• Human Resource Training and National Sport Organization Managers: Examining the Impact of Training on Individual and Organizational Performance

      Millar, Patricia; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Within sport, a tremendous amount of effort is committed to the on-the-field performance of athletes and coaches, neglecting the off-the-field performance and development of sport managers. This study examines the impact of human resource training on the performance of five Canadian national sport organizations (NSO) and their managers (N=22). Data were collected on three outcome variables (learning, individual performance, organizational performance) and three mediating variables (motivation to transfer, training design, organizational climate) at three time measures (pre-training, post-training1, post-training2). Results indicate that training improves the learning and individual performance of sport managers, as well as the organizational performance of NSOs. Varying relationships were found at each of the three time measures, demonstrating that a progression to training-related performance change exists, while providing support for three levels of analysis (individual, organizational, systemic). Implications and future research directions are discussed and highlight the need for on-going training opportunities for Canadian sport managers.
    • Identity in Motion: A Case Study on the Dance Experiences of a Dancer with an Intellectual Disability

      Harris, Emily B.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Many individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) experience significant challenges and are underserved in our society. Although some of these challenges are directly related to their disability, most of the difficulties that people with ID face are caused by negative social attitudes towards ID. The negative consequences of stigmatization towards people with ID create barriers to creating positive sense of self among members of this population. Studies indicate that leisure pursuits, such as recreational dance, can help cultivate well-being and enhance sense of self. This hermeneutic phenomenological case study provides new understanding to the phenomenon where dance, disability, and sense of self intersect. This case study explores the experiences of one individual with an ID who is involved with recreational dance and presents the ways that recreational dance impacts the sense of self of this individual. The results from this research reveal that recreational dance positively contributes to well-being. The experiences of this young dancer were addressed primarily in terms of his social connections, character strengths, and personal growth. In addition, dance has a positive impact on his sense of self as it enhances his self-confidence, provides him with positive feedback from others, and offers a context through which he can overcome barriers and challenge stigmatization. This case study provides insight on leisure-related concepts as well as offers implications to individuals with ID, integrated dance, and the therapeutic recreation profession.
    • The Impact of Labeling in Childhood on the Sense of Self of Young Adults

      Solomon, Rosemary; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Research studies on labeling of children have either focused on the effects of formal labels on the lives of children with exceptionalities and mental health issues, or the effect of informal labeling by parents, peers and teachers on teenagers. The effects of informal labeling in childhood and its implications in later life or for one’s career choice have not yet been examined. This study adds to the growing research on informal labeling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine what negative effects informal labeling of children as deviant had on their lives. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with seventeen young adults, between the ages of sixteen and thirty years, from a post-secondary institution and an organization for homeless youth. The results showed an initial negative impact on the lives of the young adults during their childhood and early teenage years but as they progressed into their late teens and early adulthood, most were able to overcome their negative labels suggesting resilience. There were no significant gender differences in the impact of the labels. The implications of the study for policy makers and parents are discussed as well as some recommendations for parents and practitioners are offered.
    • The Impact of Personal Trainer’s Leadership Style on Self-Presentational Concerns, Enjoyment, Task Self-Efficacy and Intention to Exercise in an Introductory Weight Training Orientation

      Kennedy, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the present study was to examine two leadership styles of personal trainers (bland versus enriched) to evaluate their effects on exercise-related outcomes. Participants were 103 university women with no previous experience weight training. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two leadership style conditions. They completed primary measures prior to being introduced to the personal trainer. Next, participants completed an introductory weight training session, followed by post-manipulation measures. The leadership styles were successfully manipulated. Participants in the enriched leadership style condition reported significantly higher levels of enjoyment and intention to exercise. Participants in the bland leadership style condition reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety; no differences were found for task self-efficacy, self-presentational efficacy, social physique anxiety, or handgrip performance between groups. Thus, an enriched leadership style of personal trainers can increase positive psychological outcomes.
    • The Impact of Social Media on Athletes' Self-Efficacy

      Gorrell, Elyse; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study is to understand how social media affects athletes’ self-efficacy. With the ubiquitous presence of social media, it was hypothesized that via social media the source persuasion — one of the four sources that regulates self-efficacy — may be used as a way to encourage or discourage athletes in believing they have, or lack, the skills necessary to complete a task; therefore, persuading athletes to become more or less assured in their abilities despite past experiences. A phenomenological approach was utilized for this study to assist the researcher in conceptualizing ideas that might be dismissed by the boundaries of more traditional approaches. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 10 high-performance athletes in combative sports, and a cross-interview by-question analysis was performed on the data to determine the patterns and themes from the data. Results indicate that social media, and the way that athletes use social media, does have an effect on athletes’ self-efficacy, however the impact of self-efficacy depends on the social media usage.
    • In Search of Convergence: A Co-citation Analysis of Three Sport Management Journals

