• The effect of acute exercise type on body image attitudes

      Drouin, Breanne; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The current study examined the effect of two types of acute exercise (resistance and mind-body yoga) on state body image attitudes, to see which, was most effective at reducing body image concerns. I t was hypothesized that both types of exercise would lead to improvements in body image, with yoga showing the biggest benefits. Collegeaged female non/infrequent exercisers (n = 40) completed state measures of body satisfaction, social physique anxiety (SPA), and appearance orientation prior to and following participation in a single yoga and resistance class. Participation in the yoga class was associated with decreases in SPA and increases in body satisfaction. However, participation in the resistance class was associated with no changes in any of the study variables. These findings indicate participation in a single yoga class may have positive effects on body image attitudes, which may encourage non-exercisers to become more active.
    • The effect of dairy consumption with exercise and healthy eating on the metabolic profile in overweight/obese adolescent girls

      Caetano Feitoza, Natalie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Childhood obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce this condition, including lifestyle modification with exercise and healthy nutrition, can reduce disease risk. Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends a well balanced and healthy diet, however, children and adolescents are not meeting these recommendations, and this too is associated with poorer health. It has been proposed that the intake of dairy products can improve cardiometabolic risk factors in adults. However, research findings are inconsistent for dairy and cardiometabolic variables among adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of dairy consumption, as part of a 12-week exercise and nutrition program, on fasting serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides), insulin and glucose in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) adolescent girls. Twenty adolescents (10-18 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: recommended dairy (RDa, n=9) or low dairy (LDa, n=11). The RDa group consumed CFG’s recommended servings of dairy (4 servings/d), and the LDa group consumed ≤ 1 serving/d (reflecting habitual intakes). All participants followed an exercise program (three 60-minute sessions/wk) and a eucaloric weight management diet. There were no changes in the metabolic profile following the intervention, and no differences were seen between groups. Waist circumference (p=0.003) and fat mass (p<0.001) decreased and lean mass (p=0.01) increased after 12 weeks, with no differences between groups. Significant correlations were seen between body mass change and insulin change, waist circumference change and total cholesterol, insulin and HOMA-IR changes, and QUICKI change and body fat percent change. Further analysis with a larger sample size is required to determine the effect of increased dairy consumption as part of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic variables in OW/OB adolescent populations.
    • The effect of different phases of synchrony on the synchrony effect

      Rickers, Katelyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Synchronization of behaviour between individuals has been found to result in a variety of prosocial outcomes. The role of endorphins in vigorous synchronous activities (Cohen, Ejsmond-Frey, Knight, & Dunbar, 2010) may underlie these effects as endorphins have been implicated in social bonding (Dunbar & Shultz, 2010). Although research on synchronous behaviour has noted that there are two dominant phases of synchrony: in-phase and anti-phase (Marsh, Richardson, Baron, & Schmidt, 2006), research on the effect of synchrony on endorphins has only incorporated in-phase synchrony. The current study examined whether both phases of synchrony would generate the synchrony effect. Twenty-two participants rowed under three counterbalanced conditions - alone, in-phase synchrony and anti-phase synchrony. Endorphin release, as measured via pain threshold, was assessed before and after each session. Change in pain threshold during the in-phase synchrony session was significantly higher than either of the other two conditions. These results suggest that the synchrony effect may be specific to just in-phase synchrony, and that social presence is not a viable explanation for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold
    • The effect of synchronized group activities on pain threshold as a predictor of cooperation

      Gagnon, Morgan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-10)
      Recent research suggests that participating in vigorous synchronized physical activity may result in elevated levels of endorphins, which may in turn affect social bonding (Cohen et. al., 2009). The present research aimed to examine whether or not the change in pain tolerance would be able to predict participants’ willingness to cooperate after statistically controlling for the groups’ condition. Participants were asked to run on a treadmill for 30 minutes under one of two conditions (control vs. synchronized). Prior to and after the run participants underwent a pain tolerance test. Once completed, a second activity was introduced to the participants; a cooperative game. A public goods game was used to measure an individual’s willingness to cooperate. The results showed the synchronized condition was able to predict that participants cooperated more during the public goods game (p = .009), however the change in pain threshold was unable to significantly predict cooperation (p = .32).
    • The effects of a general excercise program on task self-efficacy and social physique anxiety in older adults

