study is to determine the various impacts Social Networking Sites (SNS) have on Canadian full scholarship National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division 1 athletes’ recruitment processes. The study employs a qualitative, interview-based methodology. Six Canadian athletes who received full NCAA division 1 scholarships in football, men’s basketball, and women’s basketball were interviewed, as well as three NCAA coaches involved in recruiting processes. It is evident from the findings that SNS have important roles to play in NCAA Division 1 athletes’ recruitment process and there are various aspects of SNS use that determine recruiting effectiveness. All of the athletes who took part in the study along with the coaches were actively involved in SNS during recruiting processes. Twitter was the most preferred SNS platform that is used for recruiting purposes by both athletes and coaches in the study. A primary reason that the athletes gave for using certain SNS platforms is the ability to control the content of the platform and manage how others view them, aligning with Erving Goffman’s self-presentation theory. However, coaches also shared the view that SNS, when not used appropriately, can lead to negative self-presentation, limiting the chances of getting recruited or receiving a full scholarship. This study provides key insights into the role of social media in Canadian high-performance athletes lives and how it impacts their recruitment in NCAA sport.
    • A needs assessment of public health professionals: supporting the implementation of Ontario 2010 revised elementary health and physical education curriculum

      Angra, Ishan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Based on the Comprehensive School Health framework, Ontario's Foundations for a Healthy School (2009) outlines an integrated approach to school health promotion. In this approach the school, community and partners (including public health) are fully engaged With a common goal of youth health. With the recent introductions of the Ontario Public Health Standards (2009) and the revised elementary health and physical education curriculum (2010), the timing for a greater integration of public health with schools is ideal. A needs assessment was conducted to identify the perceived support required by public health professionals to implement the mandates of both policy documents in Ontario. Data was collected for the needs assessment through facilitated discussions at a provincial roundtable event, regional focus groups and individual interviews with public health professionals representing Ontario's 36 public health units. Findings suggest that public health professionals perceive that they require increased resources, greater communication, a clear vision of public health and a suitable understanding of the professional cultures in which they are surrounded in order to effectively support schools. This study expands upon these four categories and the corresponding seventeen themes that were uncovered during the research process.
    • Opioid poisoning and availability of specialized medical care in Ontario, 2002-2006

      Veldhuizen, Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      The prescription of opioid analgesics has risen sharply in North America over the past two decades. This increase has been accompanied by a rise in overdoses. The present study draws on administrative data collected from emergency department contacts to describe the epidemiology of opioid overdose in Ontario b~tween 2002 and 2006 and to examine the role of regional variation in availability of specialist care. The number of poisonings increased from 1250 (10.9 per 100,000) in FY2002 to 1816 (15.2 per 100,000) in FY2005. Local concentration of specialist physicians was significantly associated with the incidence of opioid overdose, inversely at most levels of availability, but positively at very high levels. Regional variation in incidence was also associated with demographics, median family income, and the rate of other drug poisonings. Policy options for limiting opioid-related harms are limited, but improvements in monitoring and clinical management may prove valuable.
    • Organizational capacity and knowledge transfer : a qualitative case study of the 2007 Canada Winter Games host society

      Rioux, Melody; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Understanding and managing the knowledge transfer process in sport organizations is an essential component to enhance organizational capacity. Very little research on either capacity or knowledge transfer within a sport organization exists. Consequently, the purpos e of this qualitative case study was to, examine the transfer of knowledge process within a major games host society. Specifically, two research goals guided the study: 1) To develop a model to explain a knowledge t r ans f e r process in a non-profit ma jor games hos t organization and 2) To examine the relevance of the model to a Canada Games Hos t Society. Data we r e collected from interviews with middle and senior level volunteers as well as senior s t a f f members (n= 27), document s and observations. The findings indicated three barriers to knowledge transfer: structural, systemic, and cultural. As a result of the findings a revised model for knowledge transfer wa s proposed that included modifications related to the direction of knowledge flow, timing of the knowledge transfer process, and group inter-relations. Implications identified the importance of intuition managers, time and organizational levels for successful knowledge transfer. Recommendations for future host societies and the Canada Games Council are presented.
    • Outcome Evaluation of a Campus-Based Quit and Win Contest

      Taylor, Lindsay; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-11)
      This study examined abstinence outcomes of a provincial, campus-based Quit and Win contest relative to contestants’ assessments of the prize, buddy support, social support network, and emails. Of the 288 participants providing baseline data, 201 self-reported their smoking and quitting behaviours, use of quit aides, and perceptions of contest components. On 5-point scales, perceived values of the contest prize, buddy support, social support network and email were 4.42, 3.95, 3.89, and 3.46 respectively. Intention to treat analysis showed 27.8% of participants achieved 6-week contest-period abstinence; 19.8% achieved 3-month sustained abstinence. Odds of achieving 3-month abstinence were influenced by age (OR = 1.10, CI =1.03, 1.18) and use of pharmacological quit aides (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.20, 0.88), but not smoking behaviours or contest components. Contest prizes and support were valued, but played an uncertain role in quitting success. Future research might examine their roles in contestant recruitment or retention.