• Participation factors in optional high school health and physical education

      Pybus, Colin M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Student enrolment rates in optional health and physical education (HPE) classes have been steadily declining, to the point where most Ontario students stop taking HPE after completion of their one required credit, typically taken in grade nine. This study looked at factors that could contribute to HPE enrolment, sampling 227 grade ten students from five schools. These factors included selfefficacy (SE), perceived autonomy support (PAS), task value (TV), motivational regulation (autonomous, AR; controlled, CR), HPE grade average and body size discrepancy (BSD). Qualitative information was also gathered from students regarding likes and dislikes ofHPE, as well as reasons for their HPE enrolment choice. Cronbach Alpha values of each scale fell within acceptable values. ANOVA analysis revealed differences between enrolment groups in SE, TV, AR, HPE grade average, and BSD (p < .05). Reasons students reported for not taking HPE included a dislike of health classes, scheduling challenges, not needing HPE for future endeavors, concerns about social self-presentation, and a dislike of sports and/or competition. This research shows important differences between students and their HPE class choices and calls for a re-evaluation of how HPE classes are structured, advertised and scheduled by high school practitioners. Future works should look toward what other factors could be at play in students' decisions for or against optional HPE and how those factors interact with the constructs that were found to be of significance in this study. Keywords: Health and physical education, high school students, participation.
    • Patterns and correlates of tobacco use among young adults at college and university

      Kirkwood, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      This thesis describes college and university students' smoking behaviours and examines whether socioenvironmental and personal characteristics experienced during adolescence are differentially associated with their smoking participation. Results show more college students than university students currently smoke (37% and 21 % respectively) and more began smoking prior to post-secondary school (93% and 84% respectively). Early age of onset of alcohol use increased the odds of current smoking (main effect model, OR = 8.56 CI = 6.47, 11.33), especially for university students (interaction effect model, b = 2.35 CI = 7.50, 14.64). Lower levels of high school connectedness were associated with increased odds of current smoking but for university students only (interaction effect model, b = -0.15 CI = 0.84, 0.88). While limitations associated with convenience sampling and low response rate exist, this is the first Canadian study to examine college and university students separately. I t reveals that tobacco control programming needs to differ for college and university students, and early alcohol prevention and school engagement programs for adolescents may influence tobacco use. Given that both educational pathway and use of tobacco are associated with SES, future research may consider examining in more detail, SES-related socioenvironmental variables.
    • Peer Motivational Climate and its Relationship with Positive and Negative Affect in Intramural Sports

      Webb, Evan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      The study of peers as an influence on sport participation has received minimal exploration. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how peer created motivational climates (task-involved and ego-involved) impact positive and negative affective states of intramural sport participants post-participation. Three hundred and fifteen intramural sport participants (N=315) at a Canadian university completed a questionnaire after participating in their intramural sport. Hierarchical regression analyses and MANCOVAs were used to examine the effects of peer motivational climates on positive and negative affect. Results revealed that task-involved peer climates are more conducive of positive affective states post-participation whereas ego-involved climates result in lesser positive affective states and more negative affective states. Teams that promote improvement and effort instead of intra-team competition and conflict will have more positive recreational sport experiences. Future research should explore other psychological outcomes that can result from peer created motivational climates in recreational sport team settings.
    • Peer Victimization and the Need to Belong within the Context of Recess

      Franklin, Nicole; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Within the school setting, recess is often reported as a frequent context for bullying (Vaillancourt et al. 2010), but is currently understudied. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach in order to examine the frequency of peer victimization at recess and explore how the current context of recess relates to children’s sense of belonging. Participants included 464 students between grades 4 to 8 from nine Southern Ontario elementary schools. Self-report measures on peer victimization and belongingness were completed, along with open-ended questions regarding the recess context. Results demonstrated the frequencies of peer victimization at recess, the relationship between victimization and belonging, contextual factors that promote and impede belongingness at recess, and solutions to support children who feel left out.These findings provide further insight for educators and administrators in order to better support children who experience victimization within the recess context.
    • Perceived Competencies for Seniors Care in Long Term Care Homes: An Examination in Therapeutic Recreation Undergraduate Curricula

