• Fan Responses to Virtual Reality Sport Sponsorship Activations: The Influence of Presence on Emotion and Attitude Formation

      Schlieman, Troy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Considering the massive financial investment into sport sponsorship and the growth of the industry, it is important for managers to understand the strategic implications of their partnership decisions. This is even more essential in the current marketing landscape where advertising clutter and limited attention spans are rampant. Consequentially, experiential marketing has emerged to combat these challenges and provide consumers with unique and memorable experiences. Further, virtual reality (VR) has surfaced as a possible experiential marketing tool in that it has the capabilities of simulating one’s presence in a virtual environment: potentially creating those unique and memorable experiences. With sponsorship activation transitioning into an online environment further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the capabilities of virtual reality make it an attractive option to sport marketers. Presently, this technology is being applied without a clear purpose due to the newness of the platform and the lack of research and understanding regarding its true value. Thus, it is critical to examine how media modes, such as VR, may affect the impact of sponsorship messaging. In exploring sponsorship activation specifically, this study aimed to examine the use of 360-degree video and virtual reality as activation components, and if traditional non-immersive (phone, tablet, laptop, or desktop) and immersive (virtual reality) technologies differ in terms of their influence on important sponsor outcomes such as eliciting emotions and influencing attitudes. This study employed a survey design to compare responses between two groups. The first group experienced a 360-degree sport sponsorship activation video using non-immersive media while the second group experienced the same video in VR. A total of 114 responses were collected (57 in each group). Responses were then analyzed using two-way independent sample t-tests to find any statistically significant differences. Results showed that non-immersive respondents reported higher ratings of arousal compared to immersive respondents. Notably, there was a clear desire for 360-degree activation content from all users regardless of media mode. This study serves as a preliminary basis of valuation for virtual reality technology as it applies to sponsorship activation.
    • Father involvement in the breastfeeding process : determining contributing aspects

      Moore, Katrina; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The importance of father involvement in the young family is increasingly evident. This research was conducted using the theory of planned behaviour to understand important aspects contributing to father invo lvement in the breastfeeding process. Eighty mothers and 65 fathers of one-year-old children completed a questionnaire regarding father involvement (FI) in breastfeeding. Measures included attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behaviour control regarding FI and the extent to which fathers demonstrated involvement by advocating for and affIrming breastfeeding, being present during breastfeeding, providing household help, and being responsive to their partners' needs. Results suggest that mothers and fathers experience FI differently. Mothers' perceptions are motivated by intrinsic attitudinal considerations, whereas fathers' involvement is primarily motivated by the opinions of others. Interventions should focus on increasing fathers' perception of societal approval through approaches such as peer-led groups, and increasing mothers' approval through information of the value of fathers' involvement in the breastfeeding process.
    • Finding and Implementing Relevant Resources in Adapted Physical Activity (APA): It's easier said than done...

      Morrison, Hayley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-05-01)
      The purpose of this research was to explore challenges to operationalizing and implementing relevant resources for Adapted Physical Activity (APA) and to develop a framework on how resources should be developed and implemented to foster appropriate APA. An unobtrusive methodology was used to examine existing resources and training/learning opportunities for practitioners teaching APA. Data were collected via unobtrusive methods: documents, records, literature and feedback forms. After the findings were summarized, expert consultations were completed using a modified Delphi- technique to confirm the findings. A constructivist approach and phenomenological orientation was used to analyze the data and develop the “ideal” resource. Results indicate there are limited APA resources and teaching/learning opportunities for practitioners and there is a need for practitioner facilitation through professional development on finding and implementing resources. Future research should develop and evaluate the “ideal” resource and strive to improve the connection and consistency of resources in APA.
    • Fit For Action: A Comparative Case Study of the Implementation of an Adaptive Fitness and Conditioning Program for Moderate Functioning Teens and Transition Age Youth with ASD

      Lenius, Andra R.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of my research was to develop and refine pedagogic approaches, and establish fitness baselines to adapt fitness and conditioning programs for Moderate-functioning ASD individuals. I conducted a seven-week study with two teens and two trainers. The trainers implemented individualized fitness and conditioning programs that I developed. I conducted pre and post fitness baselines for each teen, a pre and post study interview with the trainers, and recorded semi-structured observations during each session. I used multi-level, within-case and across case analyses, working inductively and deductively. My findings indicated that fundamental movement concepts can be used to establish fitness baselines and develop individualized fitness programs. I tracked and evaluated progressions and improvements using conventional measurements applied to unconventional movements. This process contributed to understanding and making relevant modifications to activities as effective pedagogic strategies for my trainers. Further research should investigate fitness and conditioning programs with lower functioning ASD individuals.
    • Flourishing in the face of mental illness: A heuristic examination of the contribution of leisure to creating a meaningful life