      Ciomaga, Bogdan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-10-11)
      Responding to a series of articles in sport management literature calling for more diversity in terms of areas of interest or methods, this study warns against the danger of excessively fragmenting this field of research. The works of Kuhn (1962) and Pfeffer (1993) are taken as the basis of an argument that connects convergence with scientific strength. However, being aware of the large number of counterarguments directed at this line of reasoning, a new model of convergence, which focuses on clusters of research contributions with similar areas of interest, methods, and concepts, is proposed. The existence of these clusters is determined with the help of a bibliometric analysis of publications in three sport management journals. This examination determines that there are justified reasons to be concerned about the level of convergence in the field, pointing out to a reduced ability to create large clusters of contributions in similar areas of interest.
    • Increasing father involvement in the care of their infant using text messages: The DadRocks study

      Flynn-Bowman, Allison; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Studies have shown that interventions aimed at the transition to fatherhood can have benefits to fathers. Yet there are few studies specifically designed for fathers at their transition to parenthood, despite fathers having asked for resources specifically tailored for them. DadRocks is a minimalist (i.e., low-cost) intervention that uses text messages to address fathers as they transition to fatherhood. DadRocks has been successfully piloted with Vietnamese fathers, but not in a Western sample of fathers. In our pilot of DadRocks with Canadian fathers, SMS messages were sent to seventeen fathers 3-5 times a week. Messages provided developmentally appropriate information such as games to play with their infants, milestones to observe and links to credible websites for information. Fathers who had more positive attitudes towards father-infant relationship reported significantly more father-infant interaction. Father-infant interaction, especially play, increased between baseline, three months and six months. Fathers who reported more engagement with the messages had significantly more positive attitude and more affectionate behavior. First-time fathers felt most supported by the texts. Fathers with greater anxiety also reported using more recommended resources. Fathers generally liked the intervention, and provided suggestions for future messages. Our pilot data support the development of a more comprehensive experimental study of DadRocks. with a large community sample that could help determine the extent to which this low-cost intervention can improve father-infant relationships. Overall, our data suggest that text messages may be a lost-cost way to communicate with fathers in ways that promote and support positive paternal care.
    • The Influence of Demographics on Perceived Sport Event Impacts: 2017 Canadian Women’s Curling Championship

      Charlebois, Chris; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examines the perceived event impacts of attendees at the 2017 Scotties Tournament of Hearts (a national women’s curling event), that was held in St. Catharines, Ontario. Drawing on the recommendations of previous literature, the study investigates the perceived event impacts on attendees of a national sport event – the 2017 Canadian Women’s Curling Championships – by multiple socio-demographic characteristics. Multiple theoretical lenses are applied to understand the perceptions of the respondents. Utilizing a previously developed social impact scale model (Kim, Mun Jun, Walker, & Drane, 2015), a survey was completed by event attendees. In total, a sample size of 239 was used to conduct the study. Following reliability and validity tests on the model, MANOVA tests were completed to explore statistically significant impact factors and the influence that age, income levels, education levels, sport affinity, and residency (local and non-local) had on perceived event impacts. Results indicate that age and sport affinity (demographic variables) have a statistically significant influence on the overall perceived event impact. The study examines the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on perceived impacts at a non-mega sport event. Further, the research provides insight into an approach for conducting sport event impact research in that researchers need to further explore how event characteristics themselves (e.g., total participants, scale or geographic location) can influence perceived impact. Thus, the study suggests that a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to event impact research is not realistic. As a result, future research will need to explore the influence of socio-demographic factors and the way in which event characteristics can impact the exchange process that occurs, informing their perceived impact.
    • The Influence of Motivational Behaviours and Goal Profiles on Positive Youth Development

      Marini, Matthew; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Positive Youth Development (PYD) research has started to shift focus onto how different internal factors such as temperament, dispositions, and/or personality characteristics could influence levels of PYD for youth participating is organized sport. The purpose of this study is to examine how different goal profiles, specifically categorized by diverse levels of task and ego orientation, can influence levels of PYD in an organized youth sport setting. One hundred youth sport participants (mean age = 16.8) completed the short form Youth Experiences Survey for Sport (short form YES-S; Sullivan et al., 2013) to measure PYD, as well as the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duba 1989) to assess each athlete’s goal profile. A TwoStep Cluster Analysis was used to classify each individual’s personal goal profile into 3 statistically different cluster groupings. Results indicated significant interaction between the PYD outcome factor of Initiative vs. Clusters [F(2,95)= 10.86, p < 0.001, p2= 0.19] as well as Goal Setting vs. Clusters [F(2,95)= 3.95, p < 0.05, p2= 0.08]. Post-hoc analyses provided results that suggest that those athletes who are more task oriented have fostered more positive outcomes from sport, therefore having more goal setting skills and initiative.
    • The Influence of the Media on Shaping Perceptions of Leadership in Sport: A Within and Between Groups Design