      Prentice, Kristin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Therapeutic recreation (TR) is an important contributor to the health and well-being of residents living in long term care (LTC). In order to enhance quality of life of residents, it is essential that Therapeutic Recreationists have gerontological competencies and knowledge relevant to LTC. The confidence levels of Therapeutic Recreationists (n = 130) and recreation staff (n = 357) in performing gerontological competencies in long term care, Therapeutic Recreationists’ perceived gaps in their gerontological competencies and TR educators’ perceptions on graduates’ competencies were examined. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted. A survey was distributed to long term care homes in Ontario. Results indicated that recreation staff (1) have the least amount of confidence in writing care plans and assessing spirituality; (2) they have the most confidence in implementing programs for residents with dementia and physical disabilities, and recognizing that resident behaviour is communication based on need; and (3) have higher confidence if they took in-service training and continuing education courses. TR graduates have the least amount of confidence in completing RAI-MDS, assessing spirituality, and assessing physical health and illness conditions. The recent TR graduates revealed that learning about aging topics in courses is associated with confidence levels in gerontological competencies and that internship/placement experience was not associated with confidence levels in gerontological competencies. Further research should examine gerontological competencies and gerontological content in TR curricula including practitioner perspectives of required competencies and gaps in the LTC setting. This study can assist educators in designing programs for TR candidates that may better prepare them for working with residents in LTC.
    • The perceptions of commune health workers about an education strategy received for counselling fathers about infant and breastfeeding involvement

      Pyke, Stephanie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Objective To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare workers in Vietnam about the efficacy of a continuing education strategy about father involvement and breastfeeding counselling. Design One group, post-test only, quasi-experimental design Method A questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT; Bandura, 2004) was disseminated to participants (N=28). This questionnaire measured self-efficacy, outcome expectations, socio-structural factors, goal setting and behaviour. Multiple regressions were analyzed predicting participants’ practice of client focused father involvement consulting. Results Bivariate correlations demonstrated the anticipated patterns of association between SCT-based constructs. Multiple regression analysis indicated that outcome expectations and barriers were significant predictors of client focused father involvement consulting. Conclusions Participants reported that the education increased their self-efficacy, outcome expectations and client focused father involvement consulting behaviour. Future education should be accessible, increase counselling confidence and address beliefs about the outcomes and challenges of father involvement consulting.
    • The Perceptions of Kinesiologists of Ethics and Professionalism as Established by the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario

      Denyes, Chad; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-02)
      As of April 1, 2013 kinesiology became a regulated health profession in Ontario. With its own governing body, the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario (CKO), there are new ethical and professional standards to which kinesiologists must adhere. The purpose of this study is to investigate kinesiologists’ thoughts and perceptions regarding the CKO’s Practice Standards, Guidelines and Code of Ethics, and their level of ethical knowledge and training. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with kinesiologists. Interview data was analyzed through the development of general themes. Findings revealed that kinesiologists are confident of their ethical decision making skills but are in need of more ethical and professional education and training in order to become respected healthcare professionals in the healthcare community and in the eyes of the public. Furthermore, there were key areas identified in need of improvement regarding the quality of the Practice Standards, Guidelines and Code of Ethics. Additional findings, implications and recommendations for future research were also discussed.
    • Personal Support Workers' Experience of Collaboration in a Long-Term Care Facility in Rural Ontario

      Hoogeveen, Kathryn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The growing complexity of healthcare needs of residents living in long-term care necessitates a high level of professional interdependence to deliver quality, individualized care. Personal support workers (PSWs) are the most likely to observe, interpret and respond to resident care plans, yet little is known about how they experience collaboration. This study aimed to describe PSWs’ current experiences with collaboration in long-term care and to understand the factors that influenced their involvement in collaboration. A qualitative approach was used to interview eight PSWs from one long-term care facility in rural Ontario. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: valuing PSWs’ contributions, organizational structure, and individual characteristics and relationships. Collaboration was a difficult process for PSWs who felt largely undervalued and excluded. To improve collaboration, management needs to provide opportunities for PSWs to contribute and support the development of relationships required to collaborate.
    • A Phenomenological Analysis of Chronic Pain Self-Management

