• "Weathering a hidden storm" : an application of Andersen's behavioral model of health, and health services use for those with diagnosable anxiety disorder

      Kovacs, Sandy Lee; Applied Health Sciences Program (2012-07-05)
      "Weathering a Hidden Storm": An App~ication of Andersen's Behaviora~ Mode~ of Hea~th, and Hea~th Services Use for Those With Diagnosab~e Anxiety Disorder Research has primarily focused on depression and mood disorders, but little research has been devoted to an examination of mental health services use amongst those with diagnosable anxiety disorder (Wittchen et al., 2002; Bergeron et al., 2005). This study examined the possible predicting factors for mental health services utilization amongst those with identifiable anxiety disorder in the Canadian population. The methods used for this study was the application of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, where predisposing, need and enabling 111 characteristics were regressed on the dependent variable of mental health services use. This study used the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 1.2: Mental Health and Well- Being) in a secondary data analysis. Several multiple logistics models predicted the likelihood to seek and use mental health services. Predisposing characteristics of gender and age, Enabling characteristics of education and geographical location, and those with co-occurring mood disorders were at the greatest increased likelihood to seek and use mental health services.
    • “Weathering a Hidden Storm”: An Application of Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health, and Health Services Use for Those with Diagnosable Anxiety Disorder

      Kovacs, Sandy Lee; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-06-27)
      Abstract: Research has primarily focused on depression and mood disorders, but little research has been devoted to an examination of mental health services use amongst those with diagnosable anxiety disorder (Wittchen et al., 2002; Bergeron et al., 2005). This study examined the possible predicting factors for mental health services utilization amongst those with identifiable anxiety disorder in the Canadian population. The methods used for this study was the application of Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, where predisposing, need and enabling characteristics were regressed on the dependent variable of mental health services use. This study used the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 1.2: Mental Health and Well-Being) in a secondary data analysis. Several multiple logistics models predicted the likelihood to seek and use mental health services. Predisposing characteristics of gender and age, Enabling characteristics of education and geographical location, and those with co-occurring mood disorders were at the greatest increased likelihood to seek and use mental health services.
    • A Week in the Life of Community Programs: Describing Barriers Experienced by Three Transition Age Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Caregivers

      Toms, Demi; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Various barriers for participating in physical activity for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been identified; specifically, the insufficient availability of programs and knowledgeable personnel to run them (Taub & Greer, 2000; WHO, 2015). Ironically, there are a magnitude of proven benefits specific to ASD that accrue from being physically active, including a decrease in stereotypic behaviours (hand flapping, object spinning) and sleep deprivation (Taud & Greer, 2002; Todd & Reid, 2006; Gaskin, Anderson & Morris, 2009; Connolly, 2008). Previous research has focused on investigating barriers for individuals experiencing disability in relation to environment, economic and political components (McDermott & Turk, 2011). However, minimal research involves the perspective of the individuals experiencing ASD who do not use verbal communication and require greater supports. The purpose of this phenomenological study was twofold. Firstly, to unearth barriers experienced by three transition aged youth with Autism who require 1:1 support or greater and their caregivers in a ‘typical week’. Secondly, to examine whether Priestley’s (1997) 6 principles of emancipatory research could be applied to this research process. In the process of engaging with the three youth participants and their caregivers in this study, I completed multiple observations of the youth participants in community programs and activities, then conducted semi-structured interviews with their caregivers, and non-traditional, alternative communication interviews with the youth participants. Analysis revealed that implementing Priestley’s 6 principles of emancipatory research could not be applied to this research process because of controversies with the ethics board. As well, barriers to participation in community programs included lack of staff training and inability to adapt to individual needs. The findings of this study imply a greater need for rapport based and embedded research with individuals experiencing complex ASD. Similarly, Research Ethics Boards need a greater understanding of individuals who do not use words to communicate to enable researchers to pursue authentic emancipatory research with complex and typically, under-represented participants.
    • What Constitutes an Expert Registered Nurse in Labour & Delivery?: A Phenomenological Inquiry