      Kluke, Karilynn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      An experimental design that included both between-group and within-group designs was used to assess media influence on perceptions of sport leadership. Participants were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, where each group completed two separate survey sessions regarding leader personality traits and behaviours. During the second survey session, experimental Groups 1 and 2 watched a video on a separate, respective sport leader prior to filling out the survey. There were a total of 104 participants (N = 104) for the first session, and 99 (N = 99) participants completed the second session. One-way ANOVA, factorial repeated measures ANOVA, and ANCOVA were used for data analysis. Results indicate a significant change in Group 2’s results after watching the video clip, thus rejecting the null hypotheses. Results and implications are discussed, highlighting their relationships to sport and media related theories and sport management practice.
    • The interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) by the IOC/Olympic Games 1994-2008

      Paquette, Justine; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to examine the interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) within the Olympic 11 Movement. Two research questions guided the inquiry - first, how has the concept of ES been defined by the International Olympic Committee (lOC), and second, how has the concept of ES been defined and enacted by the Organizing Committees ofthe Olympic Games (OCOGs)? During the past two decades, the International Olympic Committee (lOC) established several policies and programs related to ES. Its actions reflect a broader trend of environmentalism within economic and social spheres around the world (Milton-Smith, 2002). Despite the numerous initiatives, the Olympic Games continue to cause significant environmental damage. Frey, et al. (2007) argued that the Olympic Movement contradicts the fundamental premises of ES because the Games are hosted in a two week time period, are situated in a confined area, and accumulate operating and infrastructure costs in the billions of dollars. Further, Etzion (2007) stated "there is positive and significant correlation between firm siz~ and environmental performance" (p. 642) and in the context of the Olympics the sizeimpact relation is striking. Since 1972, the year the UN launched its international environmental awareness efforts, the Summer Olympics grew to 201 nations (39% increase), 10,500 athletes (32% increase), 28 sports (30% increase), and 302 events (43% increase) (Johnson, 2004; Girginov & Parry, 2005; Upegui, 2008). The proliferation of Games activities counters the ES principles that exist within many of the IOC declarations, policies and programs.
    • Investigating Player Salaries and Performance in the National Hockey League

      Fullard, Jonathan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-04-27)
      This thesis examines salary structure types (hierarchical or compressed) as predictors of team performance in the National Hockey League (NHL). Additionally, an analysis of goalie statistics is completed in order to determine what, if any, performance measures relate to salary. Data in this research were collected from the 2005-06 season up to the 2010-11 season. Salary inequality/equality (Gini coefficient) was used in a regression analysis to determine if it was an effective predictor of team performance (n = 178) (winning percentage). The results indicated that a hierarchical salary structure increased team performance, although the amount of variability explained was very small. Another regression analysis was completed to determine if any goalie performance measures (n = 245) were effective predictors of individual salary. A regression analysis was employed and indicated that goalie performance measures predicted 19.8% of variance to salary. The only statistical significant variable was games played.
    • Investigating the association between motor proficiency and body satisfaction in grade 5 children

