• Registered Nurses' Perceptions about Facilitators and Barriers to Maternal Skin to Skin Contact in the Operating Room

      Dobosiewicz, Magdalena; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Abstract It is recommended that all new mothers experience skin-to-skin contact (SSC) with their newborns immediately after birth. However, SSC is not commonly practiced after cesarean deliveries. To understand facilitators and barriers regarding SSC in the operating room (OR), a descriptive online and paper survey was conducted with 68 Registered Nurses from four hospitals in Ontario. The theory of planned behavior framed the study. Nurses had positive attitudes, and believed most health care team members supported SSC in the OR, but were uncertain about their control over the behavior. Nurses who had practiced the behavior in the past had more positive attitudinal and normative beliefs, and perceived some barriers as less difficult. Attitude and past behavior were the only significant multivariate predictors of intention to practice SSC in the future. Results suggest that shifting attitude and supporting more experience with the practice may increase nurses’ implementation of SSC in the OR.
    • The Relationship between athlete motivation, strategies used to cope with stress and affective outcomes in Canadian University athletes

      Rimmer, Samuel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Motivation to perform and coping with stress during performance are key factors in determining numerous outcomes of sporting performance. However, less evidence is in place assessing their relationship. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between athlete motivation and the coping strategies used to deal with stress during their sporting performance, as well as the relationship between motivation and affect and coping and affect. One hundred and forty five university athletes completed questionnaires. Regressions revealed that two of the three self determined levels of motivation, identified and integrated regulation, predicted increased task-oriented coping strategies. Two of the three non-self determined levels of motivation, amotivation and external regulation, significantly predicted disengagement-oriented coping. Additionally, intrinsic motivation and task-oriented coping predicted increase positive affect. Increased disengagement-oriented coping predicted decreased positive affect. Disengagement-oriented coping significantly predicted increased negative affect. These findings increase understanding of motivations role in predicting athletes coping.
    • The Relationship between Dementia Family Caregivers' Traditional Values and Beliefs about Caregiving and Well-being

      Blain, Julie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-23)
      Introduction: Canada’s aging population is diverse and this diversity will continue to grow for the next two decades (Government of Canada, 2002; Katz, 2005; Statistics Canada, 2010). Objective: to examine the relationship between dementia family caregivers’ traditionally-based beliefs about caregiving, their caregiving experience, and their well-being. Method: exploratory secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 76 community caregivers of persons with dementia in Ontario. Results: traditional values for caregiving was independently associated with coping resources and health status but not depression symptoms. Caregiver self-efficacy and social support both partially mediated the relationship between beliefs about caregiving and caregiver health status. Discussion: Findings from this exploratory study are consistent with stress process models of culture and caregiving. The finding that self-efficacy was associated with traditional values and that it mediated the relationship between traditional values and caregiver well-being is new to the literature.
    • The relationship between early age of first sexual intercourse and vulnerability to depression among adolescents

      Jamieson, Luanne K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Past empirical literature has provided conflicted results regarding the association between adolescent coitus and depression. While some studies conclude that those youth who are sexually active may be at risk for depression, others provide contrary results, or findings that are only representative of high-risk sexual behaviors such as intercourse without a condom. Thus, the results are unclear as to whether depression results directly from coitus, or if this relationship is spurious; that is, there may be biological, psychological, or sociological variables that may predict both depression and early sexual intercourse. Using the Add Health restricted dataset, I analyzed the depressive symptomatology of adolescents over a seven-year time period. The final sample (n=6,51O) was comprised of 49.35% male (n=3,213) and 50.65% female (n=3,297) participants. Results indicated that the relationship between earlier adolescent sexual intercourse and later depressive symptomatology is spurious. Although an earlier age of first coitus is predictive of later depressive symptomatology, both variables appear to be concomitant outcomes of the biopsychosocial process. Thus, while one may be able to use early coitus as a marker for subsequent depressive symptomatology, it does not occur because of early coitus. Furthermore, the reverse relationship was not found to be significant in this study. That is, higher levels of depressive symptomatology do not predict an earlier age of first sexual intercourse in adolescents.
    • The Relationship between Intramural Sport Participation, Social Integration, and Institutional Commitment