      Ransom, Kerry; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Older adults represent the most sedentary segment of the adult population, and thus it is critical to investigate factors that influence exercise behaviour for this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a general exercise program, incorporating cardiovascular, strength, flexibility, and balance components, on task selfefficacy and SPA in older adult men and women. Participants (n=114, Mage = 67 years) were recruited from the Niagara region and randomly assigned to a 12-week supervised exercise program or a wait-list control. Task self-efficacy and SPA measures were taken at baseline and program end. The present study found that task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of leisure time physical activity for older adults. In addition, change in task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of change in SPA. The findings of this study suggest that sources of task self-efficacy should be considered for exercise interventions targeting older adults.
    • The Effects of a Therapeutic Recreation Program on Overall Well-being Among Older-adults with Alzheimer Disease and Their Care Partner

      Rolph, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: With the increased pressures that our aging population has on our country, this study looks at the effects that an 8 week Therapeutic Recreation infused program has on the well-being for both individuals with Alzheimer Disease and their Care Partner. Method: Sample of the study is from a single secondary data set. Sampling criteria for the study was individuals with early to mid-stage signs of Alzheimer Disease or other dementias and their Care Partner from across 6 different locations in Ontario, Canada. Pre and Post data from the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was analyzed through a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Care Partners indicated an increase in well-being slightly higher than that of the Persons With Dementia. This slight increase in well-being was not statistically significant for either the Care Partner or the Person’s with Dementia. Unexpected ANOVA findings revealed that there was a significant between-subject effect as Care Partners showed a higher overall level of well-being. This further emphasizes the importance for early intervention for Persons with Dementia. Conclusion: Overall this program is in the early stages of development. It is still believed that program modifications could facilitate a cost-effective intervention for communities.
    • The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self-Talk on Cross-Training Exercise Performance

      Sampson, Jack; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-talk is a multi-dimensional construct comprised of self-statements that provide instruction, or motivation, for successful task completion. Instructional self-talk has been shown to be more effective during precision tasks, and motivational self-talk has been shown to be more effective during gross motor and exercise tasks. The effects of self-talk on task performance have not been explored through a combination of endurance and precision exercise, or cross-training. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of instructional and motivational self-talk during a cross-training exercise task of running and overhead squatting. 30 participants were evenly divided into three groups (i.e., control, motivational, and instructional), and were examined across three exercise trials. Two 3 x 3 factorial ANOVAs comparing exercise time and mechanical score revealed no significant differences between groups across exercise trials. The results of the present study provide a potential starting point for future self-talk studies analyzing the combination of exercise tasks.
    • Escape and connection : a phenomenological investigation into the meaning of an after-school program for adolescent boys

      Joseph, Thao; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The purpos e of this phenomenological research is to explore the meaning of a YMCA-sponsored after-school recreation program in the lives of four adolescent boys. Listening to youth voice is impor t ant to the ability of othe r s to design, implement and evaluate high-quality programs tha t facilitate learning opportunities tha t a r e meaningful to participants. Within the context of interviews, task-based activities we r e used to ga the r data. Guided by Creswell's analytic spiral (1998), data wa s analyzed according to van Manen's (1990) thematic analysis and Caeilli's (2000) creative narrative analysis. It wa s found tha t this after-school progr am provided the s e adolescents with the opportunity to escape from the i r monotonous after-school activities and the instability of the i r home and school environments. Also, they we r e connected wi th positive peers, caring adults and the wide r community, opportunities tha t we r e limited in othe r aspects of the i r lives. Methodological issues a r e also discussed.
    • The Ethics of Categorization in Sport: An Analysis of the Possible Elimination of Under 19 Lightweight Rowing in Canada