      Del Ben, Megan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The inverse relationships between motor proficiency and overweight, and between overweight and body satisfaction have been well documented. However, the association between motor proficiency and body satisfaction has been largely neglected in the literature. Knowledge of the influence that low motor proficiency may have on body satisfaction is essential if the full burden that those children with poor motor abilities face is to be fully recognized, as low body satisfaction has been linked to an increased risk for low self-esteem, depression, and disordered eating. The cohort investigated in this report included 1907 (971 males, 936 female) Grade 5 students from the Physical Health Activity Study Team (PHAST) project in the Niagara Region of Southern Ontario. Children were grouped as overweight or healthy weight (using BMI cut offs for age and gender), and as low motor proficiency or normal motor proficiency (cut-off set at lowest 10% Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-short form (BOTMPsf). It was apparent from analyses of variance (ANOVAs) by gender that boys demonstrated significantly higher motor proficiency scores. As a result separate multiple logistic regressions by gender were used to determine the relationship between body satisfaction, BMI, and motor proficiency. There was a significant relationship between BMI and body satisfaction for both genders (p<0.01) and for males a significant relationship between motor proficiency and body satisfaction (p<0.03). Overweight females were less likely to be satisfied with their bodies with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.33 (CI: 0.23-0.47). The same trend was found in overweight males (OR: 0.42, CI: 0.29-0.59). Males with low motor proficiency were significantly less satisfied with their bodies (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.29-0.97). Males with poor motor proficiency were at greater risk for low body satisfaction regardless of their overweight status. Overweight is known to be prevalent among children with low motor proficiency and, these results indicate that low body satisfaction is also a significant concern. These findings confirm that attention needs to be paid to perceptions of body satisfaction among children with low motor proficiency. This is particularly true for boys, as their bodies may fail them in two common societal expectations, shape and skill and for whom their risk of low body satisfaction is heightened by their poor motor proficiency.
    • Investigating the Relationship between Teaching Games for Understanding and High School Physical Education Students’ Enjoyment, Self-Efficacy, and Intentions to Enroll

      Robertson, Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Physical education (PE) is a useful course which provides a variety of physical, cognitive, and affective benefits to students; however, rates of student enrollment in Canadian PE classes are in decline (Lodewyk & Pybus, 2013). Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) was developed as a means of teaching students to be better games players and enjoy PE more than traditional teaching methods (e.g. Collier, 2005; Mandigo, Holt, Anderson, & Sheppard, 2008). Research has demonstrated that there is a link between TGfU and enjoyment (e.g. Mandigo et al., 2008), self-efficacy (Gubacs-Collins, 2007), and between enjoyment and participation in sports or physical activity (Kidman & Lombardo, 2010); however, there has been minimal research examining TGfU’s effect on student enrollment. Three ninth-grade PE teachers and 71 grade nine students in a southwestern Ontario school obtained consent to participate in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data on four occasions across a two-week TGfU unit. Repeated-measures analysis revealed that ninth grade student enjoyment, self-efficacy, and intentions to enroll remained static over time (p > 0.05). Analysis also revealed that students who reported high enjoyment at baseline decreased in enjoyment over the course of the TGfU unit (p = 0.00). Students reported that the unit was fun and they liked the games aspect of TGfU; while the students disliked the unit because it was boring. Findings of decreased enjoyment in students with initially high enjoyment is novel to this study with previous findings have shown an increase in enjoyment (e.g., Jones, Marshall, Peters, 2010). Future research should continue to examine the effects of various instructional models on student enrollment to provide the benefits that PE has to offer.
    • Investigating the Value of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Nintendo Wii Physical Activity for Older Adults

      Morse, Carson; Applied Health Sciences Program
      There has been much debate on best practices for limiting negative outcomes associated with relocation, sedentary lifestyle, and social isolation after older adults relocate to a residential care facility. This thesis is an exploration of the novel intervention combining Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Nintendo Wii gameplay that was designed to improve initiation and adherence to physical activity. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is an empirically based psychological intervention that utilizes mindfulness and acceptance techniques along with values-based action to improve one’s perception of life worth. The primary aim for this thesis was to understand more about the experiences that older adults residing in a residential care facility have with this intervention. Four participants were observed during the intervention and interviewed after the intervention. Multiple forms of analyses were performed such as, inductive interview content analysis, inductive and deductive analysis of observational field notes, deductive analysis of interviews, and deductive analysis of inductive findings. Results revealed that Nintendo Wii gameplay provides a convenient outlet for physical activity where older adults can participate in activities they once enjoyed and individuals with minimal functionality have the capacity to successfully and safely play the Nintendo Wii. Further, older adults prefer to participate in physical activities that are fun and do not feel like exercise; and, participate in small groups rather than large groups. After the intervention only one participant perceived that participation lead to physical health improvements, however, all participants perceived that the intervention increased mental health and social functioning levels. Additionally, all participants understood and were in agreement with the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, which increased initiation and adherence to physical activity. The intervention featured in this study could be useful for these purposes with similar participants in residential care facilities, although additional research is necessary to corroborate the findings of this study and to continue developing new knowledge in this area.
    • Investigation into the Motivation Strategies of the Elite ITU Triathlon Coaches