      Power, Shenise; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Higher education administrators are increasingly scrutinizing budgets and limited resources for the allocation of financial support to all academic and non-academic services, including campus recreational sports. With the current fiscal climate the benefits of campus recreation programs need to be examined and identified in order to remain relevant within post-secondary institutions. The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between students’ participation in intramural sports, social integration into the campus community, and institutional commitment. Three hundred and twenty-four intramural participants (N=324) at a Canadian University completed a questionnaire before or after participating in their chosen intramural sport. MANOVA’s, Correlation Matrices, and Hierarchical Regression analyses were conducted, revealing that the quality of intramural participation, consisting of the effort, energy, time, and money a student invests, is a significant predictor of Social Integration into the campus community. Students who are personally invested in their intramural sport participation are more socially integrated into the campus community at their institution. Social integration was not found to be a significant predictor of Institutional Commitment as suggested by Tinto (1993). Future research should explore the relationship between social integration and institutional commitment as identified in Tinto’s (1993) Model of Departure, through the investigation of other contributing factors that lead to institutional commitment.
    • The Relationship between Participation in an Exercise Program and Body Image in Post-Menopausal Women Self-Reporting Osteoporosis

      Willmott, Karlene; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The current study investigated body image differences in post-menopausal women who self-reported having (SRO) or not having (SRN) osteoporosis and the impact of a 16-week exercise program on body image in these groups. Participants completed a measure of body image, and were randomly assigned to a 16-week exercise program or control group, stratified by self-reported osteoporosis status. After 16 weeks, they completed the same body image measure. There were no differences in body image between the two osteoporosis groups. The exercise intervention had a positive impact on body image for both the SRO and SRN groups. The exercise groups showed increases in fitness and health orientation and body areas satisfaction from baseline to 16-weeks, while the non-exercise group showed decreases in appearance and health evaluation, health orientation and body areas satisfaction. The results suggest an exercise program for post-menopausal women can lead to improvements in body image, regardless of osteoporosis status.
    • The relationship between self-efficacy, collective efficacy and sport performance in men’s and women’s ice hockey goaltender teams

      Ditmars, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      Past research has shown a positive relationship between efficacy and performance (Feltz & Lirgg, 1998). Feltz and Lirgg (1998) found a positive relationship between efficacy and sport performance in hockey players, however they excluded goaltenders due to their unique position. The present study replicated Feltz and Lirgg (1998) with only goaltenders. Data was collected from 12 goaltenders from three Ontario hockey leagues. Efficacy was measured through an online questionnaire and official game statistics provided the performance measures. Data was collected for 70 games to total of 112 responses. Results of this study revealed non-significant relationships between both self- and collective efficacy and all performance indicators. Results of the present study are not consistent with Feltz and Lirgg’s (1998), however other published research has found a non-significant relationship between efficacy and sport performance (Sitzmann & Yeo, 2013). Therefore, it is possible that goaltender efficacy is not the most influential psychological construct.
    • Relationships Between Sleep Quality, Sleep Hygiene, and Psychological Distress In University Student-Athletes

      Gladney, Chris; Gladney, Chris; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Post-secondary student-athletes are one of the most vulnerable populations that experience poor sleep quality, which has detrimental effects on psychological distress due to the strong relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress. Research suggests that by improving sleep hygiene behaviours an individual can improve sleep quality, which will improve psychological distress. Few studies have examined sleep quality, sleep hygiene and psychological distress together among a post-secondary population and none have investigated a student-athlete population. The present study examined if sleep hygiene mediates the relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress among post-secondary student-athletes. A sample of 94 student-athletes completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (Buyess et al., 1989; Kessler et al., 2002; Lin, Cheng, Yang, & Hsu, 2007). A mediation model was used to examine the relationships between the variables using the global scores. Bootstrapping was conducted to increase power of the model, which resulted in confidence interval levels that did not include zero indicating the indirect effect is significant and sleep hygiene mediates the relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress. This study can implicate future studies regarding sleep hygiene interventions changing the lifestyle habits and behaviours affecting their sleep hygiene, which is shown to impact sleep quality and psychological distress. In conclusion, Sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between sleep quality and psychological distress.
    • Removing Oneself from the Shadows: A Heuristic Inquiry to Understand the Lived Experience of Epilepsy in Young Adult Women and their Epilepsy Disclosure

      McGuire, Suzanne; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures (Stein & Kanner, 2009). The purpose of this study was to understand the essence of being a young woman living with epilepsy using heuristic inquiry (Moustakas, 1990). The research was built upon the assumption that each experience is unique, yet commonalities exist. Five women aged 22 to 28 years living with epilepsy were interviewed. Additionally, the researcher described her life with epilepsy. Participants characterized life with epilepsy as a transformative journey. The act of meeting and interacting with another woman living with epilepsy provided an opportunity to remove themselves from the shadows and discuss epilepsy. Three major themes of seizures, medical treatment, and social relationships were developed revealing a complex view of an illness requiring engaged advocacy in the medical system. Respondents frequently make difficult adjustments to accommodate epilepsy. This study provides a complex in-depth view of life with epilepsy.
    • Resilience in environmental educators

