• The effect of acute exercise type on body image attitudes

      Drouin, Breanne; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The current study examined the effect of two types of acute exercise (resistance and mind-body yoga) on state body image attitudes, to see which, was most effective at reducing body image concerns. I t was hypothesized that both types of exercise would lead to improvements in body image, with yoga showing the biggest benefits. Collegeaged female non/infrequent exercisers (n = 40) completed state measures of body satisfaction, social physique anxiety (SPA), and appearance orientation prior to and following participation in a single yoga and resistance class. Participation in the yoga class was associated with decreases in SPA and increases in body satisfaction. However, participation in the resistance class was associated with no changes in any of the study variables. These findings indicate participation in a single yoga class may have positive effects on body image attitudes, which may encourage non-exercisers to become more active.
    • The effect of dairy consumption with exercise and healthy eating on the metabolic profile in overweight/obese adolescent girls

      Caetano Feitoza, Natalie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Childhood obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce this condition, including lifestyle modification with exercise and healthy nutrition, can reduce disease risk. Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends a well balanced and healthy diet, however, children and adolescents are not meeting these recommendations, and this too is associated with poorer health. It has been proposed that the intake of dairy products can improve cardiometabolic risk factors in adults. However, research findings are inconsistent for dairy and cardiometabolic variables among adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of dairy consumption, as part of a 12-week exercise and nutrition program, on fasting serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides), insulin and glucose in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) adolescent girls. Twenty adolescents (10-18 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: recommended dairy (RDa, n=9) or low dairy (LDa, n=11). The RDa group consumed CFG’s recommended servings of dairy (4 servings/d), and the LDa group consumed ≤ 1 serving/d (reflecting habitual intakes). All participants followed an exercise program (three 60-minute sessions/wk) and a eucaloric weight management diet. There were no changes in the metabolic profile following the intervention, and no differences were seen between groups. Waist circumference (p=0.003) and fat mass (p<0.001) decreased and lean mass (p=0.01) increased after 12 weeks, with no differences between groups. Significant correlations were seen between body mass change and insulin change, waist circumference change and total cholesterol, insulin and HOMA-IR changes, and QUICKI change and body fat percent change. Further analysis with a larger sample size is required to determine the effect of increased dairy consumption as part of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic variables in OW/OB adolescent populations.
    • The effect of different phases of synchrony on the synchrony effect

      Rickers, Katelyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Synchronization of behaviour between individuals has been found to result in a variety of prosocial outcomes. The role of endorphins in vigorous synchronous activities (Cohen, Ejsmond-Frey, Knight, & Dunbar, 2010) may underlie these effects as endorphins have been implicated in social bonding (Dunbar & Shultz, 2010). Although research on synchronous behaviour has noted that there are two dominant phases of synchrony: in-phase and anti-phase (Marsh, Richardson, Baron, & Schmidt, 2006), research on the effect of synchrony on endorphins has only incorporated in-phase synchrony. The current study examined whether both phases of synchrony would generate the synchrony effect. Twenty-two participants rowed under three counterbalanced conditions - alone, in-phase synchrony and anti-phase synchrony. Endorphin release, as measured via pain threshold, was assessed before and after each session. Change in pain threshold during the in-phase synchrony session was significantly higher than either of the other two conditions. These results suggest that the synchrony effect may be specific to just in-phase synchrony, and that social presence is not a viable explanation for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold
    • The effect of synchronized group activities on pain threshold as a predictor of cooperation

      Gagnon, Morgan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-10)
      Recent research suggests that participating in vigorous synchronized physical activity may result in elevated levels of endorphins, which may in turn affect social bonding (Cohen et. al., 2009). The present research aimed to examine whether or not the change in pain tolerance would be able to predict participants’ willingness to cooperate after statistically controlling for the groups’ condition. Participants were asked to run on a treadmill for 30 minutes under one of two conditions (control vs. synchronized). Prior to and after the run participants underwent a pain tolerance test. Once completed, a second activity was introduced to the participants; a cooperative game. A public goods game was used to measure an individual’s willingness to cooperate. The results showed the synchronized condition was able to predict that participants cooperated more during the public goods game (p = .009), however the change in pain threshold was unable to significantly predict cooperation (p = .32).
    • The effects of a general excercise program on task self-efficacy and social physique anxiety in older adults