      Giesbrecht, Jacob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 a proposed rule change was made by a working group appointed by Rowing Canada Aviron to eliminate the U19 lightweight rowing category in Canada. While this proposal did not come to fruition, it did raise questions about the purpose and ethics of maintaining such a category. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the perceptions of those closely involved with U19 lightweight rowing in Canada and the ethical considerations and ramifications of a possible ban on this category. Ten interviews were conducted with coaches and administrators closely associated with the topic to ascertain individual and group perceptions of this proposal. Based on Charles Taylor’s hermeneutic phenomenology, this study uncovered and evaluated the ethical implications and validity of the possible elimination of U19 rowing in Canada and provided a commentary on categorization in sport more broadly. The results of the interviews revealed six main emergent themes that included concepts of; natural lightweights, opportunity and fairness, health and harm reduction, education, coaching abuse or neglect, and accountability. After analyzing the perceptions of participants and applying an ethical analysis to the issue, a possible ban of U19 lightweight rowing in Canada was deemed ethically unjustifiable.
    • Ethics, tourists and the environmental practices of the North American cruise ship industry: a comparison study of the ethical standards of Alaskan and Caribbean cruise ship tourists

      Sheppard, Valerie A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (2013-01-02)
      Although a great deal of research has already been conducted on businesses and environmental ethics, little research has been undertaken in the area of ethics and tourism-related businesses. Even less research has been undertaken in the area of ethics and tourists. The cruise ship industry is a sector of the tourism industry that has been fined millions of dollars in penalties for its seemingly lack of an environmental ethic. Yet, the cruise industry is the fastest growing sector of the tourism industry, with 8.4% growth each year since 1980. In North America the growth rate has been a staggering 15% per year since 1998. While it would be easy to sit back and criticize the cruise ship industry for its lack of environmental concern, it is important to recognize that tourists may have a role in the industry’s practices. Tourists support the industry and without them the industry would not have experienced the growth that it has achieved. Consequently, this research sought to examine the role of ethics in sustainability, particularly as it applies to the tourism industry and more specifically tourists. By examining the ethical standards and orientation of cruise ship tourists, it was anticipated that valuable foundational knowledge would be gleaned on the role that tourists can be expected to play in sustainability. There were three objectives of this research. The first objective was to examine and compare the ethical standards and orientation of Alaskan and Caribbean cruise tourists. The second objective was to examine and compare Alaskan and Caribbean cruise tourists’ level of acceptance of the environmental practices of the industry, while the third objective was to create awareness amongst cruise ship tourists of the impacts of the industry and, more importantly, their impacts as tourists. An extensive literature review was undertaken to examine ethical and moral theory, which led to the examination of business and tourism ethics, and ultimately environmental ethics and the cruise ship industry. Two research sites were chosen as representing two different cruise ship markets: Alaska and Cozumel. Data was collected in Skagway and Juneau, Alaska from August 22nd to August 30th, 2004 and in Cozumel, Mexico from January 13th to January 22nd, 2005, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 237 surveys were completed in Alaska and 246 were completed in Cozumel. The use of the Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES) in the questionnaire permitted an analysis of the ethical standard of respondents from these two different markets. Overall, Alaskan respondents were found to have a higher standard of ethical conduct than Cozumel respondents. Alaskan and Cozumel respondents differed on the type of ethical orientation they were likely to employ when judging the ethical MES scenario in the questionnaire. There were also significant differences between males and females in Cozumel regarding the strength of their ethical orientation, with female Cozumel respondents utilizing a significantly stronger justice orientation than male respondents. The analysis also revealed that the majority of respondents found the environmental practices of the cruise ship industry unacceptable. However, females in both Alaska and Cozumel found the industry’s practices to be significantly more unacceptable than did male respondents. An interesting finding revealed itself through the negative correlation between the number of cruises taken and how the Alaskan respondents reacted to two sections of the questionnaire. Specifically, the more cruises the Alaskan respondents had been on, the more likely they were to find the environmental practices of the industry acceptable, and the more likely they were to find the captain’s behaviour to be ethical in the MES scenario.
    • Evaluating three self-help smoking cessation interventions for post-secondary smokers : a randomized controlled trial on six Ontario campuses