      Cripps Torok, Lauren C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-11)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the ways in which individuals with mental illness create a life of purpose, satisfaction and meaning. The data supported the identification of four common themes: (1) the power of leisure in activation, (2) the power of leisure in resiliency, (3) the power of leisure in identity and (4) the power of leisure in reducing struggle. Through an exploration of the experience of having a mental illness, this project supports that leisure provides therapeutic benefits that transcend through negative life events. In addition, this project highlights the individual nature of recovery as a process of self-discovery. Through the creation of a visual model, this project provides a benchmark for how a small group of individuals have experienced living well with mental illness. As such, this work brings new thought to the growing body of mental health and leisure studies literature.
    • A Foucauldian Analysis of Power and Representation in an Attempt to Run a Photovoice Project with Youth

      Murtell, Jocelyn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-02-24)
      This project evolved out of a search for ways to conduct research on “others” in a way that does not exploit, stigmatize or misrepresent their experience. This thesis is an ethnographic study in leisure research and youth work and an experiment in running a photovoice project. Photovoice is a participatory visual method that embodies the emancipatory ideal of empowering others through self-representation. The literature on photovoice lacks a comprehensive discussion on the complexity of power and representation. Postmodern theorists have proposed that participatory methods are not benign and that initiatives are acts of power in themselves that produce effects (Cook & Kothari, 2001). A Foucauldian analysis of power is used to deconstruct the researcher’s practice and reflect on why and how youth are “engaged”. This project seeks to embrace the principle of working “with” others, but also work from a postmodern perspective that acknowledges power and representation as ongoing problems.
    • From the Desk of the Canadian Athletic Director: Perceptions of Core Competencies in Ontario University Athletics (OUA)

      Harrison, Tyler; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Intercollegiate athletics are a unique and integral part of North American institutions of higher education. Through competition and achievement, intercollegiate sport in both U SPORTS and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is valuable to their member institutions. As a result, investment of time, energy, financial, and human resources are necessary within athletic departments. Given the Athletic Director (AD) is positioned as one of these resources (human), the purpose of this study is to understand the core competencies needed of OUA athletic directors to best perform in their role within inter-university athletics in Canada. Competencies are classified as, “clusters of skills, knowledge, abilities and behaviours required for job success” (Bernthal, et al, 2004, p.13). To explore, the current study conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with Ontario University Athletic (OUA) Athletic Directors. Findings indicated there are four overarching management categories: Strategic Oversight Management, Human Resource Management, Financial Management, and Marketing Management while Athletic Directors perceived core competencies are discussed under these categories. As well, an OUA Athletic Director Competency Model is presented that clearly described the research findings. The perceptions of Athletic Directors are further discussed relating findings to previous literature while both practical and academic implications and directions for myriad of future research opportunities are outlined given the paucity of research.
    • From their eyes: Nursing student experiences using repeated reflection from the pediatric patient's perspective

      Van der Wal, Melissa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Simulation-based learning (SBL) has been a core course component in nursing curricula for decades. The growing use of SBL has led to increasingly lifelike simulations and continued development to maximize learning opportunities. Reflection and debriefing are key components of SBL to improve learning outcomes and clinical skills. Reflection is often described as a process; however, nursing students rarely have the opportunity to participate in the same simulation or clinical experience twice to completely engage in the reflective process. Reflection from the patient’s perspective is a new concept to simulation, first done by Taplay (2020) using the Reflective Practice from the Patient’s Perspective (RPPP) tool. In this study, we applied the RPPP 3.0 tool to a pediatric nursing simulation, where the simulated child wore spyglasses to record visual and audio data of the simulation (Taplay, 2020). Participants watched their simulations from the patient’s perspective and partook in an interview guided by the RPPP 3.0 tool (Taplay, 2020). Then, participants returned within 2-9 days to repeat the same simulation and reflection. Participants found value and meaning in the repeated reflection. Themes of reactions, communication, appraisal of performance, and the difference were found. Reflecting from the pediatric patient’s perspective allowed participants to gain insight into how their actions and communication were perceived. Repeating reflection encouraged participants to partake in self-directed preparation and allowed them to gain confidence, implement change, and improve their practice.
    • The Future of Physical Education in Higher Education: A Delphi Investigation

