• Understanding community perspectives: A Case Study of a Bottom-Up Sport-For-Development initiative in rural Africa

      Robar, Justin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The first wave of Sport for Development (SfD) initiatives made bold assumptions that sport was inherently good for participants and could achieve social and developmental outcomes (Levermore, 2008; Lyras & Peachey, 2011). Scholars began to question the impacts that SfD programs were having in achieving developmental goals and positive social outcomes (Coalter, 2013; Darnell, 2010; Schulenkorf; Sherry, & Rowe, 2016; Svensson & Levine, 2017). Researchers also conveyed that there were issues associated with race, power dynamics, Global North and South relations, cultural sensitivity, and gender apparent in SfD programs (Darnell et al., 2016). There has been shifts in the SfD sphere responding to this critical research to work closer with the communities and individuals who are the co-creators of these programs (Coalter, 2007, 2010; Collison & Marchesseault, 2018; Darnell, 2012; Van der Kleshorst, 2018). The purpose of this study was to understand how the community members who are co-creators and participants of this SfD initiative perceive the Bottom-Up approach and impacts of the program. The community that I worked with has been partnered with a SfD organization for eight years. A local gatekeeper (the rugby development officer) helped me understand the community and identify interviewees. Participants included: community members, parents, coaches, teachers, and former participants. During my time there I also participated in coaching seminars, worked with participants, and helped with education sessions. Using Stake’s (1995) case study approach, interviews, fieldwork, and content analysis were conducted. Utilizing these methods and incorporating qualitative data analysis techniques, four overarching themes emerged: Theme One; Community development through a sport-education centre; Theme Two; community interaction and engagement; Theme Three; development of participants; and Theme Four; Rugby development. The findings work to fill multiple gaps in literature identified by Schulenkorf et al. (2016) and attempt to address critical issues laid out by Darnell et al. (2016). This research also hopes to work as a bridge between academia and practitioners and makes recommendations for possible best practices moving forward in SfD that include; community engagement in development, upskilling local participants and community members, and seeking out feedback from the community members involved.
    • Understanding End-of-Life in a Long-Term Care Home: Perceptions of Bereaved Family Members

      Thoms, Shannon; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Rather than a natural aspect of life, adherence to the medical model within long-term care (LTC) homes has framed death as something to be avoided and a failure of the system. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to contribute to the ongoing discussion in the literature regarding the experience of dying and death in a LTC home from the perspective of bereaved family members. Interviews were conducted with eight family members who had a relative die in a LTC home within the preceding 12 months. Interviews with participants focused on their experiences while their relative approached the end-of-life, at the time of death, and after their death. My findings resulted in the overall theme of Respecting the Life and Death. Within this theme, I found that taking a compassionate approach to care; staff, families, and residents coming together for care; and the continuation of care all supported residents on their end-of-life journey. The findings of this research call attention to the multifaceted nature of dying beyond physiological care and work to address ways to provide quality end-of life care.
    • Understanding Interorganizational Relationships and Organizational Capacity in a Youth Baseball Network

      Willis, Jackson; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Within the Canadian sport system there has been a noted decline in team sport participation among youth athletes. Factors that have contributed to this decline include increased competition amongst organizations, a larger number of sport options and sport specialization. Baseball in particular is a sport that has seen declining participation rates in recent years. Within the sport management literature two key concepts have emerged as key areas of interest for youth sport organizations in their operations; interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity. Interorganizational relationship (IOR) development has been identified as an effective strategy for strengthening the capacity of youth sport organizations (Misener & Doherty, 2013). Organizational capacity has been related to the ability of organizations to draw on a variety of resources to help achieve desired outcomes (Hall et al., 2003), while there is also evidence to support the connection between greater organizational capacity and increased success in achieving these outcomes (Jones et al., 2017). Thus, the purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between interorganizational relationships and organizational capacity within a youth baseball network in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada. Data were collected from representatives of ten youth baseball organizations through a survey instrument via telephone interview format. Data were analyzed using a social network analysis methodology including the use of the UCINET 6.0 software program and NetDraw function that allowed for the calculation of density and centrality measures along with visual representations of the network. QAP Multiple Regression analysis was also conducted and showed that IORs and sector were both found to be statistically significant in their ability to predict organizational capacity ties within this network. Overall, the results of this study allowed for conclusions to be drawn related to network structure, state of organizational capacity, and the relationship between IORs and organizational capacity in this youth baseball network.
    • Understanding Network Governance: A Case Study Exploration of Active Canada 20/20