      Henderson, Kelly; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Contemporary environmental issues (such as global warming) can present psychological stress, the effects of which are under-examined. The ability to "bounce back" from stress associated with increasing environmental adversity can be understood as resilience, and can be found in some environmental educators. The following paper examines how veteran environmental educators respond to psychological stress to increasing environmental adversity and describes the experience of resilience. Through in-depth interviews, this hermeneutical study sheds light on the environmental factors and internal competencies that contribute to resilience in seven environmental educators. Additionally, the interaction (known as the person/environment transactional process) between these factors and competencies is explored, providing insight into how the participants construct resilience. Kumpfer's (1999) Resilience Framework provided the organizational framework for the results of this study. Findings suggest ways in which resilience in environmental educators can be supported and offers directions for future research.
    • Retrospective on the Experience of Parental Pressure and Support by Male Participants that Withdrew from Competitive Youth Hockey: A Phenomenological Investigation

      Schonewille, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-12-22)
      The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of parental pressure and support for males who withdrew from competitive youth hockey. A phenomenological approach was used to explore this phenomenon and develop meaning from the participants' experiences. Data for this study was collected by conducting one in-depth interview with each of the seven participants. Fourteen themes emerged as a result of the data analysis. These themes were grouped into three clusters: (1) Description of parental involvement: “I want them to be there and help me”; (2) Perceived impacts of parental involvement: “I felt like he actually cared”; and (3) Impact of parental involvement on commitment: “I kind of miss hockey now”. The descriptions provided by the participants in this study, and the themes that emerged, offer insight into what it is like for young males to experience parental involvement in competitive youth hockey.
    • Returning from the Wild: Exploring Participant's Experiences of Re-entry from Extended Wilderness Trips

      Cooper, Lucas; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-22)
      The experience of a strong sense of community developed while participating in extended wilderness expeditions is one of the most significant and meaningful experiences associated with taking part in this form of outdoor recreation. The experience of returning to a home community from an extended wilderness expedition is explored through the impacts associated with psychological sense of community (McMillian & Chavis, 1986; McMillian, 1996). A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the re-entry experiences of six individuals through the use of semi-structured interviews. Twelve main themes and seventeen subthemes emerged within the findings and illustrate a lack of preparation for the difficulties associated with re-entry, negative impacts associated with the experience of sense of community, and problems transferring aspects of a wilderness community into participant’s post-expedition lives.
    • Returning to Play after Concussion: A Phenomenological Study

      Da Costa, Kathleen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This study examines and describes athletes’ felt sense of readiness returning to play following a concussion. Analyses of the interviews yielded a description of each participant’s experiences with concussions. Descriptions of this phenomenon generated by informants provide a detailed account of the unique issues athletes face when returning to play following a concussion. Participants’ descriptions highlight that in order to play, an athlete knows that he/she ought to be emotionally and physically ready to play. However, the athletes in this study believe that there is not an actual test that can “prove” this and that they can choose to lie and/or cheat the tests to return to play while they are still symptomatic. Athletes, parents, coaches, and trainers will benefit from learning to be better educated on the severity of concussions, concussion detection, assessment and the serious health consequences that can result from playing with a concussion.
    • Rucking into New Territory: A Case-Study on the Experiences of Pioneer Female Club Rugby Players in Ontario

      Kovacs, Nicole; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The gender hierarchy found within sport has been reinforced through the use of traditional interpretations of masculinity, making sport a well-suited arena to examine gender inequity in its many forms. My thesis explores the challenges experienced by female pioneer rugby players in Ontario and their participation in a traditionally masculine sport. In order to explore the experiences of the female pioneer club players in Ontario, I conducted interviews with eight women and did multiple forms of content analyses. The analyses allowed me to describe the type of support the participants had and the barriers these female players encountered relative to their male counterparts of the era. My findings indicated that gender inequity, in both blatant and habit based manifestations, was at the forefront of the challenges endured by the pioneer players. Further research should investigate women’s involvement with the political and policy development aspects of the sport of rugby.
    • School Directors’ Perspectives of Physical Education in El Salvador: A Qualitative Case Study