      Lorusso, Jenna R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-02-22)
      Despite the profound and widespread concern for the future of higher education physical education, there has been little systematic study on the topic. This research investigated the future by utilizing a two-round interview Delphi method. Five international experts were asked to project possible, probable, preferable and undesirable futures of the academic discipline in fifteen years time; specifically in regards to issues within the undergraduate degree programs, and the research sub-disciplines. The results of quantitative descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis reveal an ever-changing higher education environment in the postmodern information age, which presents a complicating future for the academic discipline. The experts expressed concern that some disciplinarians will be a-futuristic and unable to operationalize the vast potential of the discipline at the institutional level, by continuing to use outdated and inappropriate frameworks of a modern era gone by.
    • Generation Z and Attending Traditional Spectator Sports: A Study of Contemporary Sport Consumer Behaviour

      Mighton, Stephen; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Understanding consumer behaviour and attracting new generations of consumers are important aspects of operating a successful sport organization (Teed et al., 2008). However, limited academic attention has been given to the most recently emergent generation: Generation Z (Gen Z). Moreover, it has been shown that the interest level in traditional spectator sports is waning amongst younger consumers (Richelieu & Pons, 2005; 2009) and, most recently, Gen Z (Kuchefski, 2018; Whistle, 2018). The purpose of this research was therefore to better understand the sport consumption behaviours of this Gen Z by examining both the motivators and inhibitors to their nominal spectator sport consumption. Participants (n=17) were recruited physically in Hamilton, Ontario and virtually through social media platforms Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Using a semi-structured format, a total of three synchronous online focus group interviews were conducted with individuals from Gen Z. It was clear from a thorough analysis of the data that participants viewed the consumption of traditional spectator sports analogously with attending live games. Thus, the data, its themes, and its implications were inherently linked to attending traditional spectator sports. Although there were important intragroup differences found, several important motivators and inhibitors were present. Socialization, status, and experimental behaviours all presented as significant motives for Gen Z to attend traditional spectator sports. Alternatively, issues with affordability and a shared unrest proved to be important inhibitors to nominal spectator sport consumption. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented and discussed.
    • Gladiator Gear: The unintended consequences of protective equipment in gridiron football compared to rugby union

      Brownbridge, Cullum; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Sports equipment has evolved over time to both enhance performance and reduce the injury risk. Protective equipment is particularly important in contact sports where injuries are frequent. In American and Canadian football, helmets and shoulder pads are two pieces of protective equipment that are strictly implemented to absorb hits of massive force to reduce the risk of head and upper body injuries respectively. While the risk of injury is reduced, the athlete's calculated perspective of risk might be altered. This change in risk equilibrium has the potential unintended consequence of the individual foregoing caution and playing in a faster and more aggressive style. This altered behavior not only increases the individual's own injury risk, but also puts other athletes who are on the receiving end of contact at greater risk. This displacement of risk is particularly dangerous when an athlete is hit in an area that is unprotected and vulnerable, or in an area where the equipment is not as effective as perceived. Drawing on existing research, theories of risk in sport, and qualitative interviews with 11 male, adult athletes who have competed in both football with significant protective equipment and rugby with minimal protective equipment, this study examines the relationships and potential disjuncture between sports equipment changes, athlete perceptions of injury risks, and actual injury risks. The purpose of this study is to compare physical contact, safety, and risk between the two high-contact sports, focusing on the different uses of mandated, protective equipment.
    • The Good Sport: Physical Literacy and a Moral Self

      Powers, Taliah L.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Physical literacy is a theoretical concept defined by Margaret Whitehead as an individual’s competence, knowledge and understanding, and motivation to participate in lifelong physical activity. This concept emerged out of concern for the seeming disregard of human embodiment, particularly in the education sector, and is firmly rooted in the philosophical concepts of monism, existentialism, and phenomenology. In accordance with existential philosophers such as Merleau-Ponty and Sartre, who argue human beings are fundamentally beings-in-the-world, physical literacy purports physically literate individuals should have a well-established embodied sense of self. They are to develop as proficient movers capable of exemplary self-expression, self-presentation, and interactions with others. But this conception of ‘self’ is incomplete absent the recognition that we are not only beings-in-the-world, but rather socially situated embodied beings whose interactions demand more than a sharp sense of kinesthetic awareness. Herein lies my motivation for this thesis. Specifically, the current philosophical foundations of physical literacy are inadequate to account for a conception of self which recognizes humans as both, embodied movers, and moral beings. As such, this thesis critiques the concept of sense of self foundational to physical literacy and its failure to account for a moral self. In response to this gap in the extant literature, the remainder of this thesis is dedicated to expanding the philosophical foundation of physical literacy to include the development of a moral sense of self by drawing upon the concepts of sport-as-play and sportsmanship.
    • Guiding Graduate Student Professional Development: Progress, Pathways and Plans