      Scull, Jeffery (Jeff); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-02)
      The purpose of this study was to identify elite triathlon coaches’ beliefs and practices as they pertain to motivating world-class triathletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four elite triathlon coaches operating out of three different training groups. Furthermore, the athletes within these groups completed questionnaires assessing their motivational profiles, basic psychological needs, and perceived autonomy support. The interviews were analyzed deductively according to the Motivational Model of the Coach-Athlete Relationship (Mageau & Vallerland, 2003). The data revealed that coaches predominantly used an autonomy-supportive coaching style while also providing structure and involvement. The coaches emphasized an individualized approach for each athlete to best meet their needs. Athletes’ responses to the questionnaires provide support for the coaches’ philosophies and perceived behaviours. The findings of this study provide valuable direction for elite and developing coaches looking to enhance their communication skills in order to optimize athlete needs and motivation.
    • Is Pride a Vice or a Virtue? Associations to Well-Being and Physical Activity

      Gilchrist, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      The first objective of the present study was to determine patterns of association between authentic and hubristic fitness-related pride to outcomes of well-being and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). A second objective was to examine motivation as a potential mediator of these relationships. Participants (N = 119) were young adults who completed self-report questionnaires at two time points separated by 4-weeks. Authentic and hubristic pride were associated with well-being and LTPA at Time 1 and Time 2. Changes in pride were associated with changes in well-being but not LTPA. Results of the mediation analyses highlight the role of more autonomous motives, specifically intrinsic motivation, as important mediators between pride and well-being. Motivation did not mediate the relationship between pride and LTPA. Overall, both authentic and hubristic pride seem to be important in the promotion of well-being More research is needed to elucidate the relationship between pride and LTPA.
    • The journey towards comprehensive school health within an aboriginal community

      Matsumura, Lyndsey.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this research is to describe the journey towards Comprehensive School Health at two Aboriginal elementary schools. An advocate and a healthy schools committee were identified at both schools and were responsible for developing initiatives to create a healthy school community. A case study was used to gather an in-depth understanding of Comprehensive School Health for the two schools involved. As a researcher, I functioned within the role of a participantobserver, as I was actively involved in the programs and initiatives completed in both schools. The research process included: the pilot study, ethics clearance and distribution of letters of invitation and consent forms. Data collection included 16 semi-structured, guided interviews with principals, teachers, and stupents. Participant observations included sites of the gymnasium, classroom, playgrounds, school environments, bulletin boards as well as artifact analysis of decuments such as school newsletters, physical education schedules and school handbooks. The interviews were transcribed and coded using an inductive approach which involves finding patterns, themes and categories from the data (patton, 2002). Research questions guided the findings as physical activity, physical education, nutrition and transportation were discussed. Themes developed t~rough coding were teacherstudent interactions, cultural traditions, time constraints and professional development and were discussed using a Comprehensive School Health framework.
    • Keep Your Eye on the Game: The Impact of Distraction and Scoreboard Watching during Major League Baseball Playoff Races

      Ferguson, Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examines 11 years and 26,370 of Major League Baseball’s (i.e., MLB) game outcomes to test whether distraction, through scoreboard watching, causes teams to choke under pressure. Results indicate that scoreboard watching significantly impacts the probability of winning a game, especially in playoff races. Specifically, teams in a playoff race had a 0.158 lower probability of winning games when the division leader won its game the previous day. Consistent with distraction theory, the analysis also shows that the distraction effects are 0.224 greater on home teams. There is evidence of increased distraction as criticality of games increase. When there are fewer than 10 games remaining in a playoff race, the impact of a division leader win reduces a team’s win probability by 0.243. Changes to league structure reduced win probability by 0.039 for seasons starting in 2012. This involved the addition of a Wild Card team to each league and an increase to the value of winning a division. This study helps fill a gap in the literature in relation to research on external factors and their impact on game outcomes. If a team can account for factors related to winning a game then it could be possible to gain a competitive advantage over the opposition. The findings also have practical applications. MLB teams can take initiatives to eliminate distraction and keep players’ attention on the task at hand surrounding critical games.
    • Leisure as a Facilitator of Posttraumatic Growth in Individuals Living with Cancer

      Vercillo, Tabitha; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      Although there is a growing body of literature that shifts the focus of chronic illness and trauma research to personal growth, there is limited literature on the role that leisure has in this process (e.g., Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004). This qualitative study explored the role of leisure in the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG) for individuals living with cancer. The findings revealed that leisure influences PTG in four domains: (a) building meaningful relationships, (b) providing experiences to develop and maintain a sense of self, (c) creating opportunities to experience positive emotions, and (d) finding purpose in life. Findings provide insight on how individuals living with cancer perceive the role that leisure has in facilitating positive change after diagnosis. These findings will better enable healthcare and leisure providers to understand the unique needs of individuals living with cancer, and help them to facilitate meaningful leisure programs to encourage PTG.