• Generation Z and Attending Traditional Spectator Sports: A Study of Contemporary Sport Consumer Behaviour

      Mighton, Stephen; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Understanding consumer behaviour and attracting new generations of consumers are important aspects of operating a successful sport organization (Teed et al., 2008). However, limited academic attention has been given to the most recently emergent generation: Generation Z (Gen Z). Moreover, it has been shown that the interest level in traditional spectator sports is waning amongst younger consumers (Richelieu & Pons, 2005; 2009) and, most recently, Gen Z (Kuchefski, 2018; Whistle, 2018). The purpose of this research was therefore to better understand the sport consumption behaviours of this Gen Z by examining both the motivators and inhibitors to their nominal spectator sport consumption. Participants (n=17) were recruited physically in Hamilton, Ontario and virtually through social media platforms Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Using a semi-structured format, a total of three synchronous online focus group interviews were conducted with individuals from Gen Z. It was clear from a thorough analysis of the data that participants viewed the consumption of traditional spectator sports analogously with attending live games. Thus, the data, its themes, and its implications were inherently linked to attending traditional spectator sports. Although there were important intragroup differences found, several important motivators and inhibitors were present. Socialization, status, and experimental behaviours all presented as significant motives for Gen Z to attend traditional spectator sports. Alternatively, issues with affordability and a shared unrest proved to be important inhibitors to nominal spectator sport consumption. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented and discussed.
    • Gladiator Gear: The unintended consequences of protective equipment in gridiron football compared to rugby union

      Brownbridge, Cullum; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Sports equipment has evolved over time to both enhance performance and reduce the injury risk. Protective equipment is particularly important in contact sports where injuries are frequent. In American and Canadian football, helmets and shoulder pads are two pieces of protective equipment that are strictly implemented to absorb hits of massive force to reduce the risk of head and upper body injuries respectively. While the risk of injury is reduced, the athlete's calculated perspective of risk might be altered. This change in risk equilibrium has the potential unintended consequence of the individual foregoing caution and playing in a faster and more aggressive style. This altered behavior not only increases the individual's own injury risk, but also puts other athletes who are on the receiving end of contact at greater risk. This displacement of risk is particularly dangerous when an athlete is hit in an area that is unprotected and vulnerable, or in an area where the equipment is not as effective as perceived. Drawing on existing research, theories of risk in sport, and qualitative interviews with 11 male, adult athletes who have competed in both football with significant protective equipment and rugby with minimal protective equipment, this study examines the relationships and potential disjuncture between sports equipment changes, athlete perceptions of injury risks, and actual injury risks. The purpose of this study is to compare physical contact, safety, and risk between the two high-contact sports, focusing on the different uses of mandated, protective equipment.
    • The Good Sport: Physical Literacy and a Moral Self

      Powers, Taliah L.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Physical literacy is a theoretical concept defined by Margaret Whitehead as an individual’s competence, knowledge and understanding, and motivation to participate in lifelong physical activity. This concept emerged out of concern for the seeming disregard of human embodiment, particularly in the education sector, and is firmly rooted in the philosophical concepts of monism, existentialism, and phenomenology. In accordance with existential philosophers such as Merleau-Ponty and Sartre, who argue human beings are fundamentally beings-in-the-world, physical literacy purports physically literate individuals should have a well-established embodied sense of self. They are to develop as proficient movers capable of exemplary self-expression, self-presentation, and interactions with others. But this conception of ‘self’ is incomplete absent the recognition that we are not only beings-in-the-world, but rather socially situated embodied beings whose interactions demand more than a sharp sense of kinesthetic awareness. Herein lies my motivation for this thesis. Specifically, the current philosophical foundations of physical literacy are inadequate to account for a conception of self which recognizes humans as both, embodied movers, and moral beings. As such, this thesis critiques the concept of sense of self foundational to physical literacy and its failure to account for a moral self. In response to this gap in the extant literature, the remainder of this thesis is dedicated to expanding the philosophical foundation of physical literacy to include the development of a moral sense of self by drawing upon the concepts of sport-as-play and sportsmanship.
    • Guiding Graduate Student Professional Development: Progress, Pathways and Plans