      Richmond, Rachel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-management is a poorly understood concept from both the academic and patient perspectives. Within the literature it is known as a vague concept which is often mistaken for other terms such as self-care and self-help. The ambiguity surrounding self-management in academia is then transferred to patients through their physicians. Living with a debilitating, invisible condition, such as chronic pain, can force patients to self-manage their conditions. This study set out to not only to define this concept and those related to it, but also to understand the meanings persons with chronic pain ascribe to their self-management. A literature search as well as qualitative interviews were conducted to explore, with more depth, the meanings that participants associate with the phenomenon of self-managing their chronic pain. Five themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: Doctors, Getting Through the Day, Being Limited, My Hidden Burden, and What’s Next. Chronic pain proved to be a controlling factor in the lives and decisions of all participants. Overall the self-management behaviours that participants found the most useful, other than medication, were relaxing behaviours that reminded them of their childhood and families.
    • A phenomenological approach to understanding the psychological response to chronic low back pain

      Aymar, Matthew; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex health problem of psychological manifestations not fully understood. Using interpretive phenomenological analysis, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted to help understand the meaning of the lived experience of CLBP; focusing on the psychological response to pain and the role of depression, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance behavior, anxiety and somatization. Participants characterized CLBP as persistent tolerable low back pain (TLBP) interrupted by periods of intolerable low back pain (ILBP). ILBP contributed to recurring bouts of helplessness, depression, frustration with the medical system and increased fear based on the perceived consequences of anticipated recurrences, all of which were mediated by the uncertainty of such pain. During times of TLBP all participants pursued a permanent pain consciousness as they felt susceptible to experience a recurrence. As CLBP progressed, participants felt they were living with a weakness, became isolated from those without CLBP and integrated pain into their self-concept.
    • A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Experiences of Men Who Work in Maternal-Newborn Nursing Positions

      Biletchi, Jeff; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-02-24)
      The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of men who choose to work in maternal-newborn nursing roles. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of six male nurses who worked in maternal-newborn settings using a semi-structured guide. Four themes emerged: Motivation and Influences in Career Choice, Barriers to Developing Caring Confidence as Maternal-Newborn Nurses, Surviving as Men in Maternal-Newborn Nursing, and The Invisible Norms Associated with Men in Maternal-Newborn Nursing. The study generated meaning surrounding career selection and addressed motivating factors such as role modeling, life experience, and passion for the area of specialization or convenience. There is importance in understanding the experiences of men who choose to work in maternal-newborn nursing roles. Thus, this research has implications for nursing, practice, education, and research, particularly with nursing leadership, policy makers, educators, guidance counselors, and men considering maternal-newborn nursing roles.
    • Physical Activity and the Entanglement of Meaning Making for Females

      Lovett, Jane; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      This research takes a phenomenological approach through narratives to investigate the meanings females attribute to their experiences with physical activity. Nine females across the age ranges of 10-80 were asked to share three meaningful physical activity stories. These experiences could be positive or negative in nature as long as they were reflective of a meaningful experience for the participant. The aim of the research was to explore the types of physical activity experiences that females find meaningful. The results indicate that participants perceived the following to be meaningful within their experience: social support, benefits to personal health and well-being, recognition and acknowledgment, empowerment, body control, early positive experience and identity formation. Participants’ stories offered an enlightened understanding of the meanings active females associate with physical activity across their lifespans that perhaps can assist in formulating and developing strategies to encourage and promote involvement in physical activity.
    • A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Inquiry on Transhuman Athletes and Gene Doping in Sport

      Meshki, Rand; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Gene doping is the most recent addition to the list of banned practices formulated by the World Anti-doping Agency. It is a subset of doping that utilizes the technology involved in gene therapy. The latter is still in the experimental phase but has the potential to be used as a type of medical treatment involving alterations of a patient‘s genes. I apply a pragmatic form of ethical inquiry to evaluate the application of this medical innovation in the context of sport for performance-enhancement purposes and how it will affect sport, the individual, society and humanity at large. I analyze the probable ethical implications that will emerge from such procedures in terms of values that lie at the heart of the major arguments offered by scholars on both affirmative and opposing sides of the debate on gene doping, namely fairness, autonomy and the conception of what it means to be human.
    • Problematic Parents: An Efficacy Analysis of Code of Conduct Policies in Ontario Minor Hockey Associations