      Ransom, Kerry; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Older adults represent the most sedentary segment of the adult population, and thus it is critical to investigate factors that influence exercise behaviour for this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a general exercise program, incorporating cardiovascular, strength, flexibility, and balance components, on task selfefficacy and SPA in older adult men and women. Participants (n=114, Mage = 67 years) were recruited from the Niagara region and randomly assigned to a 12-week supervised exercise program or a wait-list control. Task self-efficacy and SPA measures were taken at baseline and program end. The present study found that task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of leisure time physical activity for older adults. In addition, change in task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of change in SPA. The findings of this study suggest that sources of task self-efficacy should be considered for exercise interventions targeting older adults.
    • Effects of a Tailored Social Marketing Campaign Targeting Smoking Policy Compliance on Smoking-Related Behaviour on Campus

      Turnbull, Haley A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction. Smoking represents a significant risk to Canadians. Young people in Canada have historically had the highest smoking prevalence of any other age group. Implementing smoking policies can be an effective strategy for post-secondary campuses to interrupt smoking trajectories and reduce the risk of campus citizens being exposed to second- hand smoke, however compliance can be a barrier to achieving these outcomes. This study examined the effects of a social marketing campaign on policy-non-compliance on a post- secondary campus in Ontario, Canada. Methods. The 3-week campaign was implemented by students and focused on policy- compliance-related objectives. Six smoking sites were observed twice a day for one week before the campaign, and one week after the campaign was completed. 4 sites were designated smoking areas, as defined by the smoking policy at the institution. 2 sites were undesignated “hot-spots” where smoking was frequently observed to occur. A butt litter audit was completed before and after the campaign to determine if butt litter decreased after the campaign. Results. At designated smoking sites, using the strict policy definition of the designated smoking sites, the proportion of observed behaviour that was non-compliant decreased in designated smoking areas (-0.079, 95% CI = 0.143, -0.0151, p < .05). Noncompliant behaviours also significantly decreased after the campaign using a more lenient measure of compliance (-0.102, 95% CI = -0.203, -0.001, p < .05). At undesignated hot spots, the average number of people using the areas to smoke decreased at both sites after the campaign. The proportion of all cigarettes which were disposed of correctly in receptacles was 75.5% before the campaign and 77.4% after the campaign. It is unclear if second-hand smoke exposure was reduced for non- smoking pedestrians despite the overall reduction in non-compliant behaviours. Conclusions. Implementing a student-led, social marketing campaign focussed on improving compliance was an effective strategy to improve compliance with smoking policy.
    • The Effects of a Therapeutic Recreation Program on Overall Well-being Among Older-adults with Alzheimer Disease and Their Care Partner

      Rolph, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: With the increased pressures that our aging population has on our country, this study looks at the effects that an 8 week Therapeutic Recreation infused program has on the well-being for both individuals with Alzheimer Disease and their Care Partner. Method: Sample of the study is from a single secondary data set. Sampling criteria for the study was individuals with early to mid-stage signs of Alzheimer Disease or other dementias and their Care Partner from across 6 different locations in Ontario, Canada. Pre and Post data from the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was analyzed through a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Care Partners indicated an increase in well-being slightly higher than that of the Persons With Dementia. This slight increase in well-being was not statistically significant for either the Care Partner or the Person’s with Dementia. Unexpected ANOVA findings revealed that there was a significant between-subject effect as Care Partners showed a higher overall level of well-being. This further emphasizes the importance for early intervention for Persons with Dementia. Conclusion: Overall this program is in the early stages of development. It is still believed that program modifications could facilitate a cost-effective intervention for communities.
    • The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self-Talk on Cross-Training Exercise Performance