      Wu, Brandon R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-06)
      Consistent with the governance shift towards network forms of governance, a number of new social movements have formed in response to the declining levels of physical activity in the Western world. One such movement is Active Canada 20/20: A Physical Activity Strategy and Change Agenda for Canada. Network governance is employed as the theoretical framework for this case study exploration of Active Canada 20/20 and the political landscape surrounding its development and implementation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in addition to document/policy analysis and direct observations. Analysis of the data resulted in three overarching themes – the defining characteristics of network governance, the political landscape, and intersectoral linkages – that interconnect multifariously based the nature of the Canadian federal government and its relationship with the voluntary sector for physical activity. Despite progress in driving Active Canada 20/20 forward, entrenched dynamics of power need to be navigated within the political landscape surrounding network governance.
    • Understanding Parents' Perspectives of Youth Summer Hockey Camps using Importance-Performance Analysis: A Consideration of Value Equity Drivers

      de Souza, Raiven; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Given the move towards sport specialization, hockey has become subject to year-round participation. Summer hockey camps provide an outlet for children to continue to work on their skills and stay on the ice during the off-season. As there are numerous hockey camps operating during the summer months, camps compete against each other for consumers. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was twofold. First, the aim was to understand what value equity factors are most important to parents when deciding to register their child for a summer hockey camp; second, the researcher hoped to ascertain if summer hockey camp operators are performing to the deemed level of importance of those factors as determined by the parents, and assist the camps in identifying and closing any perception gaps in their offering. Surveys were used in order to complete an importance-performance analysis; 148 parents who registered their child in a summer hockey camp in the Niagara Region in 2019 completed the survey. Through the findings it is clear that factors of quality were of utmost importance to parents; all but one factor of convenience and price were over-delivered. Overall, parents are generally satisfied with the performance of summer hockey camps in the Niagara Region.
    • Understanding the Integration of Living Skills Through the Context of Health and Physical Education: A Case Study of Educators’ Experiences

      Weir, Jillian; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-19)
      The research presented is a qualitative case study of educators’ experiences in integrating living skills in the context of health and physical education (HPE). In using semi-structured interviews the study investigated HPE educators’ experiences and revealed their insights relative to three major themes; professional practice, challenges and support systems. Professional practice experiences detailed the use of progressive lesson planning, reflective and engaging activities, explicit student centered pedagogy as well as holistic teaching philosophies. Even further, the limited knowledge and awareness of living skills, conflicting teaching philosophies, competitive environments between subject areas and lack of time and accessibility were four major challenges that emerged throughout the data. Major supportive roles for HPE educators in the integration process included other educators, consultants, school administration, public health, parents, community programs and professional organizations. The study provides valuable discussion and suggestions for improvement of pedagogical practices in teaching living skills in the HPE setting.
    • "Unfreezing" Year-Round Programming: A Case Study of Organizational Change in Summer Camps

      Dabrowski, Hannah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The term summer camp does not often bring to mind tobogganing and ice skating, yet more and more frequently, summer camps are transitioning into programs capable of running year-round. This study aimed to examine both the formation and process of creating year-round programming within summer camps in Ontario. A descriptive case study was employed to uncover answers to the study’s research questions: (1) in what ways have camps become year-round programs? and (2) what has been learned by individuals involved in creating year-round programming? Interviews were conducted with camp directors from six camps who had created year-round programming. Narratives and themes were identified from the interviews with eight major themes highlighted. These eight themes were “inherited or donated,” “planning,” “correctly the first time,” “marketing,” “relationships,” “staffing,” “benefits to other seasons” and “financial justification.” Using Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step model of planned change, themes were characterized into one of Lewin’s stages of “unfreezing,” “changing,” and “refreezing.” Two themes did not pertain to one of Lewin’s stages, but were still relevant. Although listed individually, the themes were all connected in order to prescribe what may be an ideal process of creating year-round programming.
    • University Physical Education Students’ Understanding and Interpretation of Social Interaction as Part of a Meaningful Physical Education Experience