      Bowen, Kimberley; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to explore what constitutes an expert registered nurse in a labour and delivery unit. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was used to guide and analyze the interviews of twelve participants recruited through purposeful sampling. Patricia Benner’s From Novice to Expert theory was used as both a theoretical definition of expert as well as a baseline for participants to self-identify with one of the levels of skill acquisition (novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient or expert). Three themes emerged from data analysis including: 1) characteristics of expert nurses, 2) significance and impact of loss and 3) difficulty with the word “expert”. The study results showed that expert is a fluid concept that is both difficult to define and maintain throughout a nurse’s career. Factors such as education, technology, culture, environment and most notably autonomy, impact a nurse’s ability to achieve expert status as well as the ability to remain an expert of the same capacity throughout their careers. In addition, environmental and practice related changes resulted in feelings of loss that also significantly impacted the nurse’s perception of expert nursing. Ultimately, it was identified that Benner’s definition of expert is not complete and would require additional research with a focus on relational and psychosocial elements of nursing specifically in the area of labour and delivery setting in order to achieve a more comprehensive definition.
    • What gets plans off the shelf? : a multi-site case study of the factors influencing municipal recreation plan implementation

      Leone, Michelle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Municipalities that engage in recreation planning have the potential to use their resources more effectively. However, successful planning means getting the plan off the shelf and implemented. This study investigated the factors that influenced municipal recreation plan implementation in three municipalities. Interviews were conducted with eleven key informants (recreation directors, planning consultants, a city councillor, and members of plan steering committees). The findings of this study suggested that because the implementation of recreation plans occurs in a highly political environment, recreation professionals will need effective strategies to get their plans implemented and that implementation can be facilitated by developing or expanding strategies that: (l) build the power of the recreation department within the municipal government structure; (2) build support for recreation within the local community; and (3) build the political and organizational capacity in the recreation department.
    • What's for Supper? The Experience of Eating for Women at Midlife

      Petty, Lisa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The midlife time period is not well defined and is not well understood for women, particularly in reference to eating. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study is to explore the experience of midlife for women and the meaning they give to eating. Low structured research conversations with seven Canadian, Caucasian women were analysed using van Manen's approach. The main themes that were identified were Not Me, You Lose, It's a Negotiation, and It's a Good Place. Findings of this study suggest that midlife women undergo intense and ongoing physical, emotional, and social transformations during a period in which demands on their time and energy are still high. In order to manage everyday demands, these women prioritize and make conscious choices and compromises in reference to eating that influence how their bodies feel on a daily basis.
    • When the Beautiful Game Turns Ugly: A Study of Fan Experiences of Perceived Match Fixing in Soccer

      Lamberti, Adriano; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-10-24)
      Limited academic attention has been given to the nexus between corruption in soccer and its impact on fandom. Consequently, the purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the lived experiences of highly identified soccer fanatics living through this era of match fixing in the sport. Social networking site Twitter was utilized to recruit participants from three continents – Africa, Europe, and North America – based on submissions to the site in response to a perceived fix from a high-profile March, 2013 match. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly identified soccer fans in accordance with Funk and James’ (2001) Psychological Continuum Model (PCM). Despite the majority of participants feeling skepticism about the purity of soccer today, half of the participants’ fandom remained unchanged in the face of perceived match fixing. Directions for future research and recommendations are considered and discussed.
    • Who is on the Team? Exploring a Person-Centred Care Approach on an Interdisciplinary Healthcare Team, from the Healthcare Provider's Perspective

      Fucile, Bianca; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding from the perspective of healthcare providers how person-centre care ideologies are translated into day-to-day practice at an oncology center. This was a single case study, conducted at a local Oncology Center. The study included 15 interviews with healthcare providers, the analysis of 15 documents, and the keeping of a reflexive research journal. Four themes and ten sub-themes were found to represent the experiences of healthcare providers: (1) Educating with Empathy (2) Informed Personal Advocate, (3) Being the “Rock”, and (4) Progressing as a Team. This study demonstrates the roles of healthcare providers, patients and caregivers on a healthcare team committed to delivering person-centred care. It also introduces a new kind of team, a person-centred care team along with complimentary guiding principles to inform the practices of healthcare providers. This study contributes to the shift in the culture of care in oncology, where patients and caregivers are welcomed onto their healthcare team.
    • Wild Civility: Cultivating the Foundations of Social Justice through Participation in a Wilderness Program

      Hamel, Erica; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-08-09)
      This heuristic inquiry examined if the foundations of social justice knowledge and beliefs were developed as a result of participation in a wilderness program and what knowledge and beliefs were developed. There were six participants in this study. Data collection involved participants completing pre- and post- program interviews and daily journals during the program. Through inductive analysis six themes emerged. Three of these were related to the development of certain foundations of social justice: (a) experienced conflict development and resolution; (b) experienced relationship change and development; and (c) shift from “me” to “we” mentality. The remaining three themes were included as additional findings: (a) experienced personal change and development; (b) identification of specific factors of the program responsible for changes; and (c) bringing learning back to everyday life. Results highlight wilderness program impacts on participants’ social justice knowledges and beliefs and inform wilderness program providers and social justice educators.
    • Writing Lives, Writing Loss: An autoethnography on the death of a teammate

