• School Directors’ Perspectives of Physical Education in El Salvador: A Qualitative Case Study

      Pinch, Kelsey; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-03-02)
      Youth violence is El Salvador’s most imperative social, economic and health problem today. In an attempt to contribute to youth violence prevention in the country, humanistic physical education has been implemented within schools. Using case study methodology, this study examines twelve Salvadoran school directors’ perspectives of physical education and physical education as a mean of youth violence prevention. School directors’ perceive multiple benefits of physical education including those related to student’s social and emotional health. School directors recognize physical education as a means of reducing violence because it keeps youth busy and provides an outlet to release stress. Results are discussed in relation to long-term violence prevention literature. Results suggest that it would be beneficial for school directors to understand the theory and goals behind humanistic physical education in their schools. Research maintains the continuation of research in the field of humanistic physical education in relation to youth violence prevention.
    • The Search for Scholarly Teaching in Elementary Education

      Hancharyk, Steffannie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-07)
      Elementary teachers are expected to prepare students to work efficiently with others, solve complex problems and self-regulate their own learning. Considering the importance of a solid educational foundation in the early years, students would benefit if elementary teachers engaged in scholarly teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate Boyer’s (1990) four dimensions of scholarship, application, integration, teaching and discovery, to better understand if there is scholarly teaching in elementary education. Four professional teaching documents were analyzed using a hermeneutic orientation. A deductive analysis suggests that we do have scholarly teaching in elementary education, with strong evidence that elementary teachers are scholars of application and integration. An inductive analysis of latent and manifest content suggests that underlying humanistic values run deeply through elementary education driving current curricular, instructional and pedagogical practices.
    • Searching for Accommodations within the Ontario Criminal Justice System for Persons with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Views of Social Service Agency and Justice Professionals

      Stromski, Samantha; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Although persons with intellectual disabilities have been conceptualized as having rights to equality in Canada and internationally, there continue to be gaps in the delivery of justice when they are involved within the criminal process. The literature consistently reported that individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASDs) often experienced challenges within the justice system, such as difficulty understanding abstract legal concepts (Conry & Fast, 2009). In the Canadian legal system, accommodations are available to enable persons with disabilities to receive equal access to justice; however, how these are applied to persons with FASDs had not been fully explored in the literature. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with social service agency workers (n=10) and justice professionals (n=10) regarding their views of the challenges persons with FASDs experience in the justice system and their suggestions on the use of accommodations. The findings showed that while supports have been provided for individuals with intellectual disabilities, there has been a lack of specialized accommodations available specifically for individuals with FASDs in accessing their right to justice.
    • Self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey

      Morris-Tries, Deanna Elizabeth.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      The purpose of this cross sectional survey design was to examine self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Using a mail-out survey, entitled the Fort Erie Survey of Health (FESH), a probability cluster sampling technique was used to measure self-reported health status (present health, health conditions, health challenges, functional health limitations) and lifestyle behaviour (smoking, alcohol use, drug use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body weight, and gaming). Each variable was described and analyzed in relation to socio-economic variables, age and gender. The findings from this study were compared to the Canadian Community Health Survey 2000/2001. Overall, 640 surveys were completed. The majority of Fort Erie residents rated their present health as good and were satisfied with their overall health and quality of life. The main chronic conditions reported were arthritis, back pain and heart disease. Other main health problems reported were vision, sleeping and chronic pain. Overall, 14.6% smoke; 58.8% engaged in physical activity either occasionally or never as opposed to regularly engaging in physical activity; 52.1% did not eat the required daily fruits and vegetables; and 40.0% were in the overweight category. Persons who practiced one healthy lifestyle behaviour were more likely to practice other healthy promoting behaviours. Therefore, health promotion programs are best designed to address multiple risk factors simultaneously. The ffiSH was generally consistent with the Canadian Community Health Survey in the overall findings. A small number of inconsistencies were identified that require further exploration to determine if they are unique to this community.
    • Sex Talk: A Multiple Case Study to Explore and Understand Parent-Child Sexual Health Communication in Chinese Immigrant Families