      Perry, Karin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The skills imperative has signaled the emergence of co-curricular professional development programming and the establishment of a new subsector in graduate education. In an effort to support the transition from academia to post-graduate work for students enrolled in research-intensive pathways, professional development offices have devised various educational methods, tools and guides to introduce students to a roster of professional learning opportunities and pathways. The aim of this research project was to understand how the skills imperative has been characterized in three distinctly different graduate student guides devised by selected GSPD offices. Through a comprehensive process of document analysis, eight socio-narrative themes were discovered as pedagogical, ideological and dialogical tensions. Proposed practices and socio-narrative criteria were developed as application for fostering professional development programmatic fidelity.
    • Healing Through Dance and Movement with Migrant Farm Workers

      Miranda, Heryka; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Coming to work on Canadian farms for 8-to-ten months out of the year leaves migrant farm workers feeling lonely and homesick. The precariousness that is produced by employment programs under the Canadian Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) such as the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) leaves migrant farm workers vulnerable to exploitation and isolation in their host rural communities. Mexican and Guatemalan migrant farm workers are further isolated due to language barriers. To address these problems, this research is based upon Dance and Movement Therapy (DMT), which is founded on the fundamental premise that, through dance, individuals both relate to the community they are part of on a large or smaller scale, and are simultaneously able to express their own impulses and needs within that group. This phenomenological study explored the experiences in the Niagara Region of Mexican and Guatemalan migrant farm workers’ participation in experiential ‘dance for relaxation’ community arts sessions. Approaches used in the sessions were grounded in DMT and a movement-based, expressive arts therapy (MBEAT) framework. In post-session verbal reflections using a focus group style of inquiry and individual interviews, migrant farm workers provided evidence regarding the effectiveness of DMT and MBEAT.
    • Health Care Aides' Conversations with Families About End-Of-Life and Dementia

      Meisenburg, Natalie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Research has demonstrated that health professionals have a difficult time talking with family members of people with dementia about end-of-life and avoid these conversations. A palliative approach is appropriate for dementia and effective communication between healthcare providers and relatives is imperative in this approach. Research Question: How do health care aides (HCAs) in long-term care (LTC) homes experience discussions about death and dying with relatives of residents who have dementia? The aim of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the experiences of health care aides’ (HCAs) and understand the conversations they have with family members when a resident in long-term care has dementia and is nearing end-of-life. Methods: This study was a descriptive qualitative study, with thematic analysis of interviews of 14 HCAs from 6 LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. Findings: There were four themes. Findings include conversations occur in-person and families initiate conversations. Conversations can be difficult and emotional and relationships with residents, families, fellow HCAs, and nurses, influence the conversations. Conversations occur in the context of written and unwritten rules and can make conversations difficult. Discussion: Conversations between HCAs and families occur, and HCAs respond to relatives’ questions. It is important to support HCAs and provide them with a clear understanding of responding to relatives’ questions.
    • HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT- Sustainable Physical Activity Program Development and Evaluation for Youth with Special Needs: An Evaluative Case Study

      Lappano, Elyse; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-09)
      The purpose of my research was to contribute to the improvement and sustainability of the Special Needs Activity Program, and develop program implementation strategies that had practical outcomes. I conducted an evaluative case study of S.N.A.P in order to determine what a quality adapted physical activity (APA) program is, why S.N.A.P is considered a quality APA program, and what institutional policies and practices exist to support it. Data was collected via interviews, questionnaires, and observations. Data analysis involved inductive and deductive methods, and a SWOTAR evaluation. Results indicate that quality APA programs include: ‘people’, ‘environment’, and ‘expectations’; there are benefits of experiential learning; activity stations that promote creativity are valuable; several stakeholders do not know the details about S.N.A.P but recognize its value; the institution values what S.N.A.P provides, yet, there is nothing being done to sustain it. Future research should investigate the feasibility of implementing S.N.A.P in various contexts.
    • Hoosiers on the Hardwood: A Critical Examination of Indiana Basketball Culture and its Effect on Identity Formation

      Carey, Robert Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-10-13)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the nexus at which Indiana basketball and the state’s ‘hoosier’ identity meet. More specifically, this thesis interrogates the romanticization of this sporting culture for its pedagogical role in the creation of twenty-first century ‘hoosier’ bodies. Adopting a theoretical orientation rooted in critical race theory, I argue that Indiana’s basketball culture represents a normalized / normalizing structure underneath which Otherness is reified to produce hypervisible “different” outsiders (‘non-hoosiers’), and invisible “disciplined” insiders (i.e. ‘hoosiers’). Utilizing data gleaned over a two-month period spent conducting fieldwork in the “hoosier state” (document analysis, unstructured interviewing, and participant observation), I specifically tailor my analysis to uncover people’s understanding, negotiation, and performance of this regional and national subject position. From this point of inquiry, authentic ‘hoosierness’ comes to be represented, known, practiced, and felt in relation to hierarchies of power that privilege white, hypermasculine, rural, and conservative bodies.
    • How Do Adventure-Based Team Building Programs Produce Change? A Case Study.

