• The interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) by the IOC/Olympic Games 1994-2008

      Paquette, Justine; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to examine the interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) within the Olympic 11 Movement. Two research questions guided the inquiry - first, how has the concept of ES been defined by the International Olympic Committee (lOC), and second, how has the concept of ES been defined and enacted by the Organizing Committees ofthe Olympic Games (OCOGs)? During the past two decades, the International Olympic Committee (lOC) established several policies and programs related to ES. Its actions reflect a broader trend of environmentalism within economic and social spheres around the world (Milton-Smith, 2002). Despite the numerous initiatives, the Olympic Games continue to cause significant environmental damage. Frey, et al. (2007) argued that the Olympic Movement contradicts the fundamental premises of ES because the Games are hosted in a two week time period, are situated in a confined area, and accumulate operating and infrastructure costs in the billions of dollars. Further, Etzion (2007) stated "there is positive and significant correlation between firm siz~ and environmental performance" (p. 642) and in the context of the Olympics the sizeimpact relation is striking. Since 1972, the year the UN launched its international environmental awareness efforts, the Summer Olympics grew to 201 nations (39% increase), 10,500 athletes (32% increase), 28 sports (30% increase), and 302 events (43% increase) (Johnson, 2004; Girginov & Parry, 2005; Upegui, 2008). The proliferation of Games activities counters the ES principles that exist within many of the IOC declarations, policies and programs.
    • Investigating Player Salaries and Performance in the National Hockey League

      Fullard, Jonathan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-04-27)
      This thesis examines salary structure types (hierarchical or compressed) as predictors of team performance in the National Hockey League (NHL). Additionally, an analysis of goalie statistics is completed in order to determine what, if any, performance measures relate to salary. Data in this research were collected from the 2005-06 season up to the 2010-11 season. Salary inequality/equality (Gini coefficient) was used in a regression analysis to determine if it was an effective predictor of team performance (n = 178) (winning percentage). The results indicated that a hierarchical salary structure increased team performance, although the amount of variability explained was very small. Another regression analysis was completed to determine if any goalie performance measures (n = 245) were effective predictors of individual salary. A regression analysis was employed and indicated that goalie performance measures predicted 19.8% of variance to salary. The only statistical significant variable was games played.
    • Investigating the association between motor proficiency and body satisfaction in grade 5 children

      Del Ben, Megan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The inverse relationships between motor proficiency and overweight, and between overweight and body satisfaction have been well documented. However, the association between motor proficiency and body satisfaction has been largely neglected in the literature. Knowledge of the influence that low motor proficiency may have on body satisfaction is essential if the full burden that those children with poor motor abilities face is to be fully recognized, as low body satisfaction has been linked to an increased risk for low self-esteem, depression, and disordered eating. The cohort investigated in this report included 1907 (971 males, 936 female) Grade 5 students from the Physical Health Activity Study Team (PHAST) project in the Niagara Region of Southern Ontario. Children were grouped as overweight or healthy weight (using BMI cut offs for age and gender), and as low motor proficiency or normal motor proficiency (cut-off set at lowest 10% Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-short form (BOTMPsf). It was apparent from analyses of variance (ANOVAs) by gender that boys demonstrated significantly higher motor proficiency scores. As a result separate multiple logistic regressions by gender were used to determine the relationship between body satisfaction, BMI, and motor proficiency. There was a significant relationship between BMI and body satisfaction for both genders (p<0.01) and for males a significant relationship between motor proficiency and body satisfaction (p<0.03). Overweight females were less likely to be satisfied with their bodies with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.33 (CI: 0.23-0.47). The same trend was found in overweight males (OR: 0.42, CI: 0.29-0.59). Males with low motor proficiency were significantly less satisfied with their bodies (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.29-0.97). Males with poor motor proficiency were at greater risk for low body satisfaction regardless of their overweight status. Overweight is known to be prevalent among children with low motor proficiency and, these results indicate that low body satisfaction is also a significant concern. These findings confirm that attention needs to be paid to perceptions of body satisfaction among children with low motor proficiency. This is particularly true for boys, as their bodies may fail them in two common societal expectations, shape and skill and for whom their risk of low body satisfaction is heightened by their poor motor proficiency.
    • Investigating the Relationship between Teaching Games for Understanding and High School Physical Education Students’ Enjoyment, Self-Efficacy, and Intentions to Enroll