      Pinch, Kelsey; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-03-02)
      Youth violence is El Salvador’s most imperative social, economic and health problem today. In an attempt to contribute to youth violence prevention in the country, humanistic physical education has been implemented within schools. Using case study methodology, this study examines twelve Salvadoran school directors’ perspectives of physical education and physical education as a mean of youth violence prevention. School directors’ perceive multiple benefits of physical education including those related to student’s social and emotional health. School directors recognize physical education as a means of reducing violence because it keeps youth busy and provides an outlet to release stress. Results are discussed in relation to long-term violence prevention literature. Results suggest that it would be beneficial for school directors to understand the theory and goals behind humanistic physical education in their schools. Research maintains the continuation of research in the field of humanistic physical education in relation to youth violence prevention.
    • The Search for Scholarly Teaching in Elementary Education

      Hancharyk, Steffannie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-07)
      Elementary teachers are expected to prepare students to work efficiently with others, solve complex problems and self-regulate their own learning. Considering the importance of a solid educational foundation in the early years, students would benefit if elementary teachers engaged in scholarly teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate Boyer’s (1990) four dimensions of scholarship, application, integration, teaching and discovery, to better understand if there is scholarly teaching in elementary education. Four professional teaching documents were analyzed using a hermeneutic orientation. A deductive analysis suggests that we do have scholarly teaching in elementary education, with strong evidence that elementary teachers are scholars of application and integration. An inductive analysis of latent and manifest content suggests that underlying humanistic values run deeply through elementary education driving current curricular, instructional and pedagogical practices.
    • Searching for Accommodations within the Ontario Criminal Justice System for Persons with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Views of Social Service Agency and Justice Professionals

      Stromski, Samantha; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Although persons with intellectual disabilities have been conceptualized as having rights to equality in Canada and internationally, there continue to be gaps in the delivery of justice when they are involved within the criminal process. The literature consistently reported that individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASDs) often experienced challenges within the justice system, such as difficulty understanding abstract legal concepts (Conry & Fast, 2009). In the Canadian legal system, accommodations are available to enable persons with disabilities to receive equal access to justice; however, how these are applied to persons with FASDs had not been fully explored in the literature. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with social service agency workers (n=10) and justice professionals (n=10) regarding their views of the challenges persons with FASDs experience in the justice system and their suggestions on the use of accommodations. The findings showed that while supports have been provided for individuals with intellectual disabilities, there has been a lack of specialized accommodations available specifically for individuals with FASDs in accessing their right to justice.
    • Self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey

      Morris-Tries, Deanna Elizabeth.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      The purpose of this cross sectional survey design was to examine self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Using a mail-out survey, entitled the Fort Erie Survey of Health (FESH), a probability cluster sampling technique was used to measure self-reported health status (present health, health conditions, health challenges, functional health limitations) and lifestyle behaviour (smoking, alcohol use, drug use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body weight, and gaming). Each variable was described and analyzed in relation to socio-economic variables, age and gender. The findings from this study were compared to the Canadian Community Health Survey 2000/2001. Overall, 640 surveys were completed. The majority of Fort Erie residents rated their present health as good and were satisfied with their overall health and quality of life. The main chronic conditions reported were arthritis, back pain and heart disease. Other main health problems reported were vision, sleeping and chronic pain. Overall, 14.6% smoke; 58.8% engaged in physical activity either occasionally or never as opposed to regularly engaging in physical activity; 52.1% did not eat the required daily fruits and vegetables; and 40.0% were in the overweight category. Persons who practiced one healthy lifestyle behaviour were more likely to practice other healthy promoting behaviours. Therefore, health promotion programs are best designed to address multiple risk factors simultaneously. The ffiSH was generally consistent with the Canadian Community Health Survey in the overall findings. A small number of inconsistencies were identified that require further exploration to determine if they are unique to this community.
    • Sex Talk: A Multiple Case Study to Explore and Understand Parent-Child Sexual Health Communication in Chinese Immigrant Families

      Brown, Sabrina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-02-07)
      Parent-child sexual health communication can be beneficial. Many factors affect such communication in Chinese immigrant families. This qualitative study explored the influences of acculturation, parenting, and parental participation in the Raising Sexually Healthy Children Program (RSHC) on such communication. With a hermeneutic framework, the purpose was to develop understanding based on the topic, context, and researcher interpretations. Twelve interviews elicited data from six parent-child dyads, three from the RSHC. Analysis involved coding processes; data were compared repeatedly and organized into themes. Perceived personality differences between generations were confounded with cultural communicative differences. Parents used implicitness observed in Chinese culture to establish "open" communication; children expected explicitness observed in Western culture. Post- RSHC, parents perceived themselves as more open to talking about sex; children did not perceive such parental changes. Future research should include joint interviews and longitudinal program evaluation. Future practice should focus on cross-cultural communication and involving children in RSHC.
    • Social comparison and body image in non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers

      Varga, Heather.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Body image refers to an individual's internal representation ofhis/her outer self (Cash, 1994; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). It is a multidimensional construct which includes an individual's attitudes towards hislher own physical characteristics (Bane & McAuley, 1998; Cash, 1994; Cash, 2004; Davison & McCabe, 2005; Muth & Cash, 1997; Sabiston, Crocker, & Munroe-Chandler, 2005). Social comparison is the process of thinking about the self in relation to others in order to determine if one's opinions and abilities are adequate and to assess one's social status (Festinger, 1954; Wood, 1996). Research investigating the role of social comparisons on body image has provided some information on the types and nature of the comparisons that are made. The act of making social comparisons may have a negative impact on body image (van den Berg et ai., 2007). Although exercise may improve body image, the impact of social comparisons in exercise settings may be less positive, and there may be differences in the social comparison tendencies between non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. The present study examined the nature of social comparisons that female collegeaged non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers made with respect to their bodies, and the relationship of these social comparisons to body image attitudes. Specifically, the frequency and direction of comparisons on specific tal-gets and body dimensions were examined in both non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Finally, the relationship between body-image attitudes and the frequency and direction with which body-related social comparisons were made for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers were examined. One hundred and fifty-two participants completed the study (n = 70 non or ill infrequent exercisers; n = 82 exercisers). Participants completed measures of social physique anxiety (SPA), body dissatisfaction, body esteem, body image cognitions, leisure time physical activity, and social comparisons. Results suggested that both groups (non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers) generally made social comparisons and most frequently made comparisons with same-sex friends, and least frequently with same-sex parents. Also, both groups made more appearance-related comparisons than non-appearance-related comparisons. Further, both groups made more negative comparisons with almost all targets. However, non or infrequent exercisers generally made more negative comparisons on all body dimensions, while exercisers made negative comparisons only on weight and body shape dimensions. MANOV As were conducted to examine if any differences on social comparisons between the two groups existed. Results of the MANOVAs indicated that frequency of comparisons with targets, the frequency of comparisons on body dimensions, and direction of comparisons with targets did not differ based on exercise status. However, the direction of comparison of specific body dimensions revealed a significant (F (7, 144) = 3.26,p < .05; 1]2 = .132) difference based on exercise status. Follow-up ANOVAs showed significant differences on five variables: physical attractiveness (F (1, 150) = 6.33,p < .05; 1]2 = .041); fitness (F(l, 150) = 11.89,p < .05; 1]2 = .073); co-ordination (F(I, 150) = 5.61,p < .05; 1]2 = .036); strength (F(I, dO) = 12.83,p < .05; 1]2 = .079); muscle mass or tone (F(l, 150) = 17.34,p < .05; 1]2 = 1.04), with exercisers making more positive comparisons than non or infrequent exercisers. The results from the regression analyses for non or infrequent exercisers showed appearance orientation was a significant predictor of the frequency of social comparisons N (B = .429, SEB = .154, /3 = .312,p < .01). Also, trait body image measures accounted for significant variance in the direction of social comparisons (F(9, 57) = 13.43,p < .001, R2adj = .68). Specifically, SPA (B = -.583, SEB = .186, /3 = -.446,p < .01) and body esteem-weight concerns (B = .522, SEB = .207, /3 = .432,p < .01) were significant predictors of the direction of comparisons. For exercisers, regressions revealed that specific trait measures of body image significantly predicted the frequency of comparisons (F(9, 71) = 8.67,p < .001, R2adj = .463). Specifically, SPA (B = .508, SEB = .147, /3 = .497,p < .01) and appearance orientation (B = .457, SEB = .134, /3 = .335,p < .01) were significant predictors of the frequency of social comparisons. Lastly, for exercisers, the results for the regression of body image measures on the direction of social comparisons were also significant (F(9, 70) = 14.65,p < .001, R2adj = .609) with body dissatisfaction (B = .368, SEB = .143, /3 = .362,p < .05), appearan.ce orientation (B = .256, SEB = .123, /3 = .175,p < .05), and fitness orientation (B = .423, SEB = .194, /3 = .266,p < .05) significant predictors of the direction of social comparison. The results indicated that young women made frequent social comparisons regardless of exercise status. However, exercisers m,a de more positive comparisons on all the body dimensions than non or infrequent exercisers. Also, certain trait body image measures may be good predictors of one's body comp~son tendencies. However, the measures which predict comparison tendencies may be different for non or infrequent exercisers and exercisers. Future research should examine the effects of social comparisons in different populations (i.e., males, the obese, older adults, etc.). Implications for practice and research were discussed.