      Chee, Caleb Siang Heng; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The promotion of meaningful experiences is a primary way teachers can enact a transformative physical education (PE) curriculum for students (Kretchmar, 2006). Recent advances have led to a framework that outlines the following features of a meaningful experience: social interaction, challenge, fun, motor competence, delight, and personally relevant learning (Beni, Fletcher, & Ní Chróinín, 2017). This study examined how university physical education students understand, learn to articulate, and plan to enact positive social interaction as one feature of meaningful experiences in PE. The study took place in one undergraduate class where the instructor emphasized and articulated the components of positive social interaction. Participants (n = 10) took part in one or two individual interviews at the beginning and/or end of one academic term. Non-participant observations (5) of the class were conducted and exit slips (42) collected from students. Students had a basic understanding of positive social interaction at the first data collection point, whereby finding and making friends or encouraging one another were emphasized, which revealed a lack of sophistication in understanding. At the end of the course, students developed a deeper understanding of social interaction and its components, which they contributed to their teacher educator intentionally reflecting on positive social interaction and articulating the complexity of it with them, organizing inclusive class activities, and making an effort to develop meaningful relationships. This study is significant because it highlights the need for PE teacher education (PETE) instructors to be explicit in articulating and demonstrating ways in which social interaction can be understood, interpreted, and enacted.
    • Unpacking Pieces of a Puzzle: Understanding Obesity-Related Health Risk through Lifestyle Behaviours and Well-Being

      Brooks, Kimberly M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-26)
      The primary objective of this non-experimental study was to examine the differences based on obesity-related health risk in terms of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and well-being in adults. Participants (N = 50; Mage = 38.50, SDage = 14.21) were asked to wear a SenseWear Armband (SWA) across a seven day monitoring period followed by a questionnaire package. Using the National Institute of Health’s (1998) criteria, participants were classified as either least, increased, or high risk based on waist circumference and Body Mass Index scores. Differences between these classifications were found in the amount of time spent in active energy expenditure for bouts of ten minutes or more (p = .002); specifically between least and high risk (p < .05). No other differences (p > .05) emerged. Participants’ also perceived the SWA as a practical and worthwhile device. Overall, these findings provide practical applications and future directions for health promotional research.

      Cracknell, Janel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-03-24)
      Cognitive interviews were used to evaluate two draft versions of a financial survey in Jamaica. The qualitative version used a few open-ended questions, and the quantitative version used numerous close-ended questions. A secondary analysis based on the cognitive interview literature was used to guide a content analysis of the aggregate data of both surveys. The cognitive interview analysis found that the long survey had fewer respondent errors than the open-ended questions on the short survey. A grounded theory analysis then examined the aggregate cognitive data, showing that the respondents attached complex meanings to their financial information. The main limitation of this study was that the standard assessments of quantitative and qualitative reliability and validity were not utilized. Further research should utilize statistical methods to compare and contrast aggregated cognitive interview probe responses on open and close ended surveys.
    • Using Network Analysis to Understand and Advance Falls Prevention Services and Programs

      Dang, Phuc; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-22)
      The purpose of this study was to understand referral linkages that exist among falls prevention agencies in a southern Ontario region using network analysis theory. This was a single case study which included fifteen individual interviews. The data was analyzed through the constant comparative approach. Ten themes emerged and are classified into internal and external factors. Themes associated with internal factors are: 1) health professionals initiating services; 2) communication strategies; 3) formal partnerships; 4) trust; 5) program awareness; and 6) referral policies. Themes associated with external factors are: 1) client characteristics; 2) primary and community care collaboration; 3) networking; and 4) funding. Recommendations to improve the referral pathway are: 1) electronic database; 2) electronic referral forms; 3) educating office staff; and 4) education days. This study outlined the benefit of using network analysis to understand referral pathways and the importance of implementing strategies that will improve falls prevention referral pathways.
    • The Values of Community Curling: A Case Study

      Brooks, Donald; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-07-22)
      This qualitative case study research shows that within the realm of curling, the professionalization of the sport, at the national level, has limited to no effect on the core values of respect, belonging, and giving back that the grassroots level of curling identify as important. Through an interview process with twelve community level curlers, from four separate clubs within the Niagara region, data were collected and analyzed using traditional coding techniques. Utilizing institutional theory, the research shows a growing gap between the national level of curling and the grassroots level. Data also shows that value alterations, at the community level, are based on the changing Canadian environment in regards to legislation (smoking and drinking laws) and social behaviours (the busier Canadian lifestyle) rather than changes at the national level. These findings have a profound effect on how sports are administered in the Canadian sport system
    • Volunteering and Social Capital: A Case Study of Older Hospital Volunteers in Southern Ontario