      Robertson, Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Physical education (PE) is a useful course which provides a variety of physical, cognitive, and affective benefits to students; however, rates of student enrollment in Canadian PE classes are in decline (Lodewyk & Pybus, 2013). Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) was developed as a means of teaching students to be better games players and enjoy PE more than traditional teaching methods (e.g. Collier, 2005; Mandigo, Holt, Anderson, & Sheppard, 2008). Research has demonstrated that there is a link between TGfU and enjoyment (e.g. Mandigo et al., 2008), self-efficacy (Gubacs-Collins, 2007), and between enjoyment and participation in sports or physical activity (Kidman & Lombardo, 2010); however, there has been minimal research examining TGfU’s effect on student enrollment. Three ninth-grade PE teachers and 71 grade nine students in a southwestern Ontario school obtained consent to participate in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data on four occasions across a two-week TGfU unit. Repeated-measures analysis revealed that ninth grade student enjoyment, self-efficacy, and intentions to enroll remained static over time (p > 0.05). Analysis also revealed that students who reported high enjoyment at baseline decreased in enjoyment over the course of the TGfU unit (p = 0.00). Students reported that the unit was fun and they liked the games aspect of TGfU; while the students disliked the unit because it was boring. Findings of decreased enjoyment in students with initially high enjoyment is novel to this study with previous findings have shown an increase in enjoyment (e.g., Jones, Marshall, Peters, 2010). Future research should continue to examine the effects of various instructional models on student enrollment to provide the benefits that PE has to offer.
    • Investigating the Value of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Nintendo Wii Physical Activity for Older Adults

      Morse, Carson; Applied Health Sciences Program
      There has been much debate on best practices for limiting negative outcomes associated with relocation, sedentary lifestyle, and social isolation after older adults relocate to a residential care facility. This thesis is an exploration of the novel intervention combining Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Nintendo Wii gameplay that was designed to improve initiation and adherence to physical activity. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is an empirically based psychological intervention that utilizes mindfulness and acceptance techniques along with values-based action to improve one’s perception of life worth. The primary aim for this thesis was to understand more about the experiences that older adults residing in a residential care facility have with this intervention. Four participants were observed during the intervention and interviewed after the intervention. Multiple forms of analyses were performed such as, inductive interview content analysis, inductive and deductive analysis of observational field notes, deductive analysis of interviews, and deductive analysis of inductive findings. Results revealed that Nintendo Wii gameplay provides a convenient outlet for physical activity where older adults can participate in activities they once enjoyed and individuals with minimal functionality have the capacity to successfully and safely play the Nintendo Wii. Further, older adults prefer to participate in physical activities that are fun and do not feel like exercise; and, participate in small groups rather than large groups. After the intervention only one participant perceived that participation lead to physical health improvements, however, all participants perceived that the intervention increased mental health and social functioning levels. Additionally, all participants understood and were in agreement with the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, which increased initiation and adherence to physical activity. The intervention featured in this study could be useful for these purposes with similar participants in residential care facilities, although additional research is necessary to corroborate the findings of this study and to continue developing new knowledge in this area.
    • Investigation into the Motivation Strategies of the Elite ITU Triathlon Coaches