      Lau, Lewis; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Adventure-based team building programs are commonly used for the purposes of creating positive change in individuals and groups of people. Nevertheless, the body of research on these programs is largely composed of quantitative studies that examine their efficacy and outcomes, but fail to address questions regarding how these programs facilitate positive change. Answering past scholars’ call for theory-based research that explores processes, the present study utilized a qualitative case study design to explore how a challenge course program facilitated interpersonal and intrapersonal change among a group of post-secondary students employed as Residence Life Staff at a mid-sized Canadian university. Data were collected via researcher observations of the program, focus group interviews, individual interviews, and document collection, and analyzed through inductive and comparative analysis. Results revealed that the program facilitated increases in group sociability and participants’ interpersonal relationships, communication and confidence. Program elements that facilitated those changes, such as an informal atmosphere and an element of challenge, were also identified. Kurt Lewin’s (1947a) theory of planned change was utilized as a theoretical framework for understanding the process of change, which illuminated the importance of participants’ pre-program readiness for change (i.e., unfreezing) and the sustainment of those changes post-program (i.e., freezing). Lewin’s conceptualization of field theory and group dynamics offered further relevant theoretical insights. Findings have implications for future participants, practitioners, and researchers, and make a theoretical case for the continued use of Lewin’s theory of planned change as a framework in the field of adventure and experiential education.
    • 'How I Teach and Coach': The Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher-Coaches

      Foley, James; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Epistemological beliefs (EB), or beliefs about knowledge and learning, help to inform teaching and coaching practices, and may have significant learning and developmental outcomes for students. Therefore, the purpose of this grounded theory study was to better understand the EB of high school physical education (PE) teacher-coaches as it relates to the sources and simplicity of games knowledge and how those beliefs inform their instructional practices when teaching games or coaching extracurricular sports in schools. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 secondary school PE teacher-coaches from south-central Canada. Teacher-coaches believed that games knowledge in both PE and extracurricular sports originate from a variety of internal and external sources, portray games knowledge as both simple and complex, associate PE and extracurricular sports with different knowledge or learning processes, and differentiate their instructional strategies more in PE compared to their coaching practices. This research study has theoretical and practical implications for enhanced teaching and coaching practices, as well as teacher education and coach-training programs, with the ultimate aim of enriching students’ learning experiences in physical education and interscholastic sport.
    • How Meaningful Physical Education Experiences Influence Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs About Teaching

      Price, Caitlin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The first purpose of this research was to explore how pre-service physical education teachers find and make meaning from their own physical activity experiences. The second purpose was to investigate the extent to which understanding their own meaning-making shapes pre-service teachers’ beliefs about teaching physical education. Researchers have developed insights into ways that young people make meaning through physical activity – for example, by participating in experiences that are fun, involve social interaction, provide challenge, and develop motor competence (Kretchmar, 2006) but less is known about ways teachers learn to foster these experiences. Through the method of photo-elicitation and two semi-structured interviews, pre-service teachers uncovered the source of meaningful situations they experienced as physical activity participants which informed their pre-service teachers’ pedagogical practice. A renewed focus on meaning-making carries the potential to shift the focus of current physical education programs away from mere fitness or skill development and toward the intrinsic motivational elements that are more likely to lead to lifelong participation.
    • How to Make it Work: A Case Study of Inclusion in a Community Figure Skating Club

      Morello, Michaela K; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of my research was to a) examine the organizational and instructional features of the King City Skating Club (KCSC) that contribute to its ability to integrate persons with an accommodation into their figure skating programs and b) develop guidelines for other sport organizations that allow for full and meaningful integration of youth who require accommodations into their programming. I chose to undertake a case study of the KCSC. Data were collected via interviews and a focus group, and introspective field notes were taken within two hours of leaving the club or interview location to provide me with an ongoing internal audit trail. Data analysis involved the identification of salience and patterns as well as overarching thematics informed by Max van Manen’s phenomenological existential categories of body, space, time, and relation. Results indicated five considerations when examining meaningful inclusion in community sport: open and effective communication, education, sense of community, space and time, and having a focus on the participants’ needs. Recommendations for future research included a multiple case study design as well as a focus on specific health benefits.
    • Human Resource Training and National Sport Organization Managers: Examining the Impact of Training on Individual and Organizational Performance