      Sampson, Jack; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-talk is a multi-dimensional construct comprised of self-statements that provide instruction, or motivation, for successful task completion. Instructional self-talk has been shown to be more effective during precision tasks, and motivational self-talk has been shown to be more effective during gross motor and exercise tasks. The effects of self-talk on task performance have not been explored through a combination of endurance and precision exercise, or cross-training. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of instructional and motivational self-talk during a cross-training exercise task of running and overhead squatting. 30 participants were evenly divided into three groups (i.e., control, motivational, and instructional), and were examined across three exercise trials. Two 3 x 3 factorial ANOVAs comparing exercise time and mechanical score revealed no significant differences between groups across exercise trials. The results of the present study provide a potential starting point for future self-talk studies analyzing the combination of exercise tasks.
    • The Effects of the Mad Dog Diet on Bowel Function, Body Composition, Neuropathic Pain, and Depression in a Spinal Cord Injury and Multiple Sclerosis Population

      Sullivan, Timothy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Inflammation has been shown to negatively influence bowel function, body composition, neuropathic pain, and depression within the spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) populations. Four individuals with varying levels of SCI’s (C5-T1/AIS A-D/3 male 1 female) and two individuals with varying diagnoses of MS (SPMS & RRMS, female) were recruited for the study. Bowel function was assessed via The Bowel Management subset of the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) and Neurological Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) questionnaires, body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, neuropathic pain was assessed via the neuropathic pain questionnaire, and depression was measured via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire. This study investigated the effects of 6-weeks of the Mad Dog diet, which aimed to reduce inflammation, and improve the aforementioned ailments. The 6-week Mad Dog diet was associated with a significant reduction in total body mass (p=0.006), lean mass (p=0.046) and fat mass (p=0.038). Despite the significant reduction in fat mass, there were no significant changes in subcutaneous fat mass (p=0.091), or visceral mass (p=0.33), which suggests that the study was underpowered and could not distinguish the relative contribution of either fat source to the losses in total fat mass. Likewise, there were no significant changes in bowel function as determined by SCI-QOL scores (p=0.33), or NBD scores (p=0.29), and no significant changes in any domain of neuropathic pain (sensory, p=0.55; affective, p=0.15; sensitivity, p=0.12), or depression (CES-D scores, p=0.34). These findings demonstrate that 6 weeks of the Mad Dog diet may be beneficial for body composition in the SCI and MS populations. Findings from this research provide the basis for a larger study that can more fully assess the outcomes from this study along with changes in biological measures of inflammation.
    • Escape and connection : a phenomenological investigation into the meaning of an after-school program for adolescent boys

      Joseph, Thao; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The purpos e of this phenomenological research is to explore the meaning of a YMCA-sponsored after-school recreation program in the lives of four adolescent boys. Listening to youth voice is impor t ant to the ability of othe r s to design, implement and evaluate high-quality programs tha t facilitate learning opportunities tha t a r e meaningful to participants. Within the context of interviews, task-based activities we r e used to ga the r data. Guided by Creswell's analytic spiral (1998), data wa s analyzed according to van Manen's (1990) thematic analysis and Caeilli's (2000) creative narrative analysis. It wa s found tha t this after-school progr am provided the s e adolescents with the opportunity to escape from the i r monotonous after-school activities and the instability of the i r home and school environments. Also, they we r e connected wi th positive peers, caring adults and the wide r community, opportunities tha t we r e limited in othe r aspects of the i r lives. Methodological issues a r e also discussed.
    • The Ethics of Categorization in Sport: An Analysis of the Possible Elimination of Under 19 Lightweight Rowing in Canada

      Giesbrecht, Jacob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 a proposed rule change was made by a working group appointed by Rowing Canada Aviron to eliminate the U19 lightweight rowing category in Canada. While this proposal did not come to fruition, it did raise questions about the purpose and ethics of maintaining such a category. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the perceptions of those closely involved with U19 lightweight rowing in Canada and the ethical considerations and ramifications of a possible ban on this category. Ten interviews were conducted with coaches and administrators closely associated with the topic to ascertain individual and group perceptions of this proposal. Based on Charles Taylor’s hermeneutic phenomenology, this study uncovered and evaluated the ethical implications and validity of the possible elimination of U19 rowing in Canada and provided a commentary on categorization in sport more broadly. The results of the interviews revealed six main emergent themes that included concepts of; natural lightweights, opportunity and fairness, health and harm reduction, education, coaching abuse or neglect, and accountability. After analyzing the perceptions of participants and applying an ethical analysis to the issue, a possible ban of U19 lightweight rowing in Canada was deemed ethically unjustifiable.
    • An Ethnographic Case Study of Developing and Maintaining the Coach-Athlete Relationship in Elite University Sport