      Scull, Jeffery (Jeff); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-02)
      The purpose of this study was to identify elite triathlon coaches’ beliefs and practices as they pertain to motivating world-class triathletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four elite triathlon coaches operating out of three different training groups. Furthermore, the athletes within these groups completed questionnaires assessing their motivational profiles, basic psychological needs, and perceived autonomy support. The interviews were analyzed deductively according to the Motivational Model of the Coach-Athlete Relationship (Mageau & Vallerland, 2003). The data revealed that coaches predominantly used an autonomy-supportive coaching style while also providing structure and involvement. The coaches emphasized an individualized approach for each athlete to best meet their needs. Athletes’ responses to the questionnaires provide support for the coaches’ philosophies and perceived behaviours. The findings of this study provide valuable direction for elite and developing coaches looking to enhance their communication skills in order to optimize athlete needs and motivation.
    • Is Pride a Vice or a Virtue? Associations to Well-Being and Physical Activity

      Gilchrist, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      The first objective of the present study was to determine patterns of association between authentic and hubristic fitness-related pride to outcomes of well-being and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). A second objective was to examine motivation as a potential mediator of these relationships. Participants (N = 119) were young adults who completed self-report questionnaires at two time points separated by 4-weeks. Authentic and hubristic pride were associated with well-being and LTPA at Time 1 and Time 2. Changes in pride were associated with changes in well-being but not LTPA. Results of the mediation analyses highlight the role of more autonomous motives, specifically intrinsic motivation, as important mediators between pride and well-being. Motivation did not mediate the relationship between pride and LTPA. Overall, both authentic and hubristic pride seem to be important in the promotion of well-being More research is needed to elucidate the relationship between pride and LTPA.
    • The journey towards comprehensive school health within an aboriginal community

      Matsumura, Lyndsey.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this research is to describe the journey towards Comprehensive School Health at two Aboriginal elementary schools. An advocate and a healthy schools committee were identified at both schools and were responsible for developing initiatives to create a healthy school community. A case study was used to gather an in-depth understanding of Comprehensive School Health for the two schools involved. As a researcher, I functioned within the role of a participantobserver, as I was actively involved in the programs and initiatives completed in both schools. The research process included: the pilot study, ethics clearance and distribution of letters of invitation and consent forms. Data collection included 16 semi-structured, guided interviews with principals, teachers, and stupents. Participant observations included sites of the gymnasium, classroom, playgrounds, school environments, bulletin boards as well as artifact analysis of decuments such as school newsletters, physical education schedules and school handbooks. The interviews were transcribed and coded using an inductive approach which involves finding patterns, themes and categories from the data (patton, 2002). Research questions guided the findings as physical activity, physical education, nutrition and transportation were discussed. Themes developed t~rough coding were teacherstudent interactions, cultural traditions, time constraints and professional development and were discussed using a Comprehensive School Health framework.
    • Keep Your Eye on the Game: The Impact of Distraction and Scoreboard Watching during Major League Baseball Playoff Races

      Ferguson, Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examines 11 years and 26,370 of Major League Baseball’s (i.e., MLB) game outcomes to test whether distraction, through scoreboard watching, causes teams to choke under pressure. Results indicate that scoreboard watching significantly impacts the probability of winning a game, especially in playoff races. Specifically, teams in a playoff race had a 0.158 lower probability of winning games when the division leader won its game the previous day. Consistent with distraction theory, the analysis also shows that the distraction effects are 0.224 greater on home teams. There is evidence of increased distraction as criticality of games increase. When there are fewer than 10 games remaining in a playoff race, the impact of a division leader win reduces a team’s win probability by 0.243. Changes to league structure reduced win probability by 0.039 for seasons starting in 2012. This involved the addition of a Wild Card team to each league and an increase to the value of winning a division. This study helps fill a gap in the literature in relation to research on external factors and their impact on game outcomes. If a team can account for factors related to winning a game then it could be possible to gain a competitive advantage over the opposition. The findings also have practical applications. MLB teams can take initiatives to eliminate distraction and keep players’ attention on the task at hand surrounding critical games.
    • Leisure as a Facilitator of Posttraumatic Growth in Individuals Living with Cancer