      Subramaniam, Saranjah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Volunteering as a form of social activity can facilitate older adults’ active aging through community engagement. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the views on older adults’ volunteerism in a community hospital network in Southern Ontario. Utilizing in-depth interviews with 10 older volunteers (over the age of 65), document analysis, and a key informant interview, I explored their experiences of volunteering and social capital development at six hospitals in the network. Data analyses included open and axial coding, and conceptualization of the themes. Four major themes emerged from the data: reasons to volunteer, management’s influence, negative experiences of volunteering, and connections with others. The findings of this research emphasized older volunteers’ strong commitment and enthusiasm to support the hospital in their own communities, the power of volunteering to enhance the development of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital, and the influence of two major contextual factors (i.e. the Auxiliary Factor and the Change Factor) to facilitate or hinder older volunteers’ social capital development in the hospitals. Future research directions should focus on further unpacking the different degrees to which each type of social capital is developed, placing emphasis on the benefits of social capital development for volunteers in healthcare settings. The implications for practice include the targeted recruitment of older adults as healthcare volunteers while creating volunteer positions and environments in which they can develop social capital with their peer volunteers, hospital staff, patients, and people in surrounding communities. To sustain their existing dedicated long-term volunteers, in particular their Auxiliary groups, the community hospital network can enhance facilitating factors such as the Auxiliary Factor while mitigating the negative effects of the Change Factor. By developing social capital through volunteering in their own communities, older adults can engage in active aging, while participating in the development of an age-friendly community.
    • "Weathering a hidden storm" : an application of Andersen's behavioral model of health, and health services use for those with diagnosable anxiety disorder

      Kovacs, Sandy Lee; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-07-05)
      "Weathering a Hidden Storm": An App~ication of Andersen's Behaviora~ Mode~ of Hea~th, and Hea~th Services Use for Those With Diagnosab~e Anxiety Disorder Research has primarily focused on depression and mood disorders, but little research has been devoted to an examination of mental health services use amongst those with diagnosable anxiety disorder (Wittchen et al., 2002; Bergeron et al., 2005). This study examined the possible predicting factors for mental health services utilization amongst those with identifiable anxiety disorder in the Canadian population. The methods used for this study was the application of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, where predisposing, need and enabling 111 characteristics were regressed on the dependent variable of mental health services use. This study used the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 1.2: Mental Health and Well- Being) in a secondary data analysis. Several multiple logistics models predicted the likelihood to seek and use mental health services. Predisposing characteristics of gender and age, Enabling characteristics of education and geographical location, and those with co-occurring mood disorders were at the greatest increased likelihood to seek and use mental health services.
    • “Weathering a Hidden Storm”: An Application of Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health, and Health Services Use for Those with Diagnosable Anxiety Disorder

      Kovacs, Sandy Lee; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-06-27)
      Abstract: Research has primarily focused on depression and mood disorders, but little research has been devoted to an examination of mental health services use amongst those with diagnosable anxiety disorder (Wittchen et al., 2002; Bergeron et al., 2005). This study examined the possible predicting factors for mental health services utilization amongst those with identifiable anxiety disorder in the Canadian population. The methods used for this study was the application of Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, where predisposing, need and enabling characteristics were regressed on the dependent variable of mental health services use. This study used the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 1.2: Mental Health and Well-Being) in a secondary data analysis. Several multiple logistics models predicted the likelihood to seek and use mental health services. Predisposing characteristics of gender and age, Enabling characteristics of education and geographical location, and those with co-occurring mood disorders were at the greatest increased likelihood to seek and use mental health services.
    • A Week in the Life of Community Programs: Describing Barriers Experienced by Three Transition Age Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Caregivers

      Toms, Demi; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Various barriers for participating in physical activity for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been identified; specifically, the insufficient availability of programs and knowledgeable personnel to run them (Taub & Greer, 2000; WHO, 2015). Ironically, there are a magnitude of proven benefits specific to ASD that accrue from being physically active, including a decrease in stereotypic behaviours (hand flapping, object spinning) and sleep deprivation (Taud & Greer, 2002; Todd & Reid, 2006; Gaskin, Anderson & Morris, 2009; Connolly, 2008). Previous research has focused on investigating barriers for individuals experiencing disability in relation to environment, economic and political components (McDermott & Turk, 2011). However, minimal research involves the perspective of the individuals experiencing ASD who do not use verbal communication and require greater supports. The purpose of this phenomenological study was twofold. Firstly, to unearth barriers experienced by three transition aged youth with Autism who require 1:1 support or greater and their caregivers in a ‘typical week’. Secondly, to examine whether Priestley’s (1997) 6 principles of emancipatory research could be applied to this research process. In the process of engaging with the three youth participants and their caregivers in this study, I completed multiple observations of the youth participants in community programs and activities, then conducted semi-structured interviews with their caregivers, and non-traditional, alternative communication interviews with the youth participants. Analysis revealed that implementing Priestley’s 6 principles of emancipatory research could not be applied to this research process because of controversies with the ethics board. As well, barriers to participation in community programs included lack of staff training and inability to adapt to individual needs. The findings of this study imply a greater need for rapport based and embedded research with individuals experiencing complex ASD. Similarly, Research Ethics Boards need a greater understanding of individuals who do not use words to communicate to enable researchers to pursue authentic emancipatory research with complex and typically, under-represented participants.
    • What Constitutes an Expert Registered Nurse in Labour & Delivery?: A Phenomenological Inquiry