      Heipel, Zach; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Minor hockey in Canada holds significant historical and cultural importance. Many children in Canada aspire to become professional hockey players and many parents dream of their child succeeding in the sport at the highest levels. This perceived importance runs the risk of creating a hypercompetitive environment with overinvolved parents that can adversely affect multiple minor hockey stakeholders, such as young athletes, coaches, referees, administrators, and other parents. Existing research has examined violations from parents in various youth sport settings and a lack of institutional policies to inform, monitor, and discipline parents who violate behavioural expectations. Many studies have recommended the inclusion of parental education tools and association disciplinary procedures, but current literature lacks a fundamental understanding of current behaviour policies and their effectiveness. This study examines the contents of code of conduct policies in Ontario minor hockey associations, the behaviour expectations of parents, the effectiveness of code of conduct policies, the various violations that parents commit, and potential recommendations to improve parental behaviour. Employing constructivist epistemology and qualitative research design, this study used interpretive phenomenology and thematic analysis to analyze two types of data: 58 existing code of conduct documents, and 21 semi-structured interviews with minor hockey rep coaches and administrators. This analysis revealed that while many Ontario minor hockey associations have some form of conduct policy in place, content and implementation varies significantly between associations. Furthermore, while participants perceived that parental behaviour appears to be improving in recent years, misconduct incidents still commonly occur with significant negative consequences to various minor hockey stakeholders. Participants identified many strategies to better prevent and respond to parental misconduct in minor hockey are identified and examined, making this study useful to minor hockey associations in developing better policies and procedures to effectively deal with parental misconduct incidents.
    • Profiling young carers' lives: An examination of individual, family, and social contexts

      Lakman, Yana; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Young carers (YCs) who provide prolonged care for ill, disabled, or addicted family member(s) face a tremendous risk for negative developmental trajectories when remaining hidden (Charles, Stainton, & Marshall, 2009; Charles, 2011; Cass, 2007). Despite a growing recognition of YCs, understanding how providing care impacts a young person is not fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate circumstantial, family, and individual factors which may be associated with YCs’ caregiving role. By comparing YCs to a normative sample, a comprehensive YC profile was formed. A secondary comparative analysis was conducted on 124 YCs (72 females and 52 males, Mage = 12) and a normative sample (n = 124) matched on YCs’ age, gender, and number of siblings within the family. Unique attributes of the YC population were discussed, thereby creating a YC profile. Future research may be able to use this profile to promote identification and recognition of YCs.
    • Promoting father involvement in breastfeeding

      Hansen, Amanda; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Fathers influence mothers’ decisions to breastfeed and for how long they intend to breastfeed. Previous studies have found that positive breastfeeding outcomes are associated with fathers providing any type of supportive behavior. Above other types of support, responsive behaviours sensitive to the mother’s needs are more likely to increase exclusive breastfeeding significantly longer. This study tested the feasibility of an intervention that provided a one-time 60-minute session to an all-fathers group about the breastfeeding team and the effect of the fathers’ satisfaction with the education in terms of fathers’ breastfeeding support behaviours. This study was carried out in a maternity hospital in Canada where an average of 1,500 infants are born each year. Twenty fathers from a variety of ethnic backgrounds received this learning. The group was led by a male facilitator as some research suggests that men prefer to learn from their male peers. The facilitator was trained using the Father Breastfeeding Involvement Group: Facilitator Manual. The average session lasted approximately 60 minutes with an average group of two participants. The fathers discussed ways they could practice responsive behaviours unique to their partner and infant as an active member in the breastfeeding team. The fathers reported high satisfaction rates of attending the session and that the session created a comfortable atmosphere to share their thoughts openly. Second time fathers highly enjoyed the session finding it a valuable, informative refresher. The fathers liked the convenience of attending a session in hospital before their infant was discharged home. At one month, fathers completed the Partner Breastfeeding Influence Scale to determine the amount of specific involvement they practiced. There was a positive relationship between fathers’ overall satisfaction with the session and reports of greater father breastfeeding support behaviours. One limitation of this study is the small sample size. Data collection was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic because nonessential research was abruptly stopped within a few weeks of the program’s commencement. However, the fathers were interested and enjoyed the session, providing evidence that a larger number of participants was feasible. This knowledge can be used in planning future father involvement in breastfeeding interventions.
    • Psychographic characteristics of weekend wine tourists : a multiple case study of four wineries in the Niagara Region