      Corkery, Erin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Relationships and social interactions are crucial components in sport participation from adolescence through to elite and professional levels of competition. Recently, there has been growing interest in the study of the coach-athlete relationship as a result of an increase in the awareness of its implications and potential impact on performance success. The purposes of this research were to: (a) describe and interpret how one university sport coach develops and maintains relationships with athletes within one competitive season, and (b) describe and interpret the practices (including intentions and actions) used to facilitate social interactions that nurture the coach-athlete relationship. One male coach and twelve female elite university athletes from one sport team participated in the research. Data were generated from two main sources: observations of team practices and games, and two individual interviews with the coach and three athletes (one interview during the competitive season and one interview after the season had ended). Through a constructivist lens, I investigated the participants’ unique perspectives of the ongoing processes within the coach-athlete relationship. I used Jowett’s (2001) adaptation of interdependence theory, the 3+1Cs model (closeness, commitment, complementarity, and co-orientation), to examine the perspectives of both coach and athletes and subsequently create an interpretive representation of my findings. Findings highlighted the variety of ways participants understood and interpreted their coach-athlete relationship. Several potential influences of these relationships were uncovered during data analysis such as: vulnerability, gender, communication, and self-reflection. Implications for coaches, athletes, and coach educators are discussed.
    • Evaluating three self-help smoking cessation interventions for post-secondary smokers : a randomized controlled trial on six Ontario campuses

      Travis, Heather E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Smoking prevalence is highest among the young adult cohort. Postsecondary students are no exception. Although many students intend to quit smoking, no research has established what methods best promote reductions in, or complete abstinence from smoking. This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of three self-help smoking cessation interventions. Method. On six post-secondary campuses, 483 smokers who voluntarily accessed Leave The Pack Behind (a tobacco control initiative) were randomly assigned to one of three smoking cessation interventions: One Step At A Time (a 2-booklet, *gold standard' program for adults); Smoke|Quit (a newly-developed 2-booklet program for young adult students); and usual care (a 'Quit Kit' containing a booklet on stress management, information about pharmacological quitting aides and novelty items). All participants also received one proactive telephone support call from a peer counsellor. During the study, 85 participants withdrew. The final sample of 216 students who completed baseline questionnaires and 12-week follow-up telephone interviews was representative of the initial sample in terms of demographic characteristics, and smokingquitting- related variables. Results. Whether participants quit smoking depended upon treatment condition, ^(2, N=2\6) = 6.34, p = .04, with Smoke|Quit producing more successfijl quitters (18.4%) than One Step At A Time (4.5%) or the Quit Kit (1 1.4%). On average, participants had quit 53.46 days, with no significant difference across treatments. Selfefficacy also increased. Use of the intervention or other quitting aides was not associated with treatment condition. Among the 191 participants who did not quit smoking, treatment condition did not influence outcomes. Overall, 46.2% had made a quit attempt. Significant decreases in weekly tobacco consumption and increases in self-efficacy to resist smoking were observed from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion. Post-secondary institutions represent a potentially final opportunity for age-targeted interventions. Self-help resources tailored to students' social and contextual characteristics will have considerable more impact than stage-only tailored interventions. Both reduction and abstinence outcomes should be emphasized to positively support students to stop smoking.
    • Evaluation in Sport for Development: A Case Study of the Gansbaai Project, Football Foundation of South Africa, From A Critical Perspective