      Bowen, Kimberley; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to explore what constitutes an expert registered nurse in a labour and delivery unit. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was used to guide and analyze the interviews of twelve participants recruited through purposeful sampling. Patricia Benner’s From Novice to Expert theory was used as both a theoretical definition of expert as well as a baseline for participants to self-identify with one of the levels of skill acquisition (novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient or expert). Three themes emerged from data analysis including: 1) characteristics of expert nurses, 2) significance and impact of loss and 3) difficulty with the word “expert”. The study results showed that expert is a fluid concept that is both difficult to define and maintain throughout a nurse’s career. Factors such as education, technology, culture, environment and most notably autonomy, impact a nurse’s ability to achieve expert status as well as the ability to remain an expert of the same capacity throughout their careers. In addition, environmental and practice related changes resulted in feelings of loss that also significantly impacted the nurse’s perception of expert nursing. Ultimately, it was identified that Benner’s definition of expert is not complete and would require additional research with a focus on relational and psychosocial elements of nursing specifically in the area of labour and delivery setting in order to achieve a more comprehensive definition.
    • What gets plans off the shelf? : a multi-site case study of the factors influencing municipal recreation plan implementation

      Leone, Michelle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Municipalities that engage in recreation planning have the potential to use their resources more effectively. However, successful planning means getting the plan off the shelf and implemented. This study investigated the factors that influenced municipal recreation plan implementation in three municipalities. Interviews were conducted with eleven key informants (recreation directors, planning consultants, a city councillor, and members of plan steering committees). The findings of this study suggested that because the implementation of recreation plans occurs in a highly political environment, recreation professionals will need effective strategies to get their plans implemented and that implementation can be facilitated by developing or expanding strategies that: (l) build the power of the recreation department within the municipal government structure; (2) build support for recreation within the local community; and (3) build the political and organizational capacity in the recreation department.
    • What's for Supper? The Experience of Eating for Women at Midlife

      Petty, Lisa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The midlife time period is not well defined and is not well understood for women, particularly in reference to eating. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study is to explore the experience of midlife for women and the meaning they give to eating. Low structured research conversations with seven Canadian, Caucasian women were analysed using van Manen's approach. The main themes that were identified were Not Me, You Lose, It's a Negotiation, and It's a Good Place. Findings of this study suggest that midlife women undergo intense and ongoing physical, emotional, and social transformations during a period in which demands on their time and energy are still high. In order to manage everyday demands, these women prioritize and make conscious choices and compromises in reference to eating that influence how their bodies feel on a daily basis.
    • What's out there? Kinesiology curriculum scan for physical activity and older adults in Ontario (Canada)

      Edlington, Cassidy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: To date, no studies have conducted a curricular scan to evaluate coursework targeting older adults and physical activity in university-based kinesiology departments. The research question guiding this study was: What percentage of courses taught in kinesiology programs at universities in Ontario (Canada) focus on older adults and physical activity? Methods: Using a list of universities (N = 29) from Ontario (Canada) as the sampling frame, this descriptive study used archival data published within undergraduate calendars by sixteen universities. Data were extracted then coded using a coding manual developed using best practice guidelines for knowledge synthesis research. Results: Human Biomechanics and Psychomotor Learning/Neuroscience were offered in 100.0% of the undergraduate programs while 81.3% offered a course devoted to older adults and physical activity. Variability in the number of courses targeting older adults and physical activity was evident (Range = 1.0 to 4.0 courses; M = 1.5 courses; SD = 1.2 courses; Md = 1.0 courses). Two universities contained one course that focused on physical activity for chronic diseases among older adults. Conclusions: Overall, this study provides evidence that most universities in Ontario (Canada) offer undergraduate kinesiology courses focused on older adults and physical activity. It is possible that availability of these courses is due to gerontology being an elective course listed within the admission requirements of the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario. Future research may wish to explore the number (i.e., how many?) and type (i.e., class-based vs. field-based, etc.) of courses targeting older adults and physical activity needed for training kinesiology students.