      Travis, Heather E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Smoking prevalence is highest among the young adult cohort. Postsecondary students are no exception. Although many students intend to quit smoking, no research has established what methods best promote reductions in, or complete abstinence from smoking. This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of three self-help smoking cessation interventions. Method. On six post-secondary campuses, 483 smokers who voluntarily accessed Leave The Pack Behind (a tobacco control initiative) were randomly assigned to one of three smoking cessation interventions: One Step At A Time (a 2-booklet, *gold standard' program for adults); Smoke|Quit (a newly-developed 2-booklet program for young adult students); and usual care (a 'Quit Kit' containing a booklet on stress management, information about pharmacological quitting aides and novelty items). All participants also received one proactive telephone support call from a peer counsellor. During the study, 85 participants withdrew. The final sample of 216 students who completed baseline questionnaires and 12-week follow-up telephone interviews was representative of the initial sample in terms of demographic characteristics, and smokingquitting- related variables. Results. Whether participants quit smoking depended upon treatment condition, ^(2, N=2\6) = 6.34, p = .04, with Smoke|Quit producing more successfijl quitters (18.4%) than One Step At A Time (4.5%) or the Quit Kit (1 1.4%). On average, participants had quit 53.46 days, with no significant difference across treatments. Selfefficacy also increased. Use of the intervention or other quitting aides was not associated with treatment condition. Among the 191 participants who did not quit smoking, treatment condition did not influence outcomes. Overall, 46.2% had made a quit attempt. Significant decreases in weekly tobacco consumption and increases in self-efficacy to resist smoking were observed from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion. Post-secondary institutions represent a potentially final opportunity for age-targeted interventions. Self-help resources tailored to students' social and contextual characteristics will have considerable more impact than stage-only tailored interventions. Both reduction and abstinence outcomes should be emphasized to positively support students to stop smoking.
    • Evaluation in Sport for Development: A Case Study of the Gansbaai Project, Football Foundation of South Africa, From A Critical Perspective

      Arnold, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of sport for development (SDP) evaluation within one program in Gansbaai, South Africa through critical, independent participant inclusive program evaluation. Qualitative research was conducted on the Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA), where semi-structured interview data were collected from administrators and participants, as were data from direct participant observations and organizational documents. Data analysis followed, according to Kvale and Brinkman’s (2008) methodology. FFSA goals were found, as were themes of social impact (i.e., regarding coach-player relationships, trust, and coaching impact on social integration). A further theme related to evaluation components and procedures. Further themes included life skill development, competition within programming, participants’ home life and social integration. Findings contribute to the SDP literature relating to program evaluation research and to FFSA administrators by providing an understanding of SDP program shortcomings, limitations, and suggested improvements.
    • Evaluation of a professional development curriculum in movement education and adapted physical activity for invisible disabilities : a critical cross-case analysis

      Hardman, Ashley; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-25)
      Movement education and adapted physical activity are content areas not addressed in pre-service education or in-service training for Ontario practitioners working with individuals with disabilities in physical environments. Consequently, physical activity is often overlooked by service providers in programming and intervention for exceptional young learners. A formative evaluation, multiple-case study design was employed in this research in which a purposeful sample of expert practitioners performed a guided, descriptive evaluation of a three-day professional development workshop curriculum designed to supplement these areas lacking in professional preparation within their respective cohorts. Case-by-case and comparative analyses illustrated the inherent assumptions and societal constraints which prioritize the structure of professional development within the education system and other government organizations providing services for school-aged persons with disabilities in Ontario. Findings, discussed from a critical postmodern perspective, illustrate the paradoxical nature of Western values and prevailing mind/body dichotomy that guide professional practice in these fields.
    • An Examination of Decision-Making Biases on Fourth Down in The National Football League

