• The journey towards comprehensive school health within an aboriginal community

      Matsumura, Lyndsey.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this research is to describe the journey towards Comprehensive School Health at two Aboriginal elementary schools. An advocate and a healthy schools committee were identified at both schools and were responsible for developing initiatives to create a healthy school community. A case study was used to gather an in-depth understanding of Comprehensive School Health for the two schools involved. As a researcher, I functioned within the role of a participantobserver, as I was actively involved in the programs and initiatives completed in both schools. The research process included: the pilot study, ethics clearance and distribution of letters of invitation and consent forms. Data collection included 16 semi-structured, guided interviews with principals, teachers, and stupents. Participant observations included sites of the gymnasium, classroom, playgrounds, school environments, bulletin boards as well as artifact analysis of decuments such as school newsletters, physical education schedules and school handbooks. The interviews were transcribed and coded using an inductive approach which involves finding patterns, themes and categories from the data (patton, 2002). Research questions guided the findings as physical activity, physical education, nutrition and transportation were discussed. Themes developed t~rough coding were teacherstudent interactions, cultural traditions, time constraints and professional development and were discussed using a Comprehensive School Health framework.
    • Keep Your Eye on the Game: The Impact of Distraction and Scoreboard Watching during Major League Baseball Playoff Races

      Ferguson, Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examines 11 years and 26,370 of Major League Baseball’s (i.e., MLB) game outcomes to test whether distraction, through scoreboard watching, causes teams to choke under pressure. Results indicate that scoreboard watching significantly impacts the probability of winning a game, especially in playoff races. Specifically, teams in a playoff race had a 0.158 lower probability of winning games when the division leader won its game the previous day. Consistent with distraction theory, the analysis also shows that the distraction effects are 0.224 greater on home teams. There is evidence of increased distraction as criticality of games increase. When there are fewer than 10 games remaining in a playoff race, the impact of a division leader win reduces a team’s win probability by 0.243. Changes to league structure reduced win probability by 0.039 for seasons starting in 2012. This involved the addition of a Wild Card team to each league and an increase to the value of winning a division. This study helps fill a gap in the literature in relation to research on external factors and their impact on game outcomes. If a team can account for factors related to winning a game then it could be possible to gain a competitive advantage over the opposition. The findings also have practical applications. MLB teams can take initiatives to eliminate distraction and keep players’ attention on the task at hand surrounding critical games.
    • Leisure as a Facilitator of Posttraumatic Growth in Individuals Living with Cancer

      Vercillo, Tabitha; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-02-04)
      Although there is a growing body of literature that shifts the focus of chronic illness and trauma research to personal growth, there is limited literature on the role that leisure has in this process (e.g., Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004). This qualitative study explored the role of leisure in the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG) for individuals living with cancer. The findings revealed that leisure influences PTG in four domains: (a) building meaningful relationships, (b) providing experiences to develop and maintain a sense of self, (c) creating opportunities to experience positive emotions, and (d) finding purpose in life. Findings provide insight on how individuals living with cancer perceive the role that leisure has in facilitating positive change after diagnosis. These findings will better enable healthcare and leisure providers to understand the unique needs of individuals living with cancer, and help them to facilitate meaningful leisure programs to encourage PTG.
    • Leisure connections : a case study to understand facilitation techniques with survivors of trauma

      Greig, Carrie L.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Leisure-based therapy is a potentially effective approach to supporting survivors of trauma in their healing. The purpose ofthis qualitative case study was to describe the recreation therapist's facilitation techniques of Leisure Connections, a unique leisurebased psycho-educational group for survivors of trauma, and explore how the facilitation was experienced by participants. Qualitative case study design, following the methods of Yin (1994) was used. One two week, three session Leisure Connections group was observed. Six participants completed the Group· Therapy Alliance Scale (pinsof & Catherall, 1986) and reflection cards. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the recreation therapist and four participants. Six themes emerged describing group leader interventions, recreation therapist's actions, recreation therapist's preparation and reflections, group members' experience of a therapeutic alliance, group cohesion, and prior influences and assumptions. Therapeutic alliance and group cohesion were influenced by the recreation therapist's group leader interventions (drawing out, processing, protecting) and actions. The context of the group within a therapeutic community milieu was an important influence.