      Brown, Sabrina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-02-07)
      Parent-child sexual health communication can be beneficial. Many factors affect such communication in Chinese immigrant families. This qualitative study explored the influences of acculturation, parenting, and parental participation in the Raising Sexually Healthy Children Program (RSHC) on such communication. With a hermeneutic framework, the purpose was to develop understanding based on the topic, context, and researcher interpretations. Twelve interviews elicited data from six parent-child dyads, three from the RSHC. Analysis involved coding processes; data were compared repeatedly and organized into themes. Perceived personality differences between generations were confounded with cultural communicative differences. Parents used implicitness observed in Chinese culture to establish "open" communication; children expected explicitness observed in Western culture. Post- RSHC, parents perceived themselves as more open to talking about sex; children did not perceive such parental changes. Future research should include joint interviews and longitudinal program evaluation. Future practice should focus on cross-cultural communication and involving children in RSHC.
    • Social comparison and body image in non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers

      Varga, Heather.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Body image refers to an individual's internal representation ofhis/her outer self (Cash, 1994; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). It is a multidimensional construct which includes an individual's attitudes towards hislher own physical characteristics (Bane & McAuley, 1998; Cash, 1994; Cash, 2004; Davison & McCabe, 2005; Muth & Cash, 1997; Sabiston, Crocker, & Munroe-Chandler, 2005). Social comparison is the process of thinking about the self in relation to others in order to determine if one's opinions and abilities are adequate and to assess one's social status (Festinger, 1954; Wood, 1996). Research investigating the role of social comparisons on body image has provided some information on the types and nature of the comparisons that are made. The act of making social comparisons may have a negative impact on body image (van den Berg et ai., 2007). Although exercise may improve body image, the impact of social comparisons in exercise settings may be less positive, and there may be differences in the social comparison tendencies between non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. The present study examined the nature of social comparisons that female collegeaged non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers made with respect to their bodies, and the relationship of these social comparisons to body image attitudes. Specifically, the frequency and direction of comparisons on specific tal-gets and body dimensions were examined in both non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Finally, the relationship between body-image attitudes and the frequency and direction with which body-related social comparisons were made for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers were examined. One hundred and fifty-two participants completed the study (n = 70 non or ill infrequent exercisers; n = 82 exercisers). Participants completed measures of social physique anxiety (SPA), body dissatisfaction, body esteem, body image cognitions, leisure time physical activity, and social comparisons. Results suggested that both groups (non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers) generally made social comparisons and most frequently made comparisons with same-sex friends, and least frequently with same-sex parents. Also, both groups made more appearance-related comparisons than non-appearance-related comparisons. Further, both groups made more negative comparisons with almost all targets. However, non or infrequent exercisers generally made more negative comparisons on all body dimensions, while exercisers made negative comparisons only on weight and body shape dimensions. MANOV As were conducted to examine if any differences on social comparisons between the two groups existed. Results of the MANOVAs indicated that frequency of comparisons with targets, the frequency of comparisons on body dimensions, and direction of comparisons with targets did not differ based on exercise status. However, the direction of comparison of specific body dimensions revealed a significant (F (7, 144) = 3.26,p < .05; 1]2 = .132) difference based on exercise status. Follow-up ANOVAs showed significant differences on five variables: physical attractiveness (F (1, 150) = 6.33,p < .05; 1]2 = .041); fitness (F(l, 150) = 11.89,p < .05; 1]2 = .073); co-ordination (F(I, 150) = 5.61,p < .05; 1]2 = .036); strength (F(I, dO) = 12.83,p < .05; 1]2 = .079); muscle mass or tone (F(l, 150) = 17.34,p < .05; 1]2 = 1.04), with exercisers making more positive comparisons than non or infrequent exercisers. The results from the regression analyses for non or infrequent exercisers showed appearance orientation was a significant predictor of the frequency of social comparisons N (B = .429, SEB = .154, /3 = .312,p < .01). Also, trait body image measures accounted for significant variance in the direction of social comparisons (F(9, 57) = 13.43,p < .001, R2adj = .68). Specifically, SPA (B = -.583, SEB = .186, /3 = -.446,p < .01) and body esteem-weight concerns (B = .522, SEB = .207, /3 = .432,p < .01) were significant predictors of the direction of comparisons. For exercisers, regressions revealed that specific trait measures of body image significantly predicted the frequency of comparisons (F(9, 71) = 8.67,p < .001, R2adj = .463). Specifically, SPA (B = .508, SEB = .147, /3 = .497,p < .01) and appearance orientation (B = .457, SEB = .134, /3 = .335,p < .01) were significant predictors of the frequency of social comparisons. Lastly, for exercisers, the results for the regression of body image measures on the direction of social comparisons were also significant (F(9, 70) = 14.65,p < .001, R2adj = .609) with body dissatisfaction (B = .368, SEB = .143, /3 = .362,p < .05), appearan.ce orientation (B = .256, SEB = .123, /3 = .175,p < .05), and fitness orientation (B = .423, SEB = .194, /3 = .266,p < .05) significant predictors of the direction of social comparison. The results indicated that young women made frequent social comparisons regardless of exercise status. However, exercisers m,a de more positive comparisons on all the body dimensions than non or infrequent exercisers. Also, certain trait body image measures may be good predictors of one's body comp~son tendencies. However, the measures which predict comparison tendencies may be different for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Future research should examine the effects of social comparisons in different populations (i.e., males, the obese, older adults, etc.). Implications for practice and research were discussed.
    • Social development of primary aged children through a movement education program