      Ross, Weller; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The recent developments in the field of sport analytics have given researchers the tools to examine an increasingly diverse set of topics within the world of sport in ways not previously possible (Alamar, 2013; Fry and Ohlmann, 2012). This study analyzes the decision-making processes of high level coaches under different contexts and then determines whether or not a specific subconscious psychological bias, known as the representativeness heuristic, caused the individual to make the choice they did. Past empirical research has examined people’s decisions in different contexts and, from those con- texts, made inferences about how those individuals made their decisions and what errors in their decision-making processes could have led to their suboptimal choices (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979; Kobberling and Wakker, 2005; Tom et al, 2007; Tversky and Kahneman, 1992). The representativeness heuristic explains that errors in people’s judgment occur because their mind places too much emphasis on the current situation (new information) and not enough on the original odds (prior information). Previous researchers have been unable to separate the new and prior components of people’s decision-making when studying real-world scenarios in a sport context (Carter and Machol, 1978; Carroll, Palmer, and Thorn, 1989; Carroll et al, 1989; Patel, 2012; Romer, 2006). This research is different than the previous related research in that we utilize statistical models to gauge how people weight different information when making high-pressure decisions in sport. We hypothesize that coaches are disproportionately weighting new information against prior information when making decisions, and thus, yielding to the representativeness heuristic. To test our hypothesis, we construct numerous Bayesian updating models to represent the impact of National Football League (NFL) coaches’ decision-making on the likelihood of winning games. Utilizing a Bayesian approach enables us to keep the new and prior odds of winning the game separate, and thus, keep the two components of the representativeness heuristic separate. Regression analysis is then used with both of the components to directly test for the representativeness heuristic in NFL coaches’ decision-making by estimating the effect each component has on the coaches’ decisions. These estimates form the basis of our hypothesis tests.
    • Examination of efficient roster design in the National Hockey League (NHL)

      Tselios, Stephanos; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The study estimates the values of NHL roster positions. The analysis was conducted in two phases. First, cluster analysis was used to evaluate and rank players for their overall performance across positions. Second, regression analysis based on aggregated player classifications across team-games estimated the value of roster position and measured diminishing returns to talent across positions. Players were evaluated based on their regular season performance. The clustering of all skaters was administered separately for each position and each year. Standardized regular season-long variables were applied in the analysis. The variables used to cluster all positions were: points per time on ice, goals per time on ice, assists per time on ice, plus/minus per time on ice, shots differential per time on ice, blocks per time on ice, hits per time on ice and penalties per time on ice. Forwards were distributed amongst four lines and defensemen were allocated to three pairings. The linear regression analysis used play-by-play data from the 2010-17 NHL regular seasons. Results indicated that an increase in the quality of centers increased the win probability of a team the most. Teams make player acquisitions decisions based on the talent available and their current composition of players. A team’s hockey operations department can use the findings to evaluate their roster composition and identify positions with the greatest marginal benefit from player acquisitions.
    • An examination of NHL fans' reactions to the cancelled 2004-2005 season

      Asselstine, Chad.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      AN EXAMINATION OF NHL FANS' REACTIONS TO THE CANCELLED 2004- 2005 SEASON Chad Asselstine Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University Gary Bettman, the Commissioner of the National Hockey League (NHL) stepped in front of the worldwide media on February 16, 2005 to announce that there would be no NHL games played during the 2004-2005 season. Two sides were prominent during the labour dispute; the NHL owners and the NHLP A, however a third side that became the forgotten party was the fans (NHLF A, 2005). The fans are the consumers of the NHL and all the brands associated with its franchises, they are the people who provide the revenues that allow owners to pay the players' salaries. The present study is situated within the sport marketing framework, particularly within the fan loyalty literature to provide an understanding of the impact of the 2004- 2005 lockout on the forgotten party, NHL fans. This study examines 16 fans' experiences in four stages: becoming a fan of the NHL, being a fan prior to the lockout, being a fan during the lockout including their anticipated reaction to the return of the NHL, and their actual reaction to the return of the NHL. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with each ofthe participants, resulting in 16 fans' stories of how the lockout impacted them specifically. Through analysis of the data themes began to emerge including the fans' understanding that there was a need to restructure game play, the business operations of the NHL, a desire for service recovery strategies which would exceed fans' expectations, 4 and the desire for alternative forms of consumption including alternative hockey leagues as well as the growing popularity of poker playing. The study summarizes the effects that the NHL lockout had on the relationship between 16 individual fan~ and their favourite teams, and concludes with Suggestions for Future Research and Implications for Sport Marketers that emerged from this unique case in the history of North American professional sport.
    • Examination of students' ability to observe domains of client behaviour in therapeutic recreation