      Arnold, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of sport for development (SDP) evaluation within one program in Gansbaai, South Africa through critical, independent participant inclusive program evaluation. Qualitative research was conducted on the Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA), where semi-structured interview data were collected from administrators and participants, as were data from direct participant observations and organizational documents. Data analysis followed, according to Kvale and Brinkman’s (2008) methodology. FFSA goals were found, as were themes of social impact (i.e., regarding coach-player relationships, trust, and coaching impact on social integration). A further theme related to evaluation components and procedures. Further themes included life skill development, competition within programming, participants’ home life and social integration. Findings contribute to the SDP literature relating to program evaluation research and to FFSA administrators by providing an understanding of SDP program shortcomings, limitations, and suggested improvements.
    • Evaluation of a professional development curriculum in movement education and adapted physical activity for invisible disabilities : a critical cross-case analysis

      Hardman, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Movement education and adapted physical activity are content areas not addressed in pre-service education or in-service training for Ontario practitioners working with individuals with disabilities in physical environments. Consequently, physical activity is often overlooked by service providers in programming and intervention for exceptional young learners. A formative evaluation, multiple-case study design was employed in this research in which a purposeful sample of expert practitioners performed a guided, descriptive evaluation of a three-day professional development workshop curriculum designed to supplement these areas lacking in professional preparation within their respective cohorts. Case-by-case and comparative analyses illustrated the inherent assumptions and societal constraints which prioritize the structure of professional development within the education system and other government organizations providing services for school-aged persons with disabilities in Ontario. Findings, discussed from a critical postmodern perspective, illustrate the paradoxical nature of Western values and prevailing mind/body dichotomy that guide professional practice in these fields.
    • An Examination of Decision-Making Biases on Fourth Down in The National Football League

      Ross, Weller; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The recent developments in the field of sport analytics have given researchers the tools to examine an increasingly diverse set of topics within the world of sport in ways not previously possible (Alamar, 2013; Fry and Ohlmann, 2012). This study analyzes the decision-making processes of high level coaches under different contexts and then determines whether or not a specific subconscious psychological bias, known as the representativeness heuristic, caused the individual to make the choice they did. Past empirical research has examined people’s decisions in different contexts and, from those con- texts, made inferences about how those individuals made their decisions and what errors in their decision-making processes could have led to their suboptimal choices (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979; Kobberling and Wakker, 2005; Tom et al, 2007; Tversky and Kahneman, 1992). The representativeness heuristic explains that errors in people’s judgment occur because their mind places too much emphasis on the current situation (new information) and not enough on the original odds (prior information). Previous researchers have been unable to separate the new and prior components of people’s decision-making when studying real-world scenarios in a sport context (Carter and Machol, 1978; Carroll, Palmer, and Thorn, 1989; Carroll et al, 1989; Patel, 2012; Romer, 2006). This research is different than the previous related research in that we utilize statistical models to gauge how people weight different information when making high-pressure decisions in sport. We hypothesize that coaches are disproportionately weighting new information against prior information when making decisions, and thus, yielding to the representativeness heuristic. To test our hypothesis, we construct numerous Bayesian updating models to represent the impact of National Football League (NFL) coaches’ decision-making on the likelihood of winning games. Utilizing a Bayesian approach enables us to keep the new and prior odds of winning the game separate, and thus, keep the two components of the representativeness heuristic separate. Regression analysis is then used with both of the components to directly test for the representativeness heuristic in NFL coaches’ decision-making by estimating the effect each component has on the coaches’ decisions. These estimates form the basis of our hypothesis tests.
    • Examination of efficient roster design in the National Hockey League (NHL)

      Tselios, Stephanos; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The study estimates the values of NHL roster positions. The analysis was conducted in two phases. First, cluster analysis was used to evaluate and rank players for their overall performance across positions. Second, regression analysis based on aggregated player classifications across team-games estimated the value of roster position and measured diminishing returns to talent across positions. Players were evaluated based on their regular season performance. The clustering of all skaters was administered separately for each position and each year. Standardized regular season-long variables were applied in the analysis. The variables used to cluster all positions were: points per time on ice, goals per time on ice, assists per time on ice, plus/minus per time on ice, shots differential per time on ice, blocks per time on ice, hits per time on ice and penalties per time on ice. Forwards were distributed amongst four lines and defensemen were allocated to three pairings. The linear regression analysis used play-by-play data from the 2010-17 NHL regular seasons. Results indicated that an increase in the quality of centers increased the win probability of a team the most. Teams make player acquisitions decisions based on the talent available and their current composition of players. A team’s hockey operations department can use the findings to evaluate their roster composition and identify positions with the greatest marginal benefit from player acquisitions.
    • An examination of NHL fans' reactions to the cancelled 2004-2005 season