      Johnson, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Unique in Canada, is a university based movement program offered to children aged 1-12 which is diverse and inclusive in its design to foster healthy physical, cognitive, affective and social development. The purpose of this study is to investigate how children's involvement in a weekly movement education program influences their social development. The primary-aged children involved in this research are participants in the university based Saturday morning program, The Children's Movement Program (CMP), in which creative dance, educational gymnastics and developmental games are employed to enhance optimal development. The 15 participants were systematically observed for 8 weeks as they naturally engaged in the program's activities. Interviews were conducted with both children and their caregivers throughout the duration of the program. Particular attention was paid to the perceptions of caregivers regarding the advantages of a program based upon principles of movement education. Results indicate that participation in the program increases children's opportunity to interact socially and address ways in which program content, pedagogy and context encourage social development. A figure was developed with these components to assist teachers in creating inclusive and meaningful movement experiences. 'Content' is referred to as the material to be learned or the desired outcome for the learner. 'Pedagogy' refers to the process in which the student will engage and 'Context' refers to the environment in which the experience occurs (eg. skating rink with playground balls). It is recommended that each is thoroughly addressed individually for its potential in lesson design.
    • Socially Constructed Environmental Issues and Sport: A Content Analysis of Ski Resort Environmental Communications

      Spector, Sam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-04-02)
      Due to the impact of sport on the natural environment (UN, 2010), it is important to examine the interplay between environmental issues and sport (Hums, 2010, Mallen & Chard, 2011; Nauright & Pope, 2009; Ziegler, 2007). This research content analyzed 82 ski resort environmental communications (SRECs). These communications were rated for their prominence, breadth, and depth using the delineation of environmental issues provided by the Sustainable Slopes Program (SSP) Charter. This data was compared to the resorts’ degree of environmentally responsible action as rated by the Ski Area Citizens’ Coalition (SACC). An adaptation of Hudson and Miller's (2005) model was then used to classify the ski resorts as inactive, reactive, exploitive, or proactive in their environmental activities. Recommendations have been made for standardization and transparency in environmental disclosures and an environmental management system to aid ski resorts in moving from ad hoc processes to a systematic and comprehensive framework for improving environmental performance.
    • Sources of perceived support from friends in exercise : an application of self-determination theory /