      Faust, Katie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This project began as a memorial to an athlete who died of cancer, and ended as a journey through grief. The focus of my research is to explore through an autoethnography of loss, how the death of a young athlete is experienced and how as an athlete, I make sense of loss outside of sport. Visiting and revisiting spaces of loss and grief in sport allowed me to explore more deeply my personal histories as fragmented stories of grief. Through autoethnography and meta-autoethnography, this research seeks to uncover the meanings that reside in grieving in sport, examining the language we use to talk about death and loss in a culture of grief shrouded with stories of heroics and feel-good narratives. As I continue on my grief journey, I negotiate and re-negotiate the meanings I have constructed in my experiences. I will continue to do that as I venture through life and navigate the texts, searching to find balance between writing lives and writing loss.
    • Youth Living in Residential Care: Implications for Leisure and Identity

      Oswald, Austin; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-11)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the intersection of living in residential care, leisure engagement, and adolescent identity development. The investigation included the voices of six youth living in a residential care facility in southern Ontario. The data was collected through participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis. Moustakas’ (1994) modification of the Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen method was used to analyze the data. The findings determined that living in residential care is rife with dialectical tensions that impact leisure and identity. The youth shared poignant narratives of how living in residential care was a stigmatizing experience that left them feeling restricted and isolated. They also shared their struggles with finding autonomy in a secured facility and managing the violent discourses of their peers. This research contributes to a burgeoning body of literature that explores the experiences of youth living in out-of-home care. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
    • “You’re on one side or the other. You’re either a Leafs fan or a Sabres fan”. An Interpretive Study of Buffalo Sabres and Toronto Maple Leafs Fans in Fort Erie, Ontario

      Sidani, Adnan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Few sports consumer behavior researchers will contest that it is common for people to become fans of their local, hometown, easily-accessible team (Wann & James, 2019), but what if obvious-sounding concepts like “local”, “hometown”, and “accessible” are in dispute? What team would people cheer for then? Such an interesting case is found in the border town of Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada, that is located directly across the river from Buffalo, New York, USA. National Hockey League (NHL) fans in Fort Erie typically cheer for either the Buffalo Sabres (whose arena is visible from Fort Erie’s shoreline), or the Toronto Maple Leafs, who play in a Canadian city 95 miles (152 km) away. To understand how they became fans and maintain that fandom, nine Sabres fans and nine Leafs fans from Fort Erie were interviewed face-to-face and one-on-one in the interpretive tradition. Fans from both teams painted a picture that in both becoming fans and maintaining fandom, the culture and image associated with not only the teams themselves, but also the city and country they play out of were crucial factors. Leafs fans often referred to hockey’s cultural importance to Canadians, making it almost traitorous to cheer for an American NHL team. Sabres fans often referred to the scrappy, working-class image of Buffalo aligning with the scrappy, working-class image of Fort Erie. Sabres fans would also discuss how accessible the team was, in terms of both proximity and cheaper tickets, allowing them to easily attend games. Leafs fans would also discuss how accessible their team was, but in terms of media access, allowing them to watch almost all Leafs’ games on television. Interestingly, their attitude towards Americans aligned with their team choice. Helleiner (2016) studied Canadians who live across the border from Buffalo, and found four attitudes towards the difference between Canadians and Americans: Pretty much the same as Americans, “Americanized” Canadians, Non-Americans, and Anti-Americans. Sabres fans typically were in the first two categories, and Leafs fans typically were in the latter two. In conclusion, Leafs fans (filled with non-American sentiment) felt that even though Buffalo was right next door, the Leafs would be considered the local, hometown, accessible team as the Sabres played in a foreign country, the Leafs were the closest Canadian NHL team to Fort Erie, and all their games were typically televised in Fort Erie. Sabres fans (more sympathetic to Americans overall) considered them the local, hometown, accessible team as they were right across a bridge, the team and the city aligned with the blue-collar image of Fort Erie, and live attendance was extremely easy. Borderland living is different than living inland (Helleiner, 2016), so it comes as no surprise that borderland sport fandom would be different. Future research should study how fans living in regions like Southwestern Ontario (across from Detroit, Michigan), or Western New York (close to Toronto, Ontario) create and maintain their fandom where terms like “local”, “hometown”, and “accessible” are influenced by perceptions of culture and image moderated by questions of national identity.