      Asselstine, Chad.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      AN EXAMINATION OF NHL FANS' REACTIONS TO THE CANCELLED 2004- 2005 SEASON Chad Asselstine Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University Gary Bettman, the Commissioner of the National Hockey League (NHL) stepped in front of the worldwide media on February 16, 2005 to announce that there would be no NHL games played during the 2004-2005 season. Two sides were prominent during the labour dispute; the NHL owners and the NHLP A, however a third side that became the forgotten party was the fans (NHLF A, 2005). The fans are the consumers of the NHL and all the brands associated with its franchises, they are the people who provide the revenues that allow owners to pay the players' salaries. The present study is situated within the sport marketing framework, particularly within the fan loyalty literature to provide an understanding of the impact of the 2004- 2005 lockout on the forgotten party, NHL fans. This study examines 16 fans' experiences in four stages: becoming a fan of the NHL, being a fan prior to the lockout, being a fan during the lockout including their anticipated reaction to the return of the NHL, and their actual reaction to the return of the NHL. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with each ofthe participants, resulting in 16 fans' stories of how the lockout impacted them specifically. Through analysis of the data themes began to emerge including the fans' understanding that there was a need to restructure game play, the business operations of the NHL, a desire for service recovery strategies which would exceed fans' expectations, 4 and the desire for alternative forms of consumption including alternative hockey leagues as well as the growing popularity of poker playing. The study summarizes the effects that the NHL lockout had on the relationship between 16 individual fan~ and their favourite teams, and concludes with Suggestions for Future Research and Implications for Sport Marketers that emerged from this unique case in the history of North American professional sport.
    • Examination of students' ability to observe domains of client behaviour in therapeutic recreation

      Kerr, Amber (Alexis); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      When observing client behaviours, a therapeutic recreation specialist must have a base understanding of typical client behaviours to provide an informed analysis (burlingame & Blaschko, 2010). Providing students with the necessary tools for client observation is significant to the success of this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships amongst the TR student demographic characteristics on acquiring the observation competency necessary to conduct a TR assessment. One hundred seventy-two TR college and university students, enrolled in post-secondary undergraduate TR programs across Ontario, observed a client assessment via video, and recorded their observations using the Tracking Behavioural Assessment (TBA) (Passmore, 2002). Independent samples t-tests and analysis of variance were calculated for the different student characteristics on the domains of the TBA. Significant findings indicated that university students scored more accurately than college students, and advanced students more accurately than novice students, on the emotional and socialization domains.
    • An Examination of ‘Choice’ on Mental Health among Informal Caregivers to Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities

      Soucie-Vukmanich, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Introduction: To examine the effects of ‘choice’ on the mental health outcomes of informal intellectual developmental disability (IDD) caregivers, which has been examined in previous literature in alternate caregiving contexts. Background: Stressors of the caregiving role have been shown to negatively affect the mental health of informal caregivers in multiple contexts, where stressors can include a specific task or number of tasks, time spent caregiving or perceived stress levels. However, research has also shown that whether the caregiver identifies as having a choice in taking on their role may also have an affect on their mental health status, where lack of choice may cause psychological impairments, and decreased life satisfaction. Methodology: Using the General Social Survey – Cycle 26 – Caregiving and Care Receiving, linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were analyzed to determine how choice in the caregiving role affects the caregivers mental health in relation to numerous caregiving stressors. Results: The results show that those who have higher levels of stress experience worse mental health outcomes, alongside those who have more tasks, and more time allotted to their duties. Choice approaches significance in relation to mental health, however, does not have a significant relationship with the development of mental health outcomes in these caregivers when the burdens of the caregiving role are considered. Conclusion: Overall, this research shows the complexities in which the informal caregiving role has on the development of mental health concerns within this population, where the burdens of the role play a more significant role on their mental health than their perception of choice.