      Muon, Sovoeun.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-09-23)
      Background: This study examined three social factors (i.e., autonomy support, structure, and involvement) and their relationship with the motivational processes proposed by Vallerand ( 1 997). This study explored sources of support for exercise participation. -~ ' Methods: Participants (N = 425) completed self-reported instruments which assessed variables outlined within Vallerand's ( 1 997) HMIEM. Results: Structural equation modeling analyses predicting the cognitive/affective and exercise behaviour accounted for 23 percent of variance in positive affect, 10 percent of variance in negative affect, 38 percent of variance in physical self-concept, and 4 percent of variance in exercise behaviour. Exploratory analyses revealed that friends, romantic partners, and educators to be consistent sources for providing autonomy support, structure, and involvement, f !,< r - r* Summary: This study is among the first to examine perceived sources oi autonomy support, structure, and involvement from friends in the exercise context and suggest such perceptions may contribute to motivating exercise behaviour in post-secondary students.
    • Sport Commitment in Wheelchair Basketball: An Interpretive Look into the Lives of Individuals with Physical Disabilities

      Lavigne, Joshua Robert; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      It is estimated that over 4.4 million people are living in Canada with a reported disability. Due to a number of risk factors associated with potential health concerns and sedentary lifestyles, it is important for people with physical disabilities to lead an active lifestyle. Recreation and leisure pursuits are a great outlet for this to take place. However, in order to gain the long terms benefits of these pursuits one must be committed to an activity. With the use of a collaborative interview method, with the Sport Commitment Model serving as the guiding framework, this study sought to find the underlying factors for continued participation for people with physical disabilities in wheelchair basketball. Through utilizing an interpretive approach it was found that enjoyment, social support, perceived ability and to some extent involvement opportunities, were the main contributors to overall commitment. Criticisms and suggestions for future research are also provided.
    • Sport for Development Organizations: An Analysis of Stakeholder Dynamics

      Hill, Abigail; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      Sport for Development (SFD) uses the power of sport to support international development initiatives that affect social change and empower under-resourced communities (Levermore, 2008a). Currently, there are more than 1,000 SFD organizations globally (Doyle, Payne, & Wolff, 2011) working to enact change and development initiatives in the least developed regions of the world. Stakeholders are key components of the long-term sustainability, development, and success of these SFD organizations. The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between SFD organizations and their stakeholders through the lens of social responsibility (SR). Through the analysis of interviews conducted with SFD leaders and their stakeholders, this research offers a modified version of Carroll’s (1979) four categories of SR. This modified version addresses the differences that exist with SFD stakeholder relationships from the perspectives of the organizations and their stakeholders. Further, broader implications will be discussed in terms of compatibility and long-term sustainability.
    • Sport Values of Bantam, Midget and Intermediate Female Hockey Players and Their Minor Hockey Associations

      Pitts, Sandra L; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The sport values of female hockey players and their minor hockey associations were explored to better inform a values-based approach for adult-managed minor hockey. Data were collected from 294 participatory HL and competitive Rep players (12-22 years of age) using the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire-2 and from 30 hockey association board members using a modified YSVQ-2. Results indicated player importance (VI) ratings for Moral (M = 4.08) and Competence (M = 4.15) values were not significantly different but were significantly higher than Status (M = 2.11) value. Significant weak relationships between age and competition level versus VI ratings were found. There were medium/ high Moral, medium/ low Competence and high/ high Status value congruence between Rep and HL Player-Board Members, respectively. Based upon the findings, girls’ minor hockey associations need to recognize the values female youth players prioritize, and ensure each is considered within a values-based decision-making approach to governance.
    • Sport, The Business of ________: Exploring Higher Purpose in a Professional Sport Organization

      Gwartz, Evan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Researchers have demonstrated that organizational leaders’ communication of an organizational higher purpose (i.e., a definition of ‘why the organization exists’) profoundly benefits organizational performance (Sisodia, Sheth, & Wolfe,2014); however, sport organizational scholars and leaders remain ambiguous in their definitions of why such organizations exist (Newman, 2014; Zeigler, 2007). Thus, the purpose of this research is to explore the presence and management of higher purpose in a professional sport organization. To fulfill this research purpose, a qualitative, single-site case study was used to study a professional sport organization, with data collection methods including employee interviews, observation of organizational artifacts and an analysis of organizational documents. These data were analyzed by creating typologies based upon two theoretical frameworks: (1) Mackey and Sisodia’s (2013) four types of higher purpose; and (2) Bell-Laroche, Maclean, Thibault and Wolfe’s (2014) 4-I Values Framework, to understand how leaders were managing higher purpose with Management by Values (MBV) practices. From this analysis, the organization’s higher purpose was found to be largely ambiguous; however, most stakeholders espoused The Good (i.e., service to others) as the predominant source of higher purpose. Secondly, leaders were found to informally and intuitively manage higher purpose through a ‘top-down’ communication of organizational core values. These findings suggest that leaders have an opportunity to both discover and communicate their organization’s higher purpose and to develop formal MBV practices that could allow higher purpose to be utilized as a beneficial strategic management resource.
    • Sport-Specific Arbitration in Canada: A Qualitative Investigation of Four Athletes' Perceptions of the Fairness of the Process