      Miatello, Ashleigh; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-10-11)
      Trauma can have lasting effects on health (CAMH, 2010; DSM-IV, 1994; Lazarus, 1966), negatively influencing meanings and experiences of leisure in relation to health (Griffin, 2002, 2005; Meister & Pedlar, 1996). This interpretive grounded theory explored understandings of leisure during Leisure Connections and how Leisure Connections provides a context for healing from trauma. Data included observations, interviews with six participants, and reflection cards. Nine themes emerged: responding to trauma in leisure, letting go of familiar coping patterns and opening to joy, being in the moment of small steps and simple things, changing understandings of self, reconnecting with the body, shifting to internal motivation, choosing, reconnecting with others in leisure, balancing life with leisure, and growth and connections. Leisure Connections supported participants to explore leisure and its benefits as issues arise, to understand and respond differently. Leisure Connections provides boundary situations critical for existential growth and opportunity to change coping patterns.
    • Leisure-time physical activity in individuals with osteoporosis : associations with psychological well-being

      Gunnell, Katie E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      With approximately 16% of the Canadian population living with osteoporosis, and rates expected to increase (Osteoporosis Canada, 2009), cost-effective treatment modalities that improve bone health and psychological well-being reflect an important public health agenda. Physical activity has been implicated as one non-pharmaceutical mechanism to help improve psychological well-being in the general population (Fox, Stathi, McKenna, & Davis, 2007) and in people diagnosed with osteoporosis (Osteoporosis Canada, 2007). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTP A) and well-being in people diagnosed with osteoporosis. A secondary purpose, using Basic Needs Theory (BNT; Deci & Ryan, 2002) was to determine if the fulfillment of three psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy and relatedness) mediated the relationship between LTP A and well-being. People diagnosed with osteoporosis (N= 190; Mage = 68.14; SDage = 11.54) were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires assessing L TP A, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and perceived psychological need satisfaction in physical activity contexts. Bivariate correlations revealed a pattern of negligible (r's -0.02 to 0.35) to small correlations between LTP A and well-being with contextual positive affect (r = 0.24) and subjective vitality (r = 0.22) demonstrating statistical significance (p < .01). Results of the multiple mediation analysis indicated that perceived satisfaction of the three psychological needs mediated the relationship between LTPA and well-being with perceived competence emerging as a unique mediator. As such, LTP A was positively associated with well-being in people who are diagnosed with osteoporosis, and the fulfillment of the three psychological needs may be the mechanism through which this 111 effect is carried. Health promotion specialists and practitioners should encourage patients with osteoporosis to engage in LTP A, and support their needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. Practical implications for researchers and health promotion specialists are discussed in terms ofthe results of this investigation.
    • Letting Your Students Fail: A Grounded Theory Study of Overcoming Failure Experiences in Undergraduate Experiential Education

      Finnigan, Julie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research aimed to understand how students overcome and learn from failure experiences in a non-clinical undergraduate health-related experiential education program. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to address this question. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten previous students from an experiential education program (I-EQUIP) using a semi-structured interview guide. Reflexive journaling and memo-writing were also employed as methods of data collection. A theoretical explanation was generated highlighting how students overcome failure through altering their expectations in four themes: 1) evolving expectations of self, 2) managing expectations of others, 3) modifying expectations of project, and 4) building flexibility of expectations. This research describes failure as a tool for learning, supporting it as a positive experience as opposed to a negative one. It also presents recommendations for pedagogy on failure in experiential education programs, describing necessary supports, how to build flexible thinking, and the importance of introducing failure early in the curriculum. Ultimately, results of this study inform a framework to help students overcome failure in experiential programs, identifying how to harness these as learning opportunities and highlighting opportunities for program improvement.
    • Leveling the Playing Field: Assessing Physical Literacy in Children and Youth with Physical Disabilities

      Dugas, Erica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction: Research indicates that there are challenges associated with individuals with a disability acquiring mature movement patterns similar to their able-bodied peers (Capio, Sit & Abernethy, 2011), resulting in the notion that they are physically illiterate. Additionally, the benefits of physical literacy (PL) have not been comprehensively investigated in children/youth with disabilities, nor is there a reliable tool to assess PL in this population. Purpose: The main purpose of this research is to pilot a PL assessment tool for children/youth with physical disabilities. Methods: By modifying elements from Canadian Sport for Life’s Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth (PLAY), participants recruited from two recreation programs will take part in a pre- and post-test assessment using the amended tool. Lived experiences are also documented using semi-structured interviews. Results: Results indicate that everyone, regardless of ability, can be physically literate. Participants’ scores in individual PLAYSelf categories paralleled their ranking of PL as the most significant category of literacy. However, this was contradicted by ~70% of participants who testified to partaking in sedentary activities during their leisure time and reported limited participation in a wide range of physical activities. Conclusions: PL is an inclusive concept accessible to all and represents a unique journey for each person. The revised PL assessment tool represents the multidimensional facets of PL, but improvement is necessary to accommodate Paralympic or adapted sports/activities in the PLAYInventory questionnaire. Future research should look to comprehensively assess levels of physical literacy in individuals with any disability or exceptionality.
    • Life after hockey : an examination of athletic career transition and the National Hockey League's career transition program

      Andrijiw, Andre Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The existent body of athletic career retirement literature is scant in studies of career transition programs. In an effort to attend to this analytical gap, the present study set out to examine the transitions of National Hockey League (NHL; ice hockey) alumni, as well as the effect ~and effectiveness of their respective career transition program, the Life After Hockey program. Interviews with 17 NHL/program alumni revealed that quality of transition (to post-playing life) was affected by: the continuity between pre- and postretirement environments; athletic identity; physical/psychological health (particularly with respect to post-concussion syndrome); selective coping strategies (e.g., preretirement planning (e.g., financial planning, continued education), positive reinterpretation, alcohol/substance abuse); and social support. Also affecting quality of transition, and found to be highly effective (particularly in generating new occupational opportunities, assisting in the acquisition of new skills, and providing a system of continuous support), was the Life After Hockey program.
    • The lived experience of mothering a child with autism: a hermeneutic phenomenological understanding

      Micsinszki, Samantha; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-28)
      Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex developmental disorder with increasing prevalence. Despite the significant role of mothers, often seen as primary caregivers, there is limited understanding of this experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the everyday experience of mothers with children with autism. Accounts of lived experience were collected through research conversations with six mothers and analyzed using van Manen’s (1990) orientation to hermeneutic phenomenology. The main themes include: It Can’t Be Autism, The Womb is Extended, The Locus of Other, and The Womb is Now and is Forever. The findings suggest that mothers experienced a transformation from mother to mother with a child with autism; one that mirrors the transformation from woman to mother (Bergum, 1989). In this transformation, mothers move from suspicion of the potential diagnosis to acceptance that they are mothers with children whose needs define them and potentially, mothers whose wombs are forever extended.
    • Lived experiences of children with disabilities in various movement programs

      Hedley, Melanie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      This research offered children with disabilities the opportunity to express their voices in the description of their movement experiences. Three children aged 10-13 shared their experiences in school physical education and adapted physical activity. Observations of participants using interactive media activities in an adapted physical activity program were used to supplement interviews. The aim of this research was to discover how future professionals are prepared to design and implement physical activity and physical education programs for children with disabilities. A document analysis of Ontario university course calendars in the fields of physical education and kinesiology, disability studies, and teacher education was utilized. Data from each data context underwent four levels of reduction: 1) content, 2) categorical, 3) thematic, and 4) indigenous typologies. Findings are presented at each level leading to the presentation of indigenous typologies. Typologies of Forbidden-ness and Dichotomous Thinking were identified in the research.
    • Living Well with Chronic Pain: A Heuristic Examination of Strategies used by Young Adults to Achieve Well-Being

      Bolger, Monica; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this research was to examine how young adults with chronic pain are living well. The scholarly literature supports the notion that chronic pain is debilitating. It is important, however, to explore what factors affect the lived experience of chronic pain for young adults, and what contributes to their ability to live well. Study findings are organized around three major steps that allowed young adults living with chronic pain to attain a state of living well: managing the crisis of chronic pain, achieving stability, and creating a baseline and exceeding the baseline towards living well. These steps facilitated growth, opportunity, and awareness to the ways in which living with chronic pain as a young adult while overcoming adversity. Utilizing a heuristic phenomenological approach, the co-researchers were able to share their lived experience followed by an intense qualitative data analysis. Upon completion of data analysis, the information revealed a moving model demonstrating living well with chronic pain. Study findings also identified key strategies for living well with chronic pain: increasing positive emotion, prioritizing personal health, hope and optimism, and increasing social connection. Each strategy facilitates movement from living with chronic pain to living a meaningful life within the parameters of their chronic pain experience. This study found that young adults living with chronic pain can engage in purposeful actions to increase their capacity to live well and achieve satisfaction with life. These findings have implications for professionals who work with individuals who live with chronic pain, particularly for the young adult demographic.
    • Locating Intergenerational Sense of Self: Intersections of Genealogy with Leisure and Tourism

      Higginbotham, Gregory; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-03-07)
      Situated at the intersection of leisure and tourism, there is currently a renewed interest and curiosity in ancestral lineages. Focusing on amateur genealogists who pursue, and travel for, a leisure engagement of genealogy, this qualitative research study endeavours to investigate their quests for personal identity and locations of an intergenerational sense of self. With the adoption of a narrative inquiry method, life story interviews were conducted with four amateur genealogists. Findings from an analysis of the narratives have been organized into five core themes, each of which contributes to our understanding of these amateur genealogists’ experiences of leisure and travel. While the amateur genealogists do not acknowledge their leisure engagements as a quest for personal identity, they make use of such engagements to locate an intergenerational sense of self and gain enriched self-understandings. Moreover, by facilitating intersections of genealogy, leisure, and tourism, several key insights are offered that may be of particular interest to scholars in both fields of study.
    • Major Sport Event Operational Planning Issues and Strategies: A Multi-Case Delphi Study

      Greco, Nicole; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examined the operational planning, implementation and execution issues of major sport events, as well as the mitigation and management strategies used to address these issues, with the aim of determining best practices in sport event operational planning. The three Research Questions were: 1) What can previous major sport events provide to guide the operational management of future events? 2) What are the operational issues that arise in the planning and execution of a major sport event, how are they mitigated and what are the strategies used to deal with these issues? 3) What are the best practices for sport event operational planning and how can these practices aid future events? Data collection involved a modified Delphi technique that consisted of one round of in-depth interviews followed by two rounds of questionnaires. Both data collection and analysis were guided by an adaptation of the work of Parent, Rouillard & Leopkey (2011) with a focus on previously established issue and strategy categories. The results provided a list of Top 26 Prominent Issues and Top 17 Prominent Strategies with additional issue-strategy links that can be used to aid event managers producing future major sport events. The following issue categories emerged as having had the highest impact on previous major sport events that participants had managed: timing, funding and knowledge management. In addition, participants used strategies from the following categories most frequently: other, formalized agreements and communication.
    • The Making of a Quality Improvement Team in a Community Health Centre: What Does it Take

      Blundell, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to use Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of development to explore how a quality improvement (QI) team within a Community Health Centre (CHC) identifies the elements that have led to its success. This was a single case study, which took place in an Ontario Community Health Centre. The study included the reflection of a key manager who was also the researcher in this project. In addition, the study included 6 individual interviews with QI team members. Five themes emerged: (1) supportive management, (2) safe spaces, (3) ability to embrace collective change, (4) signs of success, and (5) collaborative environment. This study suggests that these five themes outline a strategy for successfully implementing QI in a primary care environment.
    • Management Perspectives: Implications of Plastics Free Sport Facilities’ Beverage Service

      Watkin, Gordon; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Water is vital in supporting all life on Earth, and without it, all living things would cease to exist. Despite this vitality, water resources are steadily polluted and mismanaged. The challenge of pre-eminence, however, is plastic pollution within global water resources. Plastic is exceptionally disruptive and harmful to all forms of life, killing aquatic animals and is a toxicant to the chemistry of drinking water utilized for human consumption. The review of literature sought to understand how waste ends up in Earth’s oceans and the role sport plays in contributing to and mitigating plastic waste and use. This research sought to illustrate the perspectives food and beverage managers (P=10) have toward the future of managing plastic waste at sporting events in their facilities. Discussions stemmed through semi-structured interviews, influenced by four central research questions, theoretically underpinned by Transition Management Theory (TMT), the Attitude-Behaviour-Gap (ABG), concepts of Environmental Sustainability (ES) and ecocentric approaches to management. The study primarily focused on perceptions of participants toward implementing plastic-free programming within their facilities, and additionally, the adoption and incorporation of biodegradable alternatives. Collectively, participants called for an increased cohesion between all levels of government and their corporate partners, and a federal standardization of recycling practices. Participants collectively did not align with Koskijoki’s (1993) perceptions of ecocentric consumerism, but demonstrated consistently an awareness and desire to reconcile plastic-related consequences.
    • Managing Volunteers in Canadian Community Sport Organizations

      Mrak, Joel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-17)
      This study examined the use of human resource management (HRM) practices with volunteers in Canadian Community Sport Organizations (CSOs). Using the Volunteer Management Inventory (VMI; Cuskelly, Taylor, Hoye & Darcy, 2006), 219 leaders of associations in basketball, curling, ice hockey, skating, skiing, swimming, and volleyball participated in this study and identified current trends in HRM practices and perceived issues in the retention of volunteers. Data collected was analyzed using mean and descriptive statistics, T-tests, ANOVAs, and regression analyses. Results indicate that there is a varying use of HRM practices amongst the organizations, and also a significant correlation between the use of HRM practices and the retention of volunteers, particularly board members. Implications and future research directions are discussed regarding how HRM practices and principles may be applied to CSOs.
    • The meaning of multiple medication use in adults: A qualitative study

      Dyer, Carolyn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-11)
      Over half of prescribed medications are not taken as prescribed, resulting in health and economic consequences. Using constructivist grounded theory, 15 interviews were conducted to develop a theory on understanding the medication adherence choices of individuals, who were between the ages of 40 to 55, were diagnosed with a chronic condition, and taking three or more medications. The results indicate that participants are engaging in self-management strategies, with massive variance in adherence behaviours. Medications are sacrificed for personal and financial reasons, resonating with feelings of fear for the person’s current situation and future. Individuals are struggling with who they have become to who they once were, which becomes related to their medications. Finally, individuals are citing the impact of their physician; citing barriers to communication and Canada’s health care system. Participants’ experiences provided an understanding of the meanings individuals associate with their medications and how this impacts their decision-making.
    • The Meaning of the Virtual YMCA After School Program for Former Participants: An Exploratory Study

      Kerr, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-14)
      Research has shown that after school programs can provide children with opportunities that help foster positive development and adaptation. Current research meets the need for identifying short term outcomes, program standards, and short term evaluation techniques, however less understood is the lasting meaning of participation for previous participants after their participation. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and perceived impacts of participation in a preventative, skill-building after school program for former participants. Using an exploratory case study approach, interviews were conducted with six previous participants of the Virtual YMCA and a former school principal. Reconstructed narratives and analyzed transcripts show that participants do still derive meaning and significance from their participation in the program, although highly individualized. Significant aspects of the program are identified, as well as the participant’s perceived impacts which are still present today. Discussion for practitioners, researchers, and funders is provided.
    • Métis or Moniyâw: Explorative stories of decolonizing my Métis identity

      Montgomery, Bob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This thesis explores my emergent processes of identifying as a Métis person through autoethnographic narratives. I provide an overview of Métis history, identification, and decolonization, especially written by and for Aboriginal peoples. Using a decolonizing framework of Indigenous métissage (Donald, 2012) – which brings together complex, and nuanced influences to build knowledge – and an autoethnographic methodology, I explore cultural knowledges through critical self-reflection. I collected autoethnographic data in the form of personal journals and family artifacts; additionally, I shared conversations with other Métis peoples, which I used to further inform my own processes of identification and decolonization. The study results are presented as narrative vignettes, offering conclusions about: a) cultural ambivalence; b) privilege; c) language and music reclamation; and d) building relationships with both people and land. This research builds upon literature by, about, and for the benefit of Aboriginal peoples and settlers and offers considerations relevant to decolonization and identification.