      Vercillo, Tabitha; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      Although there is a growing body of literature that shifts the focus of chronic illness and trauma research to personal growth, there is limited literature on the role that leisure has in this process (e.g., Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004). This qualitative study explored the role of leisure in the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG) for individuals living with cancer. The findings revealed that leisure influences PTG in four domains: (a) building meaningful relationships, (b) providing experiences to develop and maintain a sense of self, (c) creating opportunities to experience positive emotions, and (d) finding purpose in life. Findings provide insight on how individuals living with cancer perceive the role that leisure has in facilitating positive change after diagnosis. These findings will better enable healthcare and leisure providers to understand the unique needs of individuals living with cancer, and help them to facilitate meaningful leisure programs to encourage PTG.
    • Leisure connections : a case study to understand facilitation techniques with survivors of trauma

      Greig, Carrie L.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Leisure-based therapy is a potentially effective approach to supporting survivors of trauma in their healing. The purpose ofthis qualitative case study was to describe the recreation therapist's facilitation techniques of Leisure Connections, a unique leisurebased psycho-educational group for survivors of trauma, and explore how the facilitation was experienced by participants. Qualitative case study design, following the methods of Yin (1994) was used. One two week, three session Leisure Connections group was observed. Six participants completed the Group· Therapy Alliance Scale (pinsof & Catherall, 1986) and reflection cards. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the recreation therapist and four participants. Six themes emerged describing group leader interventions, recreation therapist's actions, recreation therapist's preparation and reflections, group members' experience of a therapeutic alliance, group cohesion, and prior influences and assumptions. Therapeutic alliance and group cohesion were influenced by the recreation therapist's group leader interventions (drawing out, processing, protecting) and actions. The context of the group within a therapeutic community milieu was an important influence.
    • LEISURE CONNECTIONS AND HEALING FOLLOWING TRAUMA: CONSTRUCTIVIST AND EXISTENTIAL REFLECTIONS AND THEORIZING

      Miatello, Ashleigh; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-10-11)
      Trauma can have lasting effects on health (CAMH, 2010; DSM-IV, 1994; Lazarus, 1966), negatively influencing meanings and experiences of leisure in relation to health (Griffin, 2002, 2005; Meister & Pedlar, 1996). This interpretive grounded theory explored understandings of leisure during Leisure Connections and how Leisure Connections provides a context for healing from trauma. Data included observations, interviews with six participants, and reflection cards. Nine themes emerged: responding to trauma in leisure, letting go of familiar coping patterns and opening to joy, being in the moment of small steps and simple things, changing understandings of self, reconnecting with the body, shifting to internal motivation, choosing, reconnecting with others in leisure, balancing life with leisure, and growth and connections. Leisure Connections supported participants to explore leisure and its benefits as issues arise, to understand and respond differently. Leisure Connections provides boundary situations critical for existential growth and opportunity to change coping patterns.
    • Leisure-time physical activity in individuals with osteoporosis : associations with psychological well-being

      Gunnell, Katie E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      With approximately 16% of the Canadian population living with osteoporosis, and rates expected to increase (Osteoporosis Canada, 2009), cost-effective treatment modalities that improve bone health and psychological well-being reflect an important public health agenda. Physical activity has been implicated as one non-pharmaceutical mechanism to help improve psychological well-being in the general population (Fox, Stathi, McKenna, & Davis, 2007) and in people diagnosed with osteoporosis (Osteoporosis Canada, 2007). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTP A) and well-being in people diagnosed with osteoporosis. A secondary purpose, using Basic Needs Theory (BNT; Deci & Ryan, 2002) was to determine if the fulfillment of three psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy and relatedness) mediated the relationship between LTP A and well-being. People diagnosed with osteoporosis (N= 190; Mage = 68.14; SDage = 11.54) were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires assessing L TP A, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and perceived psychological need satisfaction in physical activity contexts. Bivariate correlations revealed a pattern of negligible (r's -0.02 to 0.35) to small correlations between LTP A and well-being with contextual positive affect (r = 0.24) and subjective vitality (r = 0.22) demonstrating statistical significance (p < .01). Results of the multiple mediation analysis indicated that perceived satisfaction of the three psychological needs mediated the relationship between LTPA and well-being with perceived competence emerging as a unique mediator. As such, LTP A was positively associated with well-being in people who are diagnosed with osteoporosis, and the fulfillment of the three psychological needs may be the mechanism through which this 111 effect is carried. Health promotion specialists and practitioners should encourage patients with osteoporosis to engage in LTP A, and support their needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. Practical implications for researchers and health promotion specialists are discussed in terms ofthe results of this investigation.
    • Letting Your Students Fail: A Grounded Theory Study of Overcoming Failure Experiences in Undergraduate Experiential Education