      Gardner, Peter C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      This thesis explored Canadian high performance Athletes' perceptions of the fairness of the SDRCC sport-specific arbitral process. Leventhal’s (1980) model of procedural justice judgment was found to be an effective tool for exploring Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process. Five of his six procedural justice antecedents: consistency, bias suppression, accuracy of information, representativeness, and ethicality influenced the Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process. Emergent data also revealed that the Athletes’ perceptions of fairness were also influenced by three contextual factors and an additional antecedent of procedural justice. Efficiency of the process, inherent power imbalance between Athletes and NSOs, and the measurable effect of the process on personal and professional relationships differentiate sport-specific arbitration from most other processes of allocation. The data also indicated that the opportunity to voice one’s case was also an important determinant of the Athletes’ perceptions of the fairness of the process.
    • Staff Perceptions on the Qualities of Meaningful Relationships with Residents at End of Life in Long Term Care

      Attis, Leyla; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Long Term Care is a place where many people die, and it is the job of the staff members to assist the resident with their dying and death experience. A peaceful transition to death is largely dependent on the relationship between resident and staff members. In order to provide the best dying and death experience for the resident, I sought to explore staff perceptions on the qualities of a meaningful relationship with resident at the end of life. Using interpretive phenomenology as a qualitative research design and Heidegger’s (1962) concept of the lifeworld as a tool of analysis, I uncovered aspects of good ethical care by listening to the people who provide it. I completed a series of nine interviews and depicted staff perceptions of the qualities of their relationships with residents at the end of life. My data analysis uncovered three qualities of staff and resident relationship that positively influenced the dying and death experience for resident. These qualities are fearlessness, meaningful time and vulnerability. Furthermore, these findings reflect the mutual giving and receiving of care for both staff and resident throughout this relationship. Often this complex dynamic can be misunderstood or masked by what ministry standards tell us in how this relationship should look in LTC. My research exposes a different side of care at the end of life. With all the unknowns a resident is faced with at the end of life, the emotional relationship between resident and staff member can be the most comforting.
    • A Struggle Against the Odds: Understanding the Lived Experiences of Canadian Hockey League (CHL) Players

      Grygar, Victoria; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-09)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the experiences of Canadian Hockey League (CHL) players using a Foucauldian theory-based analysis. Specifically, this thesis contends that power relations between players and CHL hockey authorities need to be critically assessed. The CHL is the world’s leading developmental junior ice hockey league. Comprised of 1,400 hockey players, aged 15–21 years old on 60 teams through three divisions, the CHL is a primary supplier of talent for the National Hockey League. In the last year, several issues surrounding unjust practices within the CHL have been brought to the forefront, indicating that the potential for harassment, abuse, and exploitative practices are heightened in an organization such as the CHL, where profits are extracted from the labour of youth. Ultimately, this study is designed to contribute to both scholarly and public audiences, providing a critical analysis of the welfare of youth in the CHL.
    • Student Perspectives of the Context of Recess; Implications for Student Well-Being