      Kerr, Amber (Alexis); Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-07-05)
      When observing client behaviours, a therapeutic recreation specialist must have a base understanding of typical client behaviours to provide an informed analysis (burlingame & Blaschko, 2010). Providing students with the necessary tools for client observation is significant to the success of this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships amongst the TR student demographic characteristics on acquiring the observation competency necessary to conduct a TR assessment. One hundred seventy-two TR college and university students, enrolled in post-secondary undergraduate TR programs across Ontario, observed a client assessment via video, and recorded their observations using the Tracking Behavioural Assessment (TBA) (Passmore, 2002). Independent samples t-tests and analysis of variance were calculated for the different student characteristics on the domains of the TBA. Significant findings indicated that university students scored more accurately than college students, and advanced students more accurately than novice students, on the emotional and socialization domains.
    • Examining and describing professional development and continuing education in the personal training and fitness industry : sites and issues of disconnect

      Fielder, Lee E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The following phenomenologically oriented study examines and describes the relevance and effectiveness of professional development and continuing education programs for real-world situations of personal trainers. The participants were personal trainers, facility managers, and persons involved in the accreditation process. Data collection took place in 3 phases. The first phase consisted of the participants completing the PUMP Questionnaire, followed by focus groups with personal trainers and interviews with managers. The study's 3 data sets required reduction via a content analysis by question, content analysis by existential categories, and further thematic analysis using the lived relation existential dimension. The discussion contains the salient sites and issues of disconnect between clients, personal trainers, and facility managers and how they might affect the personal training experience. The intergenerational disconnect emphasized between Boomers as clients and Millennials as personal trainers requires further exploration and dialogue and underscores the need for different approaches to content and delivery of professional development and continuing education experiences for personal trainers and managers of fitness facilities.
    • Examining Bullying Intervention Motivations Through a Cost/Benefit Analysis

      Spadafora, Natalie; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the bystander in bullying situations. A cost/benefit model was explored in researching factors adolescents consider in deciding whether to intervene when witnessing bullying. Adolescents in the present study (N = 101 (50.5% female), between the ages of 12 to 18, M = 15.37 years; SD = 1.71 years) completed self-report questionnaires, and also responded to bullying scenarios, stating how the bystander would react, while explaining potential personal costs and benefits. Adolescents were able to articulate various personal costs and benefits when making the decision to intervene. Conclusions of the present study include: 1) the evolutionary approach is quite informative in illuminating the decision process of the bystander, 2) adolescents’ beliefs about bullying and the role of bystanders are different from their teachers’, and 3) the rather explicit cost/benefit model could be used to develop more targeted anti-bullying programs.
    • Examining Physical Activity in Natural Outdoor Environments on Markers of Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis

      Kelley, Caitlin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published scientific literature pertaining to the relationship between physical activity (PA) in the natural outdoor environment (NOE) and well-being (WB). Of studies included in the primary analysis (N = 19), several studies (n = 5) were retained for secondary analysis to determine whether differences on WB exist between PA in the NOE with an indoor comparator group. The overall effect size for the primary analysis was moderate (d = .49). The largest effect of PA in the NOE was observed for positive affect (d = .56). Results from the secondary analysis indicated PA in the NOE was greater in the NOE (d = .53, 95% CI = .28, .78; p < 0.001) compared to indoors (d = .28, 95% CI = .04, .51, p = 0.02) however this finding was not statistically significant between environment types (p = 0.15). There was significant heterogeneity in the primary analysis of PA in the NOE only (Q = 68.72, p < 0.001). Results of the moderator analyses of PA (p = 0.06), sample (p = 0.34) and study (p = 0.13) characteristics did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Results of the subgroup analyses indicated that there were significant findings within but not between subgroups for NOE type (p = 0.37), PA type (p = 0.47) and PA intensity (p = 0.55). In conclusion, while PA in the NOE was associated with higher WB, there was limited evidence to support that PA in the NOE allots superior benefits to PA engaged in an indoor environment. Future investigations are encouraged to include study designs that measure markers of WB at multiple time points, consider the eudaimonic tradition of WB, include diverse NOE types such as blue space and include an indoor comparison. Practical implications of the findings of this research include the potential for stakeholders to incorporate findings into future nature-based solutions that address societal challenges like increasing WB.