      Finnigan, Julie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research aimed to understand how students overcome and learn from failure experiences in a non-clinical undergraduate health-related experiential education program. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to address this question. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten previous students from an experiential education program (I-EQUIP) using a semi-structured interview guide. Reflexive journaling and memo-writing were also employed as methods of data collection. A theoretical explanation was generated highlighting how students overcome failure through altering their expectations in four themes: 1) evolving expectations of self, 2) managing expectations of others, 3) modifying expectations of project, and 4) building flexibility of expectations. This research describes failure as a tool for learning, supporting it as a positive experience as opposed to a negative one. It also presents recommendations for pedagogy on failure in experiential education programs, describing necessary supports, how to build flexible thinking, and the importance of introducing failure early in the curriculum. Ultimately, results of this study inform a framework to help students overcome failure in experiential programs, identifying how to harness these as learning opportunities and highlighting opportunities for program improvement.
    • Leveling the Playing Field: Assessing Physical Literacy in Children and Youth with Physical Disabilities

      Dugas, Erica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction: Research indicates that there are challenges associated with individuals with a disability acquiring mature movement patterns similar to their able-bodied peers (Capio, Sit & Abernethy, 2011), resulting in the notion that they are physically illiterate. Additionally, the benefits of physical literacy (PL) have not been comprehensively investigated in children/youth with disabilities, nor is there a reliable tool to assess PL in this population. Purpose: The main purpose of this research is to pilot a PL assessment tool for children/youth with physical disabilities. Methods: By modifying elements from Canadian Sport for Life’s Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth (PLAY), participants recruited from two recreation programs will take part in a pre- and post-test assessment using the amended tool. Lived experiences are also documented using semi-structured interviews. Results: Results indicate that everyone, regardless of ability, can be physically literate. Participants’ scores in individual PLAYSelf categories paralleled their ranking of PL as the most significant category of literacy. However, this was contradicted by ~70% of participants who testified to partaking in sedentary activities during their leisure time and reported limited participation in a wide range of physical activities. Conclusions: PL is an inclusive concept accessible to all and represents a unique journey for each person. The revised PL assessment tool represents the multidimensional facets of PL, but improvement is necessary to accommodate Paralympic or adapted sports/activities in the PLAYInventory questionnaire. Future research should look to comprehensively assess levels of physical literacy in individuals with any disability or exceptionality.
    • Life after hockey : an examination of athletic career transition and the National Hockey League's career transition program

      Andrijiw, Andre Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The existent body of athletic career retirement literature is scant in studies of career transition programs. In an effort to attend to this analytical gap, the present study set out to examine the transitions of National Hockey League (NHL; ice hockey) alumni, as well as the effect ~and effectiveness of their respective career transition program, the Life After Hockey program. Interviews with 17 NHL/program alumni revealed that quality of transition (to post-playing life) was affected by: the continuity between pre- and postretirement environments; athletic identity; physical/psychological health (particularly with respect to post-concussion syndrome); selective coping strategies (e.g., preretirement planning (e.g., financial planning, continued education), positive reinterpretation, alcohol/substance abuse); and social support. Also affecting quality of transition, and found to be highly effective (particularly in generating new occupational opportunities, assisting in the acquisition of new skills, and providing a system of continuous support), was the Life After Hockey program.
    • The lived experience of mothering a child with autism: a hermeneutic phenomenological understanding