      Dunseith, Ashley; Department of Child and Youth Studies (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      With most students in Canada spending approximately 180 days a year in school, averaging more than six hours a day (Morrison & Kirby, 2011), Wei, Szumilas and Kutcher (2011) argue that this places educational institutions in an unique position in terms of influencing the health and well-being of students. This brings forth the need for school environments to be utilized in ways that are conducive to promoting student development. Much of the educational and developmental components embedded within the school system as well as experiences within greatly influence student’s health and well-being. A national statement was made a concerning American children’s education and mental health that is greatly applicable to the Canadian school system. It was stated that schools “must be active partners in the mental health care of our children” because of the “important interplay between emotional health and school success” (Lazarus & Sulkowski, 2011, pp. 15-16). This identifies the need to ensure that all students, as much as possible, are being provided with safe environments and sufficient support in order to encourage positive developmental trajectories of student health and well-being.
    • A Study of Female Sport Fans with Respect to Fantasy Sport Participation

      Blain, Ben; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-01)
      Female sport fans make up ~40% of all North American big league sport fans. However, female sport fans make up only 20% of all fantasy sport participants. This study asked: why is there an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports? In order to answer this question, 35 female sport fans who do not participate in fantasy sports were separated into five focus groups to provide the data necessary for this study. Seven themes emerged to explain why there is an under-representation of female participation in fantasy sports: lack of time, their friends do not play, negative associations, control versus escape, sport statistics, team versus player allegiances, and males acting as gatekeepers. Finally, four recommendations were made for those marketing fantasy sports to female sport fans: increase the overall awareness of fantasy sports, promote the social aspects of fantasy sports, streamline fantasy sports, and promote the ease of use.
    • A Study of NHL Fan Identification in Red Deer, Alberta

      Cipywnyk, Blair; Applied Health Sciences Program
      While there are many reasons sport fans choose to follow one team over another, geography is typically a major one, as people often follow their hometown team, or the team that is the closest (Rooney, 1974; 1975; Wann, 2006). However, limited academic attention has been given to situations where geographic proximity is likely to have little to no influence in the development of sport fan identification, and how individuals choose teams instead. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand how hockey fans chose their favourite team when two teams in two different cities are an equal distance away, and how they would maintain that fandom in the presence of the other team’s fans. Participants were recruited in Red Deer, Alberta, a city that is 84 miles or 135.2 km from both Edmonton and Calgary. Using Rooney’s (1974; 1975) spheres of influence for sport teams, Red Deer falls equally within the sphere for both teams. As a result of the equi-distance, however, it was assumed geographic proximity likely has little influence on fandom formation in Red Deer. Further, the constant threat of the rival group being in close proximity raises questions for how fans in Red Deer maintain their team fandom. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly identified fans of the Edmonton Oilers or Calgary Flames that were also lifelong residents of Red Deer. Geographic proximity proved to play no role, while family influence, team success, rebellious nature, and place attachment proved major factors in how fans in Red Deer choose between these two teams. Further, because the Oilers and Flames are traditional rivals dating back to the 1980s (Spector, 2015), and with Red Deer being caught in the middle, an assumption was made that rivalry would play a large role in fandom maintenance. However, that was not the case. Not only did rivalry not factor in fandom maintenance, but the rivalry was also seen as dead or dying by participants. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented and discussed.
    • A Study of Nonfans and Fans of the National Lacrosse League's Edmonton Rush

      Smith, Danielle; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-01-27)
      The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is floundering. In an attempt to understand why NLL fans attend games and other sport fans do not, the NLL’s Edmonton Rush were studied. To best address the NLL’s attendance woes, two primary research questions were developed: 1) Why do fans of the Oilers and Oil Kings choose not to attend Edmonton Rush games? 2) Why do fans of the Edmonton Rush attend games? To answer these questions an online focus group along with a document analysis of Rush media, and a telephone interview were used to collect data. The data collection methods mentioned above assisted in answering the primary and secondary research questions, which allowed three major themes along with sub-themes to inductively emerge. The nonfans of the Rush do not attend Rush games because of the connection they have with hockey and the disconnection they have with lacrosse, some are simply not interested or were not entertained, as well as the lack of exposure the Rush receive. The Rush fan participants attend Rush games because of Edmonton community pride, the entertainment value they get out of attending a game, it is a great alternative new sport experience and it either is a substitute or a compliment to hockey. Both the nonfan and fan participants of this study believe that different marketing approaches can be utilized in order to attract nonfans to attend games.