      Perry, Karin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The skills imperative has signaled the emergence of co-curricular professional development programming and the establishment of a new subsector in graduate education. In an effort to support the transition from academia to post-graduate work for students enrolled in research-intensive pathways, professional development offices have devised various educational methods, tools and guides to introduce students to a roster of professional learning opportunities and pathways. The aim of this research project was to understand how the skills imperative has been characterized in three distinctly different graduate student guides devised by selected GSPD offices. Through a comprehensive process of document analysis, eight socio-narrative themes were discovered as pedagogical, ideological and dialogical tensions. Proposed practices and socio-narrative criteria were developed as application for fostering professional development programmatic fidelity.
    • Healing Through Dance and Movement with Migrant Farm Workers

      Miranda, Heryka; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Coming to work on Canadian farms for 8-to-ten months out of the year leaves migrant farm workers feeling lonely and homesick. The precariousness that is produced by employment programs under the Canadian Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) such as the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) leaves migrant farm workers vulnerable to exploitation and isolation in their host rural communities. Mexican and Guatemalan migrant farm workers are further isolated due to language barriers. To address these problems, this research is based upon Dance and Movement Therapy (DMT), which is founded on the fundamental premise that, through dance, individuals both relate to the community they are part of on a large or smaller scale, and are simultaneously able to express their own impulses and needs within that group. This phenomenological study explored the experiences in the Niagara Region of Mexican and Guatemalan migrant farm workers’ participation in experiential ‘dance for relaxation’ community arts sessions. Approaches used in the sessions were grounded in DMT and a movement-based, expressive arts therapy (MBEAT) framework. In post-session verbal reflections using a focus group style of inquiry and individual interviews, migrant farm workers provided evidence regarding the effectiveness of DMT and MBEAT.
    • Health Care Aides' Conversations with Families About End-Of-Life and Dementia

      Meisenburg, Natalie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Research has demonstrated that health professionals have a difficult time talking with family members of people with dementia about end-of-life and avoid these conversations. A palliative approach is appropriate for dementia and effective communication between healthcare providers and relatives is imperative in this approach. Research Question: How do health care aides (HCAs) in long-term care (LTC) homes experience discussions about death and dying with relatives of residents who have dementia? The aim of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the experiences of health care aides’ (HCAs) and understand the conversations they have with family members when a resident in long-term care has dementia and is nearing end-of-life. Methods: This study was a descriptive qualitative study, with thematic analysis of interviews of 14 HCAs from 6 LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. Findings: There were four themes. Findings include conversations occur in-person and families initiate conversations. Conversations can be difficult and emotional and relationships with residents, families, fellow HCAs, and nurses, influence the conversations. Conversations occur in the context of written and unwritten rules and can make conversations difficult. Discussion: Conversations between HCAs and families occur, and HCAs respond to relatives’ questions. It is important to support HCAs and provide them with a clear understanding of responding to relatives’ questions.
    • HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT- Sustainable Physical Activity Program Development and Evaluation for Youth with Special Needs: An Evaluative Case Study

      Lappano, Elyse; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-09)
      The purpose of my research was to contribute to the improvement and sustainability of the Special Needs Activity Program, and develop program implementation strategies that had practical outcomes. I conducted an evaluative case study of S.N.A.P in order to determine what a quality adapted physical activity (APA) program is, why S.N.A.P is considered a quality APA program, and what institutional policies and practices exist to support it. Data was collected via interviews, questionnaires, and observations. Data analysis involved inductive and deductive methods, and a SWOTAR evaluation. Results indicate that quality APA programs include: ‘people’, ‘environment’, and ‘expectations’; there are benefits of experiential learning; activity stations that promote creativity are valuable; several stakeholders do not know the details about S.N.A.P but recognize its value; the institution values what S.N.A.P provides, yet, there is nothing being done to sustain it. Future research should investigate the feasibility of implementing S.N.A.P in various contexts.
    • Hoosiers on the Hardwood: A Critical Examination of Indiana Basketball Culture and its Effect on Identity Formation