      Micsinszki, Samantha; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-28)
      Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex developmental disorder with increasing prevalence. Despite the significant role of mothers, often seen as primary caregivers, there is limited understanding of this experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the everyday experience of mothers with children with autism. Accounts of lived experience were collected through research conversations with six mothers and analyzed using van Manen’s (1990) orientation to hermeneutic phenomenology. The main themes include: It Can’t Be Autism, The Womb is Extended, The Locus of Other, and The Womb is Now and is Forever. The findings suggest that mothers experienced a transformation from mother to mother with a child with autism; one that mirrors the transformation from woman to mother (Bergum, 1989). In this transformation, mothers move from suspicion of the potential diagnosis to acceptance that they are mothers with children whose needs define them and potentially, mothers whose wombs are forever extended.
    • Lived experiences of children with disabilities in various movement programs

      Hedley, Melanie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      This research offered children with disabilities the opportunity to express their voices in the description of their movement experiences. Three children aged 10-13 shared their experiences in school physical education and adapted physical activity. Observations of participants using interactive media activities in an adapted physical activity program were used to supplement interviews. The aim of this research was to discover how future professionals are prepared to design and implement physical activity and physical education programs for children with disabilities. A document analysis of Ontario university course calendars in the fields of physical education and kinesiology, disability studies, and teacher education was utilized. Data from each data context underwent four levels of reduction: 1) content, 2) categorical, 3) thematic, and 4) indigenous typologies. Findings are presented at each level leading to the presentation of indigenous typologies. Typologies of Forbidden-ness and Dichotomous Thinking were identified in the research.
    • Locating Intergenerational Sense of Self: Intersections of Genealogy with Leisure and Tourism

      Higginbotham, Gregory; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-03-07)
      Situated at the intersection of leisure and tourism, there is currently a renewed interest and curiosity in ancestral lineages. Focusing on amateur genealogists who pursue, and travel for, a leisure engagement of genealogy, this qualitative research study endeavours to investigate their quests for personal identity and locations of an intergenerational sense of self. With the adoption of a narrative inquiry method, life story interviews were conducted with four amateur genealogists. Findings from an analysis of the narratives have been organized into five core themes, each of which contributes to our understanding of these amateur genealogists’ experiences of leisure and travel. While the amateur genealogists do not acknowledge their leisure engagements as a quest for personal identity, they make use of such engagements to locate an intergenerational sense of self and gain enriched self-understandings. Moreover, by facilitating intersections of genealogy, leisure, and tourism, several key insights are offered that may be of particular interest to scholars in both fields of study.
    • Major Sport Event Operational Planning Issues and Strategies: A Multi-Case Delphi Study

      Greco, Nicole; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examined the operational planning, implementation and execution issues of major sport events, as well as the mitigation and management strategies used to address these issues, with the aim of determining best practices in sport event operational planning. The three Research Questions were: 1) What can previous major sport events provide to guide the operational management of future events? 2) What are the operational issues that arise in the planning and execution of a major sport event, how are they mitigated and what are the strategies used to deal with these issues? 3) What are the best practices for sport event operational planning and how can these practices aid future events? Data collection involved a modified Delphi technique that consisted of one round of in-depth interviews followed by two rounds of questionnaires. Both data collection and analysis were guided by an adaptation of the work of Parent, Rouillard & Leopkey (2011) with a focus on previously established issue and strategy categories. The results provided a list of Top 26 Prominent Issues and Top 17 Prominent Strategies with additional issue-strategy links that can be used to aid event managers producing future major sport events. The following issue categories emerged as having had the highest impact on previous major sport events that participants had managed: timing, funding and knowledge management. In addition, participants used strategies from the following categories most frequently: other, formalized agreements and communication.