      Dougan, Robert A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-11-04)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the psychographic (product attributes, motivation opinions, interest, lifestyle, values) characteristics of wine tourists along the Niagara wine r,~ute, located in Ontario, Canada, using a multiple case study method. Four wineries were selected, two wineries each on the East, and West sides of the wine route during the shoulder-season (January, February, 2004). Using a computer generated survey technique, tourists were approached to fill out a questionnaire on one of the available laptop computers, where a sample ofN=321 was obtained. The study findings revealed that there are three distinct wine tourist segments in the Niagara region. The segments were determined using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a K-means cluster analysis: Wine Lovers, Wine Interested, and Wine Curious wine tourists. These three segments displayed significant differences in their, motivation for visiting a winery, lifestyles, values, and wine purchasing behaviour. This study also examined differences between winery locations, on the East and West sides of the Niagara wine route, with respect to the aforementioned variables. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the regions with respect to these variables. The findings suggest that these differences present opportunities for more effective marketing strategies based on the uniqueness of each region. The results of this study provide insight for academia into a method of psychographic market segmentation of wine tourists and consumer behaviour. This study also contributes to the literature on wine tourism, and the identification of psychographic characteristics of wine tourists, an area where little research has taken place.
    • A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Causality Assessment in Early Phase Oncology Clinical Trials: A Phenomenological Study

      Torti, Jacqueline; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Research Question: What are the psychosocial factors that affect causality assessment in early phase oncology clinical trials? Methods: Thirty-two qualitative interviews were explicated with the aid of “Naturalistic Decision Making”. Data explication consisted of phenomenological reduction, delineating and clustering meaning units, forming themes, and creating a composite summary. Participants were members of the National Cancer Institute of Canada’s Clinical Trial Group Investigative New Drug committee. Results: The process of assigning causality is extremely subjective and full of uncertainty. Physicians had no formal training, nor a tool to assist them with this process. Physicians were apprehensive about their decisions and felt pressure from their patients, as well as the pharmaceutical companies sponsoring the trial. Conclusions: There are many problem areas when attributing causality, all of which have serious consequences, but clinicians used a variety of methods to cope with these problem areas.
    • A Quantitative Study of Social Capital Components, Self-Reported Health Status and Social Determinants of Health

      Cudmore, Karen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-09-18)
      This quantitative descriptive co-relational study used telephone survey interviews and stratified random sampling to collect data related to Social Capital (SC) and its components (trust and safety, reciprocity, civic engagement and collective action) and selected determinants of health variables in Niagara Region, Canada. Among the four components of social capital, trust and safety levels were highest among all participants (m=5.42, SD=1.0), with community engagement yielding the lowest mean score for the sample (m=1.93, SD=.8). Reciprocity had the strongest association with all other components of SC (r=0.51). Those most likely to report low levels of SC and health were unattached and low-income females. Males were more likely to report higher trust and safety levels and higher levels of self-rated health. In this study, a linear relationship between self-reported health status and SC was not found. Marital and employment status were associated with differences in mean scores of SC and self-reported health.
    • (Re)presentations of Disability: Images of Persons with Down Syndrome

      Mooradian, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Disabled people have been misrepresented by mass media for decades. The result of disability misrepresentation is the perpetuation of negative disability stereotypes and models of disability. Disability representation has rarely been informed by authentic first-hand knowledge about what disability is and who disabled people are. As such, representations of disability have been formed from an outsider perspective most commonly based on ableism. This study seeks to explore the ways in which disabled people choose to represent themselves and if this representation is consistent with or resistant to dominant disability narratives. Borrowing from Critical Disability Studies and the concept of disability life writing, this study utilized qualitative content analysis to analyze the visual images, comments, and hashtags of randomly selected data posted to four publicly accessible Instagram accounts. Findings show disabled people choose to represent themselves in ways that resist dominant disability narratives, allowing for expanded ideas of what disability is and who disabled people are.