      Carey, Robert Scott; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-10-13)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the nexus at which Indiana basketball and the state’s ‘hoosier’ identity meet. More specifically, this thesis interrogates the romanticization of this sporting culture for its pedagogical role in the creation of twenty-first century ‘hoosier’ bodies. Adopting a theoretical orientation rooted in critical race theory, I argue that Indiana’s basketball culture represents a normalized / normalizing structure underneath which Otherness is reified to produce hypervisible “different” outsiders (‘non-hoosiers’), and invisible “disciplined” insiders (i.e. ‘hoosiers’). Utilizing data gleaned over a two-month period spent conducting fieldwork in the “hoosier state” (document analysis, unstructured interviewing, and participant observation), I specifically tailor my analysis to uncover people’s understanding, negotiation, and performance of this regional and national subject position. From this point of inquiry, authentic ‘hoosierness’ comes to be represented, known, practiced, and felt in relation to hierarchies of power that privilege white, hypermasculine, rural, and conservative bodies.
    • How Do Adventure-Based Team Building Programs Produce Change? A Case Study.

      Lau, Lewis; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Adventure-based team building programs are commonly used for the purposes of creating positive change in individuals and groups of people. Nevertheless, the body of research on these programs is largely composed of quantitative studies that examine their efficacy and outcomes, but fail to address questions regarding how these programs facilitate positive change. Answering past scholars’ call for theory-based research that explores processes, the present study utilized a qualitative case study design to explore how a challenge course program facilitated interpersonal and intrapersonal change among a group of post-secondary students employed as Residence Life Staff at a mid-sized Canadian university. Data were collected via researcher observations of the program, focus group interviews, individual interviews, and document collection, and analyzed through inductive and comparative analysis. Results revealed that the program facilitated increases in group sociability and participants’ interpersonal relationships, communication and confidence. Program elements that facilitated those changes, such as an informal atmosphere and an element of challenge, were also identified. Kurt Lewin’s (1947a) theory of planned change was utilized as a theoretical framework for understanding the process of change, which illuminated the importance of participants’ pre-program readiness for change (i.e., unfreezing) and the sustainment of those changes post-program (i.e., freezing). Lewin’s conceptualization of field theory and group dynamics offered further relevant theoretical insights. Findings have implications for future participants, practitioners, and researchers, and make a theoretical case for the continued use of Lewin’s theory of planned change as a framework in the field of adventure and experiential education.
    • 'How I Teach and Coach': The Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher-Coaches

      Foley, James; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Epistemological beliefs (EB), or beliefs about knowledge and learning, help to inform teaching and coaching practices, and may have significant learning and developmental outcomes for students. Therefore, the purpose of this grounded theory study was to better understand the EB of high school physical education (PE) teacher-coaches as it relates to the sources and simplicity of games knowledge and how those beliefs inform their instructional practices when teaching games or coaching extracurricular sports in schools. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 secondary school PE teacher-coaches from south-central Canada. Teacher-coaches believed that games knowledge in both PE and extracurricular sports originate from a variety of internal and external sources, portray games knowledge as both simple and complex, associate PE and extracurricular sports with different knowledge or learning processes, and differentiate their instructional strategies more in PE compared to their coaching practices. This research study has theoretical and practical implications for enhanced teaching and coaching practices, as well as teacher education and coach-training programs, with the ultimate aim of enriching students’ learning experiences in physical education and interscholastic sport.
    • How Meaningful Physical Education Experiences Influence Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs About Teaching

      Price, Caitlin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The first purpose of this research was to explore how pre-service physical education teachers find and make meaning from their own physical activity experiences. The second purpose was to investigate the extent to which understanding their own meaning-making shapes pre-service teachers’ beliefs about teaching physical education. Researchers have developed insights into ways that young people make meaning through physical activity – for example, by participating in experiences that are fun, involve social interaction, provide challenge, and develop motor competence (Kretchmar, 2006) but less is known about ways teachers learn to foster these experiences. Through the method of photo-elicitation and two semi-structured interviews, pre-service teachers uncovered the source of meaningful situations they experienced as physical activity participants which informed their pre-service teachers’ pedagogical practice. A renewed focus on meaning-making carries the potential to shift the focus of current physical education programs away from mere fitness or skill development and toward the intrinsic motivational elements that are more likely to lead to lifelong participation.