      Millar, Patricia; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-09-09)
      Within sport, a tremendous amount of effort is committed to the on-the-field performance of athletes and coaches, neglecting the off-the-field performance and development of sport managers. This study examines the impact of human resource training on the performance of five Canadian national sport organizations (NSO) and their managers (N=22). Data were collected on three outcome variables (learning, individual performance, organizational performance) and three mediating variables (motivation to transfer, training design, organizational climate) at three time measures (pre-training, post-training1, post-training2). Results indicate that training improves the learning and individual performance of sport managers, as well as the organizational performance of NSOs. Varying relationships were found at each of the three time measures, demonstrating that a progression to training-related performance change exists, while providing support for three levels of analysis (individual, organizational, systemic). Implications and future research directions are discussed and highlight the need for on-going training opportunities for Canadian sport managers.
    • Identity in Motion: A Case Study on the Dance Experiences of a Dancer with an Intellectual Disability

      Harris, Emily B.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Many individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) experience significant challenges and are underserved in our society. Although some of these challenges are directly related to their disability, most of the difficulties that people with ID face are caused by negative social attitudes towards ID. The negative consequences of stigmatization towards people with ID create barriers to creating positive sense of self among members of this population. Studies indicate that leisure pursuits, such as recreational dance, can help cultivate well-being and enhance sense of self. This hermeneutic phenomenological case study provides new understanding to the phenomenon where dance, disability, and sense of self intersect. This case study explores the experiences of one individual with an ID who is involved with recreational dance and presents the ways that recreational dance impacts the sense of self of this individual. The results from this research reveal that recreational dance positively contributes to well-being. The experiences of this young dancer were addressed primarily in terms of his social connections, character strengths, and personal growth. In addition, dance has a positive impact on his sense of self as it enhances his self-confidence, provides him with positive feedback from others, and offers a context through which he can overcome barriers and challenge stigmatization. This case study provides insight on leisure-related concepts as well as offers implications to individuals with ID, integrated dance, and the therapeutic recreation profession.
    • The Impact of Labeling in Childhood on the Sense of Self of Young Adults

      Solomon, Rosemary; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      Research studies on labeling of children have either focused on the effects of formal labels on the lives of children with exceptionalities and mental health issues, or the effect of informal labeling by parents, peers and teachers on teenagers. The effects of informal labeling in childhood and its implications in later life or for one’s career choice have not yet been examined. This study adds to the growing research on informal labeling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine what negative effects informal labeling of children as deviant had on their lives. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with seventeen young adults, between the ages of sixteen and thirty years, from a post-secondary institution and an organization for homeless youth. The results showed an initial negative impact on the lives of the young adults during their childhood and early teenage years but as they progressed into their late teens and early adulthood, most were able to overcome their negative labels suggesting resilience. There were no significant gender differences in the impact of the labels. The implications of the study for policy makers and parents are discussed as well as some recommendations for parents and practitioners are offered.
    • The Impact of Personal Trainer’s Leadership Style on Self-Presentational Concerns, Enjoyment, Task Self-Efficacy and Intention to Exercise in an Introductory Weight Training Orientation

      Kennedy, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the present study was to examine two leadership styles of personal trainers (bland versus enriched) to evaluate their effects on exercise-related outcomes. Participants were 103 university women with no previous experience weight training. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two leadership style conditions. They completed primary measures prior to being introduced to the personal trainer. Next, participants completed an introductory weight training session, followed by post-manipulation measures. The leadership styles were successfully manipulated. Participants in the enriched leadership style condition reported significantly higher levels of enjoyment and intention to exercise. Participants in the bland leadership style condition reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety; no differences were found for task self-efficacy, self-presentational efficacy, social physique anxiety, or handgrip performance between groups. Thus, an enriched leadership style of personal trainers can increase positive psychological outcomes.
    • The Impact of Social Media on Athletes' Self-Efficacy

      Gorrell, Elyse; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study is to understand how social media affects athletes’ self-efficacy. With the ubiquitous presence of social media, it was hypothesized that via social media the source persuasion — one of the four sources that regulates self-efficacy — may be used as a way to encourage or discourage athletes in believing they have, or lack, the skills necessary to complete a task; therefore, persuading athletes to become more or less assured in their abilities despite past experiences. A phenomenological approach was utilized for this study to assist the researcher in conceptualizing ideas that might be dismissed by the boundaries of more traditional approaches. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 10 high-performance athletes in combative sports, and a cross-interview by-question analysis was performed on the data to determine the patterns and themes from the data. Results indicate that social media, and the way that athletes use social media, does have an effect on athletes’ self-efficacy, however the impact of self-efficacy depends on the social media usage.
    • In Search of Convergence: A Co-citation Analysis of Three Sport Management Journals

      Ciomaga, Bogdan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-10-11)
      Responding to a series of articles in sport management literature calling for more diversity in terms of areas of interest or methods, this study warns against the danger of excessively fragmenting this field of research. The works of Kuhn (1962) and Pfeffer (1993) are taken as the basis of an argument that connects convergence with scientific strength. However, being aware of the large number of counterarguments directed at this line of reasoning, a new model of convergence, which focuses on clusters of research contributions with similar areas of interest, methods, and concepts, is proposed. The existence of these clusters is determined with the help of a bibliometric analysis of publications in three sport management journals. This examination determines that there are justified reasons to be concerned about the level of convergence in the field, pointing out to a reduced ability to create large clusters of contributions in similar areas of interest.
    • Increasing father involvement in the care of their infant using text messages: The DadRocks study

      Flynn-Bowman, Allison; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Studies have shown that interventions aimed at the transition to fatherhood can have benefits to fathers. Yet there are few studies specifically designed for fathers at their transition to parenthood, despite fathers having asked for resources specifically tailored for them. DadRocks is a minimalist (i.e., low-cost) intervention that uses text messages to address fathers as they transition to fatherhood. DadRocks has been successfully piloted with Vietnamese fathers, but not in a Western sample of fathers. In our pilot of DadRocks with Canadian fathers, SMS messages were sent to seventeen fathers 3-5 times a week. Messages provided developmentally appropriate information such as games to play with their infants, milestones to observe and links to credible websites for information. Fathers who had more positive attitudes towards father-infant relationship reported significantly more father-infant interaction. Father-infant interaction, especially play, increased between baseline, three months and six months. Fathers who reported more engagement with the messages had significantly more positive attitude and more affectionate behavior. First-time fathers felt most supported by the texts. Fathers with greater anxiety also reported using more recommended resources. Fathers generally liked the intervention, and provided suggestions for future messages. Our pilot data support the development of a more comprehensive experimental study of DadRocks. with a large community sample that could help determine the extent to which this low-cost intervention can improve father-infant relationships. Overall, our data suggest that text messages may be a lost-cost way to communicate with fathers in ways that promote and support positive paternal care.
    • The Influence of Demographics on Perceived Sport Event Impacts: 2017 Canadian Women’s Curling Championship

      Charlebois, Chris; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examines the perceived event impacts of attendees at the 2017 Scotties Tournament of Hearts (a national women’s curling event), that was held in St. Catharines, Ontario. Drawing on the recommendations of previous literature, the study investigates the perceived event impacts on attendees of a national sport event – the 2017 Canadian Women’s Curling Championships – by multiple socio-demographic characteristics. Multiple theoretical lenses are applied to understand the perceptions of the respondents. Utilizing a previously developed social impact scale model (Kim, Mun Jun, Walker, & Drane, 2015), a survey was completed by event attendees. In total, a sample size of 239 was used to conduct the study. Following reliability and validity tests on the model, MANOVA tests were completed to explore statistically significant impact factors and the influence that age, income levels, education levels, sport affinity, and residency (local and non-local) had on perceived event impacts. Results indicate that age and sport affinity (demographic variables) have a statistically significant influence on the overall perceived event impact. The study examines the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on perceived impacts at a non-mega sport event. Further, the research provides insight into an approach for conducting sport event impact research in that researchers need to further explore how event characteristics themselves (e.g., total participants, scale or geographic location) can influence perceived impact. Thus, the study suggests that a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to event impact research is not realistic. As a result, future research will need to explore the influence of socio-demographic factors and the way in which event characteristics can impact the exchange process that occurs